The Perception of Visual Information / Edition 2

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This book examines the current status of what is known (and not known) about human vision, how human observers interpret visual data, and ho w to present such data to facilitate their interpretation and use. Wri tten by experts who are able to cross disciplinary boundaries, the boo k provides an educational pathway through several models of human visi on; describes how the visual response is analyzed and quantified; pres ents current theories of how the human visual response is interpreted; discusses the cognitive responses of human observers; and examines su ch applications as space exploration, manufacturing, surveillance, ear th and air sciences, and medicine. The book is intended for everyone w ith an undergraduate-level background in science or engineering with a n interest in visual science.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387949109
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 6/27/1997
  • Edition description: 2nd ed. 1997
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 409
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.94 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Physiological Optics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Optical Anatomy of the Eye.- 1.3 Aberrations of the Eye.- 1.3.1 Spherical Aberration.- 1.3.2 Chromatic Aberration.- 1.3.3 Oblique Astigmatism and Coma.- 1.3.4 Curvature of Field.- 1.4 The Visual Pathways.- 1.4.1 Photoreceptors.- 1.4.2 Bipolar, Ganglion, Horizontal, and Amacrine Cells.- 1.4.3 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.- 1.4.4 Primary Visual Cortex.- 1.5 Mechanisms of Viewing.- 1.6 ColorVision.- 1.7 Physical Performance of the Visual System.- 1.7.1 Spectral Sensitivity.- 1.7.2 Incremental Brightness Sensitivity.- 1.7.3 Spatial Response.- 1.7.4 Temporal Response.- 1.7.5 Dynamic Range.- 1.8 Information Transfer Rates.- 1.9 References.- 2 Detection of Vision Information.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Early Theories of Vision.- 2.2.1 The Evil Eye.- 2.3 Simple Experiments.- 2.3.1 Inverted Image on the Retina.- 2.3.2 Blind Spot.- 2.3.3 Horizontal and Vertical Detectors.- 2.3.4 Mach Bands.- 2.3.5 The Craik, Cornsweet, O’Brien Illusion.- 2.3.6 Herman Hering Grid.- 2.3.7 The Moon Illusion.- 2.4 Adaptation and After Images.- 2.4.1 Stimulus and Sensation.- 2.5 Three-Dimensional Vision.- 2.6 Stereoscopic Viewing.- 2.7 Cross-Eyed Technique of Three-Dimensional Viewing.- 2.8 Models of the Visual System.- 2.8.1 Feature Detection.- 2.8.2 The Bottom-Up and Top-Down Models.- 2.8.3 Ideal Observer Studies.- 2.8.4 Computational Models.- 2.8.5 Preattentive and Attentive Processing Textons.- 2.9 References.- 3 Quantification of Visual Capability.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Visual Acuity.- 3.3 Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.4 Visual Physiology.- 3.5 Visual Filtering.- 3.5.1 Sine-Wave Gratings.- 3.5.2 Contrast Sensitivity Function.- 3.5.3 Channel Filter Images.- 3.6 Causes of Vision Loss.- 3.7 Detection and Identification of Visual Signals.- 3.7.1 Measuring Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.7.2 Sine-Wave Grating and Low Contrast Letter Charts.- 3.7.3 Test Modalities for Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.7.4 Interpreting Contrast Sensitivity: EyeView.- 3.7.5 Glare Testing.- 3.7.6 Applications to Imaging.- 3.8 Conclusions.- 3.9 References.- 4 A Multiscale Geometric Model of Human Vision.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Scale-Space.- 4.3 Scaled Differential Operators.- 4.4 Image Structure.- 4.5 Description of the Early Vision System.- 4.6 Differential Invariants.- 4.7 Applications.- 4.8 Discussion.- 4.9 References.- 5 Human Response to Visual Stimuli.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Measuring Human Responses.- 5.2.1 Low Intensity Signals.- 5.2.2 Intense Stimuli.- 5.3 Complex Stimuli.- 5.3.1 Selective Visual Attention.- 5.3.2 Visual Scanning.- 5.3.3 Matching Image and Observer Characteristics.- 5.3.4 Focal Attention and Observer Factors.- 5.3.5 Individual Differences.- 5.3.6 Improving diagnostic accuracy.- 5.4 References.- 6 Cognitive Interpretation of Visual Signals.- 6.1 Early Views of Cognition.- 6.2 Western Philosophical Speculations on Cognition.