Personality and Personal Growth / Edition 4

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With a newly revised and streamlined organization, the Sixth Edition maintains its cross-cultural, global, and gender-balanced perspectives while emphasizing humanistic and transpersonal psychologists in its exploration of the positive aspects of major personality theorists, stressing each one's relevance for personal understanding. Highly praised for its exceptionally well-written style and accessibility, this book encourages and supports readers in using themselves as the primary touchstone for each theory. Each chapter gives readers opportunities to validate their insights through direct experience, and, by observing their own reactions, come to their own conclusions about the utility and value of each theory.a newly revised, and a Companion Website For professionals with a career in psychology, sociology, and/or social work.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321011923
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 9/2/1997
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 576
  • Product dimensions: 8.28 (w) x 10.64 (h) x 1.23 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
About the Authors xxi
1 Introduction 1
A Constructive Approach to Personality Theory 2
Theories of Personality 3
Expanding the Scope of Personality Theory 3
The Structure of Each Chapter 7
2 Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis 15
Personal History 16
Intellectual Antecedents 19
Major Concepts 20
Structure of the Personality 23
Psychosexual Stages of Development 25
Freud's View About Women 29
Dynamics: Anxiety, Psychoanalysis, and Dreamwork 30
Structure 33
Therapist/Therapy 36
Evaluation 39
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Studies in Hysteria 41
3 Anna Freud and the Post-Freudians: Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Heinz Kohut, and the Gestalt Therapy of Fritz and Laura Perls 51
Anna Freud 52
Further Developments in Psychoanalytic Theory: Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, and Heinz Kohut 59
Further Developments in Psychoanalytic Therapy: The Gestalt Therapy of Fritz and Laura Perls 67
The Theory Firsthand: Three Excerpts from Anna Freud 75
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Fritz Perls, Gestalt Therapy Verbatim 76
4 Carl Gustav Jung and Analytic Psychology 83
Personal History 84
Intellectual Antecedents 87
Major Concepts 89
Dynamics 104
Structure 108
Evaluation 111
Recent Developments: Jung's Influence 113
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Analytical Psychology 114
5 Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology 120
Personal History 121
Intellectual Antecedents 123
Major Concepts 125
Dynamics 133
Structure 136
Evaluation 140
Recent Developments: Adler's Influence 141
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Social Interest 142
6 Karen Horney and Humanistic Psychoanalysis 147
Personal History 149
Intellectual Antecedents 152
Major Concepts 154
Horney's New Paradigm 157
Dynamics 165
The Process of Psychotherapy 167
Nonclinical Applications of Horney 169
Evaluation 172
Conclusion 172
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Self-Analysis 173
7 The Psychology of Women 179
Section 1. A Relational Approach 180
Major Concepts 180
Dynamics 185
Relational Therapy 190
Evaluation 192
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Women's Growth in Connection 192
Section 2. Healing the Relational Crisis 194
Section 3. Organic Inquiry: A Transpersonal/Feminist Research Methodology 197
Intellectual Antecedents 197
A Fundamental Metaphor 198
The Process 198
The Methodology in Action 199
8 Erik Erikson and the Life Cycle 207
Personal History 208
Intellectual Antecedents 210
Major Concepts 212
Dynamics 227
Structure 228
Evaluation 231
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Childhood and Society 232
9 Wilhelm Reich and Somatic Psychology 237
Personal History 238
Intellectual Antecedents 240
Major Concepts 242
Dynamics 245
Structure 250
Evaluation 252
Other Approaches to Somatic Psychology 254
Evaluation 260
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Me and the Orgone 261
10 William James and the Psychology of Consciousness 267
Personal History 269
Intellectual Antecedents 271
Major Concepts 273
Dynamics: Forces Supporting and Limiting Personal Growth 282
Structure 287
The Role of the Teacher 288
Evaluation 289
The Psychology of Consciousness 290
Evaluation 301
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Talks to Teachers and The Varieties of Religious Experience 302
11 B. F. Skinner and Radical Behaviorism 313
Personal History 314
Intellectual Antecedents 316
Major Concepts 319
Structure 329
Evaluation 338
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "Humanism and Behaviorism" 340
12 Applications of Cognitive Psychology 346
Evaluation 355
The Theory Firsthand: Cognitive Therapy 355
Cognitive Science and Human Experience: A New Partnership 356
13 George Kelly and Personal Construct Psychology 360
Introduction 361
Personal History 362
Intellectual Antecedents 363
Major Concepts 365
Dynamics 377
Diagnosis 381
Therapy 383
Evaluation 385
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "The Psychology of the Unknown" 386
14 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Perspective 393
Personal History 394
Intellectual Antecedents 398
Major Concepts 399
Dynamics 405
Structure 407
The Fully Functioning Person 411
Person-Centered Therapy 412
Encounter Groups 416
Evaluation 418
The Theory Firsthand: Roger's Ideas 420
The Linkage to Theory 421
15 Abraham Maslow and Transpersonal Psychology 428
Personal History 429
Intellectual Antecedents 431
Major Concepts 432
Dynamics 445
Structure 446
Recent Developments: Maslow's Influence 450
Evaluation 450
Transpersonal Psychology 451
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from "The Plateau Experience" 459
16 Yoga and the Hindu Tradition 465
History 466
Major Concepts 468
Dynamics 486
Structure 488
Evaluation 491
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from Radha: Diary of a Woman's Search 492
17 Zen and the Buddhist Tradition 498
History 499
Major Concepts 502
Dynamics 511
Structure 517
Evaluation 525
Recent Developments: The Influence of Buddhism 527
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpts from The Wild White Goose 529
18 Sufism and the Islamic Tradition 535
History 537
Major Concepts 543
Dynamics 547
Structure 554
Evaluation 560
The Theory Firsthand: Excerpt from Forty Days: The Diary of a Traditional Solitary Sufi Retreat 561
Credits 568
Name Index 569
Subject Index 576
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Once again we have made changes to improve the readability of the book, make it useful and more current, without losing the emphasis that we have maintained since the first edition. We present students with a book that encourages and supports them in using themselves as the primary touchstone for each theory. Each chapter gives them opportunities to validate their insights through direct experience and, by observing their own reactions, come to their own conclusions about the utility and value of each theory.

