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With a newly revised and streamlined organization, the Sixth Edition maintains its cross-cultural, global, and gender-balanced perspectives while emphasizing humanistic and transpersonal psychologists in its exploration of the positive aspects of major personality theorists, stressing each one's relevance for personal understanding. Highly praised for its exceptionally well-written style and accessibility, this book encourages and supports readers in using themselves as the primary touchstone for each theory. Each chapter gives readers opportunities to validate their insights through direct experience, and, by observing their own reactions, come to their own conclusions about the utility and value of each theory.a newly revised, and a Companion Website For professionals with a career in psychology, sociology, and/or social work.
|About the Authors||xxi|
|A Constructive Approach to Personality Theory||2|
|Theories of Personality||3|
|Expanding the Scope of Personality Theory||3|
|The Structure of Each Chapter||7|
|2||Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis||15|
|Structure of the Personality||23|
|Psychosexual Stages of Development||25|
|Freud's View About Women||29|
|Dynamics: Anxiety, Psychoanalysis, and Dreamwork||30|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Studies in Hysteria||41|
|3||Anna Freud and the Post-Freudians: Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Heinz Kohut, and the Gestalt Therapy of Fritz and Laura Perls||51|
|Further Developments in Psychoanalytic Theory: Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, and Heinz Kohut||59|
|Further Developments in Psychoanalytic Therapy: The Gestalt Therapy of Fritz and Laura Perls||67|
|The Theory Firsthand: Three Excerpts from Anna Freud||75|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Fritz Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim||76|
|4||Carl Gustav Jung and Analytic Psychology||83|
|Recent Developments: Jung's Influence||113|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Analytical Psychology||114|
|5||Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology||120|
|Recent Developments: Adler's Influence||141|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Social Interest||142|
|6||Karen Horney and Humanistic Psychoanalysis||147|
|Horney's New Paradigm||157|
|The Process of Psychotherapy||167|
|Nonclinical Applications of Horney||169|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Self-Analysis||173|
|7||The Psychology of Women||179|
|Section 1.||A Relational Approach||180|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Women's Growth in Connection||192|
|Section 2.||Healing the Relational Crisis||194|
|Section 3.||Organic Inquiry: A Transpersonal/Feminist Research Methodology||197|
|A Fundamental Metaphor||198|
|The Methodology in Action||199|
|8||Erik Erikson and the Life Cycle||207|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Childhood and Society||232|
|9||Wilhelm Reich and Somatic Psychology||237|
|Other Approaches to Somatic Psychology||254|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Me and the Orgone||261|
|10||William James and the Psychology of Consciousness||267|
|Dynamics: Forces Supporting and Limiting Personal Growth||282|
|The Role of the Teacher||288|
|The Psychology of Consciousness||290|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Talks to Teachers and The Varieties of Religious Experience||302|
|11||B. F. Skinner and Radical Behaviorism||313|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "Humanism and Behaviorism"||340|
|12||Applications of Cognitive Psychology||346|
|The Theory Firsthand: Cognitive Therapy||355|
|Cognitive Science and Human Experience: A New Partnership||356|
|13||George Kelly and Personal Construct Psychology||360|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "The Psychology of the Unknown"||386|
|14||Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Perspective||393|
|The Fully Functioning Person||411|
|The Theory Firsthand: Roger's Ideas||420|
|The Linkage to Theory||421|
|15||Abraham Maslow and Transpersonal Psychology||428|
|Recent Developments: Maslow's Influence||450|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "The Plateau Experience"||459|
|16||Yoga and the Hindu Tradition||465|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Radha: Diary of a Woman's Search||492|
|17||Zen and the Buddhist Tradition||498|
|Recent Developments: The Influence of Buddhism||527|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from The Wild White Goose||529|
|18||Sufism and the Islamic Tradition||535|
|The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Forty Days: The Diary of a Traditional Solitary Sufi Retreat||561|
Each chapter still focuses on the strong aspects of the theory and the reasons why it is still in wide use, rather than its limitations. We intend that students be able to test and retest the validity or utility of these theories against their own life experience and common sense.
