Perspectives on Argument / Edition 7

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Overview

This combination rhetoric/reader helps readers develop strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them argue clearly and convincingly. It teaches them to identify and develop arguments, to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, to analyze an audience, to seek common ground, and to use a wide, realistic range of techniques to write argument papers that express their individual views and original perspectives on modern issues. The Rhetoric portion includes clear explanations and examples of argument theory and reading and writing processes, research and documentation skills, and offers engaging, class-tested writing assignments and activities. The Reader portion includes 75 reading selections covering seven broad issue areas and 18 more focused areas, all of contemporary concern. Unique chapters discuss argument styles, Rogerian argument, and argument and literature.Material covered includes engaging with argument for reading and writing, understanding the nature of argument for reading and writing, writing a research paper that presents an argument and visual and oral argument. Readings cover a range of issues including those concerning families and relationships, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, race, culture and identity, freedom, war and issues concerning the future.For anyone interested in a clear presentation of argument theory applied to written, visual and oral forms.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This college text teaches students strategies for reading, thinking, and writing that they can use in all types of argument, both inside and outside the classroom. The author notes that modern arguments often encompass a variety of perspectives, rather than a right or wrong position, and do not always result in a declaration of winners. She includes 123 readings, 15 of which are argument papers written by students. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205060337
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 8/3/2011
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 704
  • Sales rank: 144,944
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 8.96 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in aworld community needs to coexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to both MLA and APA style.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper; which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing; and the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary charts at the end of the rhetoric section present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 124 different readings in the rhetoric section and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Twelve of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • New five-part organization creates clearer assignment sequences, more immediate application of theory, and more flexibility for instructors. The three chapters on the research paper now follow the three chapters on argument theory, which encourages the use of theory in writing the research paper. The stand-alone chapters on Rogerian argument and argument and literature appear in Part Four and can be taught at any point in the course.
  • Improved explanations, clearer assignments, and new examples of the exploratory argument paper and the Rogerian argument paper appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Revised and improved assignments and assignment sequences that have been classroom-tested repeatedly appear at the end of every chapter. Less productive assignments have been deleted.
  • Earlier and more complete information on incorporating and documenting sources, and using electronic sources in particular, appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Information on how to evaluate online sources has been added to the research section of Chapter 9.
  • More than half (65) of the 124 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths (57) of the 75 essays in "The Reader" are new.
  • Four new issue areas explore issues associated with the family, computers, race and culture, and genetic engineering.
  • Thirteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of three to seven essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "How Do Men's and Women's Ideas about Themselves Influence the Roles They Play in Their Families?" "What Are Some Variations on the Traditional Family? How Effective Are These Variations?" "What Can Be Done to Improve Schools?" "How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?" "Do Violent Video Games and Books Cause Young People to Commit Crime?" "How Are Computers Changing the Culture?" "How Are Computers Changing Their Users?" "How Are Computers Changing Education?" "How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?" "How Close Has America Come to Achieving Racial Equality?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Agriculture?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Animals?" and "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Humans?"
  • Four new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and three new Rogerian argument papers, including a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
  • New examples of summary and response appear in Chapter 3.
  • More immediate connections between theory and practice are now included in Chapters 5, 6, and 7; in them, new assignments teach students to use the Toulmin model, the claim questions, and the proofs to generate material for argument papers.
  • Streamlined Chapters 8, 9,10 now function as one long assignment that culminates in the researched position paper.

ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in a more preferred order to supplement their own course organization.

Part One: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument in Chapter 1, helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument in Chapter 2, and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

Part Two: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument in Chapter 5, explains the types of claims and purposes for argument in Chapter 6, and presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity in Chapter 7. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis and the position paper based on "'The Reader."