Each chapter still focuses on the strong aspects of the theory and the reasons why it is still in wide use, rather than its limitations. We intend that students be able to test and retest the validity or utility of these theories against their own life experience and common sense.

We also know that most of the students who use this text will not go on to do graduate work or become professional psychologists. Those that do have told us that this book served them well as a reference in their further training, while those who do not go on tell us that their understanding of the issues raised here have enriched their lives.

For teachers and authors, it doesn't get much better than that.

While expert proponents of each theory have been able to point us to areas where their theory has been successfully applied, all of them acknowledge that the research about their theory, while valuable and exciting, is not definitive enough to allow them to say that an opposing viewpoint could not be valid. Thus we have included research data only when it clarifies the theory under discussion.

We wish that we could have included additional theoristswhose work has moved the field forward, but for reasons of space and our inclusion of areas beyond the scope of many other texts, we could not. We have, however, included in our teaching guide several minichapters on theories and theorists not included here (sent to us by brilliant teachers whose expertise exceeded our own). Instructors can copy and distribute them in classes as they choose.

New to the Fifth Edition

We have to tell you the truth. Very few of the theorists in this book have written original material since our last edition. Therefore, we took this occasion to look at the text itself. We went through every line of every chapter asking two questions:

  1. How could this be stated more clearly?
  2. Is this line or section really necessary?

Every chapter was improved and shortened. Most chapters, even after our subsequent additions, are no longer than they were before. Not totally surprising, we found errors that had eluded our own four revisions plus four editors suggestions plus four proofreaders detailed scrutiny. Please let us know what else we missed.

New Pedagogy

Web Sites. Since our students have become used to the Web, we have been able to offer far more challenging assignments. Students are able to follow more specialized interests, even with limited access to conventional academic libraries. They soon discover that there is a wonderful quirkiness to some web sites that never could have gotten past an academic press. In addition, there are an ever growing number of professors world-wide, who post their own ways of working with each of our theorists. Students are no longer limited to either our views nor the views of their instructor. We have included enough web sites for each theory to give students an easy opening set of choices.

Please send us your own favorite web sites if we have overlooked them. Contact us at either or

New Chapter. We have taken the chapter on George Kelly's personal construct psychology and cognitive psychology and made each one a separate chapter. The new Kelly chapter was written by three of the country's most widely known practitioners and researchers in personal construct psychology: Franz Epting of the University of Florida in Gainsville, Larry Leiter of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and Jonathan Raskin of the State University of New York at New Paltz. They convinced us that our prior view of Kelly, identifying him as a cognitive theorist, was based on an insufficient understanding of his work. We now know that Kelly belongs in the lineage of the humanistic theorists, including Rogers and Maslow. His work is profoundly optimistic, and the therapy derived from his work is decidedly pragmatic.