We also know that most of the students who use this text will not go on to do graduate work or become professional psychologists. Those that do have told us that this book served them well as a reference in their further training, while those who do not go on tell us that their understanding of the issues raised here have enriched their lives.
For teachers and authors, it doesn't get much better than that.
While expert proponents of each theory have been able to point us to areas where their theory has been successfully applied, all of them acknowledge that the research about their theory, while valuable and exciting, is not definitive enough to allow them to say that an opposing viewpoint could not be valid. Thus we have included research data only when it clarifies the theory under discussion.
We wish that we could have included additional theoristswhose work has moved the field forward, but for reasons of space and our inclusion of areas beyond the scope of many other texts, we could not. We have, however, included in our teaching guide several minichapters on theories and theorists not included here (sent to us by brilliant teachers whose expertise exceeded our own). Instructors can copy and distribute them in classes as they choose.
We have to tell you the truth. Very few of the theorists in this book have written original material since our last edition. Therefore, we took this occasion to look at the text itself. We went through every line of every chapter asking two questions:
Every chapter was improved and shortened. Most chapters, even after our subsequent additions, are no longer than they were before. Not totally surprising, we found errors that had eluded our own four revisions plus four editors suggestions plus four proofreaders detailed scrutiny. Please let us know what else we missed.
Web Sites. Since our students have become used to the Web, we have been able to offer far more challenging assignments. Students are able to follow more specialized interests, even with limited access to conventional academic libraries. They soon discover that there is a wonderful quirkiness to some web sites that never could have gotten past an academic press. In addition, there are an ever growing number of professors world-wide, who post their own ways of working with each of our theorists. Students are no longer limited to either our views nor the views of their instructor. We have included enough web sites for each theory to give students an easy opening set of choices.
Please send us your own favorite web sites if we have overlooked them. Contact us at either firstname.lastname@example.org or Jfadiman@aol.com.
New Chapter. We have taken the chapter on George Kelly's personal construct psychology and cognitive psychology and made each one a separate chapter. The new Kelly chapter was written by three of the country's most widely known practitioners and researchers in personal construct psychology: Franz Epting of the University of Florida in Gainsville, Larry Leiter of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and Jonathan Raskin of the State University of New York at New Paltz. They convinced us that our prior view of Kelly, identifying him as a cognitive theorist, was based on an insufficient understanding of his work. We now know that Kelly belongs in the lineage of the humanistic theorists, including Rogers and Maslow. His work is profoundly optimistic, and the therapy derived from his work is decidedly pragmatic.
Changes by Chapter. As we have noted, every chapter has had extensive internal changes: text editing, updated references, and the addition of Web sites. We also changed the order of chapters so that theorists more closely linked to one another follow one after the other. Beyond that, major changes in specific chapters include the following:
Instructors, make sure you have one. Berate our publisher if you don't. We have added a new minichapter on the Kaballah (the Jewish mystical tradition) and clarified the minichapter on the Native American tradition. We have added new class and homework exercises to a number of chapters and, as we did with the text, edited it throughout. It has the usual wide range of exam questions and the like, but most of the guide is filled with ways to allow you to more easily teach each chapter, as we do not expect every instructor to know such a wide range of theorists equally well.
We remain open to your inputs, your criticisms, and your suggestions.
We thank our reviewers whose suggestions and corrections strengthened major portions of the text. These reviewers are Beverly J. Goodwin, Ph.D.-Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Myron M. Arons, Ph.D.-State University of West Georgia, and John Robertson, Ph.D.-North Hennepin Community College. We also sincerely thank Sharon Rheinhardt, our acquisitions editor at Prentice Hall, for her support of this edition. We are especially grateful for the wisdom, good humor, and good sense of Kim Gueterman, our production editor, who insisted that this book be as well-designed and error-free as possible. Her insistence and her own high standards kept us working far harder on final revisions and improvements than we would have otherwise.