- 6.3 Visual Texture Discrimination.- 6.4 Illusions.- 6.4.1 Ambiguities.- 6.4.2 Distortions.- 6.4.3 Paradoxes.- 6.4.4 Fictions.- 6.4.5 Summary.- 6.5 Color Vision.- 6.6 References.- 7 Visual Data Formatting.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Brightness, Contrast, and Details.- 7.3 Texture Discrimination and Edge Detection.- 7.4 Medical Imaging and Information.- 7.5 Visual Information and Communication.- 7.6 Conclusions.- 7.7 References.- 8 Image Manipulation.- 8.1 Introduction: The Digital Image.- 8.2 Interpolation.- 8.3 Gray-Level Manipulation.- 8.4 Filtering.- 8.5 Geometric Processing and Image Co-Registration.- 8.6 Image Subtraction.- 8.7 Segmentation.- 8.8 Maximum Intensity Projection.- 8.9 Conclusion.- 8.10 References.- 9 Physical and Psychophysical Measurement of Images.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Physical Measurements of Image Quality.- 9.2.1 Image Formation.- 9.2.2 Spatial Resolution.- 9.2.3 Noise.- 9.2.4 Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 9.3 Limitations of Physical Analysis.- 9.4 Measuring Observer Performance: Basic Principles of ROC analysis.- 9.5 General Issues Regarding the Use of ROC Methods in Medical Imaging Research.- 9.5.1 Diagnostic Truth.- 9.5.2 Sampling.- 9.5.3 Statistical Precision and Power.- 9.5.4 Absolute versus Relative Performance.- 9.5.5 AFROC and FFE Analysis.- 9.5.6 Detection Methodology Applied to a Classification Problem.- 9.6 Statistical Issues in ROC Analysis.- 9.6.1 Fitting Individual ROC Curves.- 9.7 References.- 10 Computer Vision and Decision Support.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Computer Vision.- 10.2.1 Image Processing.- 10.2.2 Image Segmentation.- 10.2.3 Feature Analysis.- 10.3 Computer Vision Examples.- 10.3.1 Mammography.- 10.3.2 Chest Radiography.- 10.4 Decision Support.- 10.4.1 Clinical Algorithms.- 10.4.2 Mathematical and Casual Models of Physical Processes.- 10.4.3 Statistical Pattern-Matching Techniques.- 10.4.4 Decision Theory.- 10.4.5 Connectionism.- 10.4.6 Symbolic Reasoning and Expert Systems.- 10.4.7 Critiquing Systems.- 10.4.8 Knowledge Filters.- 10.5 A Decision Support Example: Mammography.- 10.6 Combining Decision Support and Computer Vision.- 10.7 References.- 11 Architecture and Ergonomics of Imaging Workstations.- 11.1 Architecture of Imaging Workstation.- 11.1.1 Image Processing Hardware.- 11.1.2 Display Monitor.- 11.1.3 Image Storage Devices.- 11.2 Examples of Imaging Workstation.- 11.2.1 Diagnostic Workstation.- 11.2.2 Review Workstation.- 11.2.3 Analysis Workstation.- 11.2.4 Digitizing and Printing Workstation.- 11.2.5 Interactive Teaching Workstation.- 11.2.6 Editorial and Research Workstation.- 11.3 Ergonomics of Imaging Workstation.- 11.3.1 Glare.- 11.3.2 Ambient Illuminance.- 11.3.3 User Interface.- 11.3.4 Multiple Display.- 11.4 References.- 12 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Medicine.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.1.1 Virtual Reality.- 12.1.2 Augmented Reality.- 12.1.3 Tele-Presence.- 12.1.4 Real Time.- 12.2 Medical Applications of VR Technology.- 12.2.1 Teaching.- 12.2.2 Surgical Simulation and Training.- 12.2.3 Planning and Simulation of a Specific Procedure.- 12.2.4 Image-Guided Surgery.- 12.2.5 Remote Manipulation, Tele-Surgery, and Mentoring.- 12.2.6 Remote Consultation and Rehabilitation.- 12.3 Augmented Reality in Image-Guided Surgery.- 12.3.1 Three-Dimensional Medical Imaging.- 12.3.2 Applications in Skull Base Surgery and Neurosurgery.- 12.3.3 Visual Perception in Augmented Reality.- 12.4 Conclusions and Future Work.- 12.5 References.- 13 Problems and Prospects in the Perception of Visual Information.- 13.1 Aspects ofVisual Perception.- 13.1.1 Physiological Optics.- 13.1.2 Detection of Visual Information.- 13.1.3 Interpretation of Visual Images.- 13.1.4 A Multiscale Geometric Model of Human Vision.- 13.1.5 Human Response to Visual Stimuli.- 13.1.6 Cognitive Interpretation of Visual Signals.- 13.1.7 Visual Data Formatting.- 13.1.8 Image Manipulation.- 13.1.9 Physical and Psychophysical Measurement of Images.- 13.1.10 Computer Vision and Decision Support.- 13.1.11 Architecture and Ergonomics of Image Workstations.- 13.1.12 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Medicine.- 13.2 Conclusions.- 13.3 References.

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