Part Three: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience in Chapter 8, to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials in Chapter 9, and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper in Chapter 10. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. An Appendix to Chapter 10 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

Part Four: Further Applications: Rogerian Argument/Argument and Literature. This part explains Rogerian argument in Chapter 11 as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences. Chapter 12 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Writing assignments include Rogerian argument papers and papers about argument and literature. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 11 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

Part Five: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, computers, race and culture in America, genetic engineering, and social responsibility. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

In preparing the Instructor's Manual, my co-contributors and I have included chapter-by-chapter suggestions for using the book in both the traditional and the computer classroom. We have also included sample syllabi. Three instructors have written day-by-day teaching journals, in which they detail how they worked with this book in class and how the students responded. Also included in the manual are strategies for teaching students to use electronic databases, the Internet, and other resources for conducting online and library research. Another chapter suggests how student argument papers can be developed with the help of tutors in a writing center and by online MOOs and chat groups. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

A Companion Website for Perspectives on Argument can be accessed at (...

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Table of Contents

The Rhetoric.

I. ENGAGING WITH ARGUMENT FOR READING AND WRITING.

1. A Perspective on Argument.
Essays for Analysis: Pay Your Own Way! (Then ThankMom), Audrey Rock-Richardson. The Laptop Ate My AttentionSpan, Abby Ellin. Censoring the Internet, Lada Carlisle.

2. Developing Your Personal Argument Style.
Essays for Analysis: We Knew What Glory Was, ShirleeTaylor Haizlip. A View from Berkeley, Chancellor Chang-LinTien. Giving People a Second Chance, Ernest Martinez. Oneof Our Own: Training Native Teachers for the 21st Century, SuzetteBrewer. Why I Want a Wife, Judy Brady. A Simple “Hai”Won't Do, Reiko Hatsumi.

3. A Process for Reading Argument.
Essays for Analysis: Jobs Illuminate What Riots Hid:Young Ideals, Sara Rimer. Don't Know Much about History,Roberta Israeloff. The Road to Unreality, Mark Slouka.

4. A Process for Writing Argument.
Essays for Analysis: A Room of Their Own, LynNellHancock and Claudia Kalb. Coming and Going, Nathan Glazer.Trial by Jury: A Fundamental Right and a Flawed System, TanyaPierce.

II. UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF ARGUMENT FOR READING ANDWRITING.

5. The Essential Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model.
Essays for Analysis: Automobile Advertisement.What's Happened to Disney Films? John Evans. ToulminAnalysis of “What's Happened to Disney Films? Beth Brunk. AmericanValue Systems, Richard Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars.

6. Types of Claims.
Essays for Analysis: Debunking theDigital Divide,Robert Samuelson. Zygotes and People Aren't Quite the Same,Michael S. Gazzaniga. Paying the Price of Female Neglect,Susan Dentzer. What's Wrong with Standard Tests? Ted Sizer.Campus Climate Control, Katie Roiphe. Gene Tests: WhatYou Know Can Hurt You, Barbara Koenig. Without a Safety Net,Barbara Ehrenreich. Reading, Writing, Narcissism, Lilian G.Katz. Devising New Math to Define Poverty, Louis Uchitelle.Bringing Up Adultolescents, Peg Tyre. Hold Your Horsepower,Lyla Fox.

7. Types of Proof.
Essays for Analysis: Censorship or Common Sense,Roxana Robinson. Meet the Philip Morris Generation, Advertisement.The Future Is Ours to Lose, Naomi Wolf. The Declarationof Independence, Thomas Jefferson.

8. The Fallacies or Pseudoproofs.
Essays for Analysis:Vitamin Advertisement. TheLatest From the Feminist Front, Rush Limbaugh. Minor Problems?Kelly Dickerson.

9. Rogerian Argument and Common Ground.
Essays for Analysis: When Special Care Is Called For,Advertisement. Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option? AngelaA. Boatwright. Special Education's Best Intentions, Lois Agnew.Dear Mom, Taryn Barnett. The Great Campus Goof-Off Machine?Not for All Students, Jeff Burkholder. The Great Campus Goof-OffMachine, Nate Stulman. A Call for Unity, Letter from EightWhite Clergymen. Letter from Birmingham Jail, Martin LutherKing, Jr.

III. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER THAT PRESENTS AN ARGUMENT.

10. The Research Paper: Clarifying Purpose and Understandingthe Audience.
New Yorker Cartoon.

11. The Research Paper: Invention and Research.
Annotated Bibliography: Human Cloning: An AnnotatedBibliography, Angela A. Boatwright.