Changes by Chapter. As we have noted, every chapter has had extensive internal changes: text editing, updated references, and the addition of Web sites. We also changed the order of chapters so that theorists more closely linked to one another follow one after the other. Beyond that, major changes in specific chapters include the following:

  • Chapter 4—Carl Gustav Jung and Analytic Psychology. The chapter has been considerably rewritten to make Jung's complex concepts more understandable. In particular, we have added references to current research that have applied Jungian theory in new areas.
  • Chapter 5—Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology. We have expanded and rewritten the summary of Adler's basic theoretical approach and have included references to cross-cultural applications of Adlerian theory.
  • Chapter 6—Karen Horney and Humanistic Psychoanalysis. The section on therapy is totally new and incorporates the recently discovered and never-before published lectures that Horney gave to therapists in training.
  • Chapter 7—The Psychology of Women. In the last edition, this was the most radical chapter in the book. It is more radical now. We tossed aside our usual format so that we might make as strong an impact on students as possible. The content directly questions many of the assertions made in almost every other chapter. To make the theory more vivid, we have included a description of what can happen when a woman applies these insights to herself. The writer, Rebecca Caldwell, generously allowed us to include it here.

    In addition we have added a section by Jennifer Clements, a member of a group of researchers who have applied the insights developed by the Stone Center staff to creating new ways to do research. "Organic inquiry" makes use of the basic assumptions of relationship and equality, which not only impacts the kinds of research that can be attempted, but also its effects on the subjects, the researcher, and the eventual readers as well.
  • Chapter 8—Erik Erikson and the Life Cycle. We have revealed the central role played by Joan Erikson as a coauthor and collaborator with her husband. She has been underestimated or ignored completely in most discussions of Erikson's work. We have also added a new major section on recent developments, including research and writing on identity and generativity.
  • Chapter 9—Wilhelin Reich and Somatic Psychology. We have trimmed down the chapter and added new references, including a recent publication of Reich's journals and an overview of the principles and practices of somatic therapies.
  • Chapter 10—William James and the Psychology of Consciousness. The entire chapter has been cleaned and upgraded by Eugene Taylor of Harvard University. He has, as he said, "corrected numerous minor points," added several new sections on James' basic orientation, and added sections on James' own work in psychedelics, meditation, parapsychology, and multiple personality.
  • Chapter 11—B. F. Skinner and Radical Behaviorism. When Skinner died, the vast galaxy of his opponents, having no one to slug it out with went on to argue other issues. As a result, there has been a lessening of active interest in Skinner. We have made less of the issues that Skinner fought about and focused more on his tremendous impact on all of psychology.
  • Chapter 13—George Kelly and Personal Construct Psychology. All new, as described above.
  • Chapter 14—Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Perspective. A number of changes have been made to align the chapter's basic concepts with Roger's growing influence, especially outside the United States.
  • Chapter 15—Abraham Maslow and Transpersonal Psychology. We have included new material on transpersonal theorists including Stanislav Grof and Ken Wilber.
  • Chapter 16—Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. We have added new material comparing the basic principles among contemplative disciplines.
  • Chapter 17—Zen and the Buddhist Tradition. The Buddhism chapter includes a discussion comparing the Buddhist concept of the self with that of Karen Hornet' and Western psychological theory in general, as well as a comparison of Buddhist and psychoanalytic theories.
  • Chapter 18—Sufism and the Islamic Tradition. The chapter includes new citations from the poet Rumi and from other noted Sufi poets. The whole chapter has been reshaped by the inclusion of material from a major new book on Sufism and psychology.

The Teacher Guide

Instructors, make sure you have one. Berate our publisher if you don't. We have added a new minichapter on the Kaballah (the Jewish mystical tradition) and clarified the minichapter on the Native American tradition. We have added new class and homework exercises to a number of chapters and, as we did with the text, edited it throughout. It has the usual wide range of exam questions and the like, but most of the guide is filled with ways to allow you to more easily teach each chapter, as we do not expect every instructor to know such a wide range of theorists equally well.

We remain open to your inputs, your criticisms, and your suggestions.

We thank our reviewers whose suggestions and corrections strengthened major portions of the text. These reviewers are Beverly J. Goodwin, Ph.D.-Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Myron M. Arons, Ph.D.-State University of West Georgia, and John Robertson, Ph.D.-North Hennepin Community College. We also sincerely thank Sharon Rheinhardt, our acquisitions editor at Prentice Hall, for her support of this edition. We are especially grateful for the wisdom, good humor, and good sense of Kim Gueterman, our production editor, who insisted that this book be as well-designed and error-free as possible. Her insistence and her own high standards kept us working far harder on final revisions and improvements than we would have otherwise.

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