Perception Without Awareness: Cognitive, Clinical, and Social Perspectives

Overview

This landmark volume brings together the work of the world's leading researchers in sublimated perception. This compilation marks a fundamental shift in the current study of subliminal effects: No longer in question is the notion that perception without awareness occurs. Now, the emphasis is on elucidating the parameters of subliminal effects and understanding the conditions under which stimuli perceived without awareness significantly ...
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Overview

This landmark volume brings together the work of the world's leading researchers in sublimated perception. This compilation marks a fundamental shift in the current study of subliminal effects: No longer in question is the notion that perception without awareness occurs. Now, the emphasis is on elucidating the parameters of subliminal effects and understanding the conditions under which stimuli perceived without awareness significantly influence affect, cognition, and behavior.

Perception Without Awareness firmly establishes subliminal perception within the mainstream of psychological science. Well represented here are the two main research branches that have emerged: One directly investigates the nature of subliminal effects; the other uses subliminal techniques as tools for investigating psychological phenomena such as hypnosis, dreaming, repression, social judgment and inference, psychopathology, and symptom formation. Broadly grouped into three main sections, the contributed chapters explore

* The cognitive perspective--including implicit memory and implicit perception, the measurement of unconscious perceptual processes, and methods for revealing unconscious processes

* The clinical perspective--exploring the cognitive and dynamic aspects of subliminal perception, memory, and consciousness; direct recovery of subliminal stimuli; and validation of subliminal psychodynamic activation

* The social perspective--discussing subliminal mere-exposure effects, affect and social perception, and the role of subliminality in social psychology

Timely and thought-provoking, Perception Without Awareness is sure to be of enormous interest to all psychoanalytic clinicians and scholars, as well as cognitive, clinical, and social psychologists whose work touches upon issues relating to psychopathology, perception, cognition, and memory.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"A valuable contribution to our understandingg of brain/mind relationships in cognitive processes. It should be required reading for all those who still believe that we are only affected by stimuli of which we are conscious." --N. F. Dixon in The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

[This book] simultaneously presents us with a wealth of scholarly information concerning what is really known about subliminal perception and a good old fashioned dramatic story about a scholarly community struggling to come to terms with observations threatening some of their favorite values and theories. In every chapter, we witness the interaction between the purely cognitive and personal sides of doing science. Happily, we also witness the power of persistence, deep curiosity, and sharp intellect to bring reasonable meaning to a major area of psychological research.' --Seymour Fisher, Ph.D.

"Bornstein and Pittman's volume provides an inside view of the ongoing explosion of research on unconscious cognition. The editors' decision to mix cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives effectively displays the breadth of recent work, and establishes that these diverse perspectives can and do communicate with one another. The selected contributors are outstanding among active researchers, and their chapters capture recent and influential work while it is still very fresh." --Tony Greenwald, Ph.D.

Booknews
The outgrowth of a conference held at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), March 1991, this volume brings together the work of leading researchers in the two main research branches of subliminal perception: one directly investigates the nature of subliminal effects; the other uses subliminal techniques as tools for investigating psychological phenomena such as hypnosis, dreaming, repression, social judgment and inference, psychopathology, and symptom formation. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780898628869
  • Publisher: Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Publication date: 7/3/1992
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 308

Meet the Author


Robert F. Bornstein received his doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1986. He is currently Associate Professor of Psychology at Gettysburg College. Dr. Bornstein has published numerous articles on perception without awareness, as well as on the antecedents, dynamics, and correlates of dependent personality traits. He is the author of The Dependent Personality, a comprehensive review of the empirical literature on dependency, which will be published by Guilford Press in 1993.

Thane S. Pittman received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Iowa in 1972. He is currently Professor and Chair of Psychology at Gettysburg College. Dr. Pittman has published widely on the aspects of human social motivation, including research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, control motivation, and attitude change processes. He is coauthor (with Ann Boggiano) of Achievement Motivation: A Socio-Developmental Perspective, to be published by Cambridge University Press in 1993.

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Table of Contents

Introduction
Perception Without Awareness: Retrospect and Prospect 3
Where Did We Come From? 5
Where Are We Now? 7
Where Are We Going? 11
References 12
Pt. I The Cognitive Perspective
1 Implicit Perception 17
"Subliminal" Perception 17
Implicit Memory and Implicit Perception 20
Potential Problems Foreshadowed 24
Perceptual Defense 25
Neuropsychological Syndromes 27
Functional Syndromes 29
Hypnotic Alterations of Perception 35
The Difference That Makes for Consciousness 41
Potentials and Limits 43
Notes 44
References 45
2 Measuring Unconscious Perceptual Processes 55
The Dissociation Paradigm: Traditional Implementations 57
Underlying Assumptions 61
Alternative Approaches 63
Concluding Comments 76
References 77
3 Lectures for a Layperson: Methods for Revealing Unconscious Processes 81
Subjective Experience 85
The Advantages of Opposition for Revealing Unconscious Experiences 95
Separating Automatic from Consciously Controlled Bases for Judgments: The Process Dissociation Procedure 97
Unconscious Perception 103
Tasks and Processes 107
Unconscious Processing, Automaticity, and Habit: An Integration 108
Summary and Conclusions 112
Notes 113
References 114
Pt. II The Clinical Perspective
4 Subliminal Perception, Memory, and Consciousness: Cognitive and Dynamic Perspectives 123
Three Illustrations of Memory Functioning 124
The Role of Consciousness and Its Relationship to the Unconscious in Memory Functioning 129
A Proposed Function of Consciousness 131
Conclusions 138
Notes 140
References 140
5 The Direct Recovery of Subliminal Stimuli 143
The Poetzl Phenomenon 143
The Dissociation versus the Recovery Paradigm of Subliminal Perception and Memory 146
The Haber and Erdelyi (1967) Study of Direct Recovery 148
The Response Criterion Issue 150
Contemporary Attempts to Produce Recovery of Subliminal Stimuli 153
Reminiscence versus Hypermnesia 157
Hypermnesia and Reminiscence for Absolutely Subliminal Stimuli 159
Implications 164
Summary and Conclusion 165
References 166
6 Validating and Demystifying Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation 170
Background and Evidence 171
Reducing Controversy by Reconciling SPA with Cognitive Conceptions (or SPA and Its Discontents) 176
Bringing Psychoanalysis Back into SPA 181
Summary and Conclusions 184
References 185
Pt. III The Social Perspective
7 Subliminal Mere Exposure Effects 191
Subliminal Mere Exposure Effects 193
A Perceptual Fluency/Attributional Model of the Mere Exposure Effect 197
Preliminary Tests of the Perceptual Fluency/Attributional Model 199
Some Problematic Findings Reinterpreted within the Framework of the Perceptual Fluency/Attributional Model 204
Conclusion 207
References 208
8 Affect and Social Perception: On the Psychological Validity of Rose-Colored Glasses 211
Why Take Another Look at the New Look? 212
Effects of Affect on Perception 214
Conceptualizing the Role of Affect in Perception 218
The Perceptual Cue Function of Affect 221
The Prioritizing Function of Affect 224
Conclusions 229
Notes 230
References 231
9 Does Subliminality Matter to Social Psychology? Awareness of the Stimulus versus Awareness of Its Influence 236
The Preconscious Analysis of the Social Environment 240
Conclusions 250
References 251
Pt. IV Summary and Integration
10 What Does It All Mean? 259
Knowing Without Knowing 259
Past Explanations for Knowing a
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