12. The Research Paper: Organizing, Writing, and Revising.
Essays for Analysis: The Highs of Low Technology,Johanne Mednick. The Importance of Jury Instructions, TanyaPierce. Alaskan Wolf Management, Darrell D. Greer.

IV. FURTHER APPLICATIONS: VISUAL AND ORAL ARGUMENT—ARGUMENTAND LITERATURE.

13. Visual and Oral Argument.
Essays for Analysis: Adobe Acrobat Advertisement.I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King.

14. Argument and Literature.
Literature for Analysis: POEM: Theme for English B,Langston Hughes. SHORT STORY: The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas,Ursula K. Le Guin. LITERARY ESSAY: A Modest Proposal, JonathanSwift.

THE READER.

I. Issues Concerning Families, Marriages, and Relationships.

1. What is the Status of the Traditional American Family?How Far Are We Willing to Go to Find Alternatives?
Why I Think I'm Still Right, Dan Quayle. TheChildless Revolution, Madelyn Cain. Building a Better Dad,Jerry Adler. Marriage As We See It, Chris Glaser.

2. What Are the Benefits and Pitfalls of Being Married?
The Marriage Problem: How Our Culture Has WeakenedFamilies, James Q. Wilson. The Future of Marriage, StephanieCoontz. Predators and Nurturers, Sylvia Ann Hewlett.

3. What Creates Successful Relationships? What Causes Themto Fail?
The Mystery of Attraction, Harville Hendrix. TheSecond Shift, Sylvia Ann Hewlett. Marriage and Divorce AmericanStyle, Mavis Hetherington.

II. Issues in Education.

1. What Should Colleges and Universities Teach? Is ThereAnything They Should Not Teach?
A Battle Plan for Professors to Recapture the Curriculum,Frank H. T. Rhodes. Hollow Curriculum, Robert N. Sollod. Startinga Gay-Studies Course, Henry Gonshak. Can or Should a CollegeTeach Virtue? Harry C. Payne.

2. What Helps Students Learn and Succeed in College? WhatHinders Them?
The Harvard Guide to Happiness, Kate Zernicke.Getting in Students' Way, Richard J. Light. The BankingConcept of Education, Paulo Friere.

III. Issues Concerning Crime and the Treatment of Criminals.

1. How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?
Reflections from a Life Behind Bars: Build Colleges,Not Prisons, James Gilligan. A Jailbreak for Geriatrics,George F. Will. Tinkering With Death, Alex Kozinski. OneBig Happy Prison, Michael Moore.

2. What Should Be Done with Young Offenders?
The Apocalypse of Adolescence, Ron Powers. NotSo Alone, Gerard Jones. A Brain Too Young for Good Judgment,Daniel R. Weinberger. Fairy Tales as a Learning Tool for YoungOffenders, Richard Rothstein. Out of Jail, Into Temptation:A Day in a Life, Alan Feurer.

IV. Issues Concerning Race, Culture and Identity.

1. How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual'sSense of Identity?
Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media,bell hooks. The Matter of Whiteness, Richard Dyer. Documented/Undocumented,Guillermo Gómez-Peña. On Being a Conceptual Anomaly,Dorinne K. Kondo. Culture by the Campfire, Esther Pan andSherry Keene-Osborn.

2. To What Extent Should Individuals Allow Their CulturalHeritage to Be Assimilated?
Asian Identity Crisis, Yahlin Chang. EducatingOurselves into Coexistence, Anouar Majid. American Jews andthe Problem of Identity, Edward S. Shapiro.

V. Issues Concerning Freedom.

1. How Rigorously Should We Protect Our Civil Liberties?
Security Versus Civil Liberties, Richard A. Posner.The Tools of Freedom and Security, Peter Lewis.

2. How Can We Balance Security Against Privacy in a TechnologicalAge?
How Private is Your Life? Peter Maas. LivingUnder the Electronic Eye, Lisa Guernsey. Body of Evidence,Dana Hawkins. The Real Privacy Wars Are Just Over the Horizon,Eric Cohen.

3. How Does Profiling Threaten Civil Liberties?
The Color of Suspicion, Jeffrey Goldberg. Patriotismvs. Ethnic Pride: An American Dilemma, Lynette Clemetson and KeithNaugton. Freedom vs. Security, Fareed Zakaria.

VI. Issues Concerning the Future.

1. What Are Some Possible Issues for the Future?
Looking Back on Tomorrow, David Brooks.

2. What Might Affect the Future of Human Beings?
Reprogenetics: A Glimpse of Things to Come, LeeM. Silver. An Inexorable Emergence: Transition to the Twenty-FirstCentury, Ray Kurzweil. Could This Pig Save Your Life? SherylGay Stolberg. Better Living Through Genetics, James Wood.

3. What Might Affect the Future of the Planet?
The Future of Life, Edward O. Wilson. TheChallenges We Face, Jeffrey Kluger and Andrea Dorfman. SecondThoughts on Expanding Lifespans, Donald B. Louria.

VII. Issues Concerning War and Peace.

1. Is War Inevitable?
The Moral Equivalent of War, William James. Warfare:An Invention—Not a Biological Necessity, Margaret Mead. WarWill Be War: No Matter the Weapons, the Same Old Hell, Victor DavisHanson.

2. How Do People Justify War?
Why We Blow Ourselves Up, Eyad Sarraj. WhyWe Fight, William J. Bennett. How Can We Understand TheirHatred? Eli Wiesel.

3. What Might Help Establish Peace?
Getting to Peace, William L. Ury. The AtomicBomb, Richard Rhodes. All You Need is Love, Bruce Hoffman.

Topic Index.
Author-Title Index.
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Preface

PREFACE PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs to coexistcooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to both MLA and APA style.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper; which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing; and the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary charts at the end of the rhetoric section present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 124 different readings in the rhetoric section and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Twelve of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
  • New five-part organization creates clearer assignment sequences, more immediate application of theory, and more flexibility for instructors. The three chapters on the research paper now follow the three chapters on argument theory, which encourages the use of theory in writing the research paper. The stand-alone chapters on Rogerian argument and argument and literature appear in Part Four and can be taught at any point in the course.
  • Improved explanations, clearer assignments, and new examples of the exploratory argument paper and the Rogerian argument paper appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Revised and improved assignments and assignment sequences that have been classroom-tested repeatedly appear at the end of every chapter. Less productive assignments have been deleted.
  • Earlier and more complete information on incorporating and documenting sources, and using electronic sources in particular, appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Information on how to evaluate online sources has been added to the research section of Chapter 9.
  • More than half (65) of the 124 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths (57) of the 75 essays in "The Reader" are new.
  • Four new issue areas explore issues associated with the family, computers, race and culture, and genetic engineering.
  • Thirteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of three to seven essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "How Do Men's and Women's Ideas about Themselves Influence the Roles They Play in Their Families?" "What Are Some Variations on the Traditional Family? How Effective Are These Variations?" "What Can Be Done to Improve Schools?" "How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?" "Do Violent Video Games and Books Cause Young People to Commit Crime?" "How Are Computers Changing the Culture?" "How Are Computers Changing Their Users?" "How Are Computers Changing Education?" "How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?" "How Close Has America Come to Achieving Racial Equality?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Agriculture?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Animals?" and "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Humans?"
  • Four new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and three new Rogerian argument papers, including a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
  • New examples of summary and response appear in Chapter 3.
  • More immediate connections between theory and practice are now included in Chapters 5, 6, and 7; in them, new assignments teach students to use the Toulmin model, the claim questions, and the proofs to generate material for argument papers.
  • Streamlined Chapters 8, 9,10 now function as one long assignment that culminates in the researched position paper.
ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in a more preferred order to supplement their own course organization.

Part One: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument in Chapter 1, helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument in Chapter 2, and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

Part Two: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument in Chapter 5, explains the types of claims and purposes for argument in Chapter 6, and presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity in Chapter 7. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis and the position paper based on "'The Reader."

Part Three: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience in Chapter 8, to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials in Chapter 9, and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper in Chapter 10. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. An Appendix to Chapter 10 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

Part Four: Further Applications: Rogerian Argument/Argument and Literature. This part explains Rogerian argument in Chapter 11 as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences. Chapter 12 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Writing assignments include Rogerian argument papers and papers about argument and literature. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 11 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

Part Five: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, computers, race and culture in America, genetic engineering, and social responsibility. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

In preparing the Instructor's Manual, my co-contributors and I have included chapter-by-chapter suggestions for using the book in both the traditional and the computer classroom. We have also included sample syllabi. Three instructors have written day-by-day teaching journals, in which they detail how they worked with this book in class and how the students responded. Also included in the manual are strategies for teaching students to use electronic databases, the Internet, and other resources for conducting online and library research. Another chapter suggests how student argument papers can be developed with the help of tutors in a writing center and by online MOOs and chat groups. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

A Companion Website for Perspectives on Argument can be accessed at . Beth Break is the author of this site.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My greatest debt is to my husband, James A. Wood, who has also taught and written about argument. He helped me work out my approach to argument by listening to me, by discussing my ideas, and by contributing ideas of his own. The process renewed my faith in peer groups and writing conferences. Most writers, I am convinced, profit from talking through their ideas with someone else. I was lucky to find someone so knowledgeable and generous with his time and insights.

I also owe a debt to the first-year English program at The University of Texas at Arlington. When I joined the department a few years ago, I found myself caught up in the ideas and controversies of this program. It provided me with much of the interest and motivation to write this book.

For the past several years, I have trained the graduate teaching assistants in our department who teach argument. An exceptionally alert group of these students volunteered to meet with me and recommend revisions for this third edition. They include Nicole Siek, Christine Flynn Cavanaugh, Vera Csorvasi, Martha Villagomez, Barbara Saurer, Sara Latham, Vannetta Causey, Donna Brown, Kody Lightfoot, Beth Brunk, and Chris Murray Graduate students, many of whom are now faculty members elsewhere, who have contributed recommendations for revisions in earlier editions and that remain a part of the third edition include Leslie Snow, Samantha Masterton, Lynn Atkinson, J. T. Martin, Kimberly Ellison, Corri Wells, Steve Harding, Barbara Chiarello, Collin G. Brooke, Tracy Bessire, Cheryl Brown, Matthew Levy, Alan Taylor, and Deborah Reese. I hope they will be pleased when they see that I have followed many of their suggestions for improvement. Many other graduate teaching assistants in our program have also taught with this book and have made useful recommendations and suggestions. I am grateful to them for their insight and enthusiasm.

I am also indebted to other colleagues and friends who have helped me with this book. The late James Kinneavy is the originator of the exploratory paper as it is taught in this book. Audrey Wick, Director of First Year English at our university and a seasoned teacher of argument, has provided me with much counsel and advice, including one of her favorite class projects, the literary debate that appears at the end of Chapter 12 on argument and literature. My colleague Tim Morris helped me think through some of the ideas in Chapter 12, and he provided me with many excellent examples of poems and other literary works that make arguments. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Nicole Siek and Sara Latham, who joined me in reading and voting on all of the new essays in the third edition. I have only included those that survived our joint scrutiny. Christine Flynn Cavanaugh helped locate examples of online research and made recommendations for evaluating such material. Beth Brunk, Corri Wells, Steve Newton, Deborah Reese, Brad McAdon, Samantha Masterton, and Leslie Snow have all either provided chapters or have co-authored chapters in the Instructor's Manual. Beth Brunk formatted and typed it. It has been a constant pleasure to work with these bright, energetic, and creative colleagues, and I am grateful to all of them for the contributions they have made to this third edition.

I wish I had the space to acknowledge by name the many students from argument classes, including my own, who read the first and second editions and made recommendations for this third edition. Some of them also contributed their own essays to be used as examples, and their names appear on their work. I paid particularly close attention to these student's comments, and I know their suggestions and contributions have made this a better book for other argument students throughout the country.

At Prentice Hall, my greatest debt is to Phil Miller, President, Humanities and Social Sciences, who got me started with this project. I also thank Vivian Garcia, Assistant Development Editor, who was immensely helpful throughout the project, and Leah Jewell, editor in chief. These individuals provided excellent help with all of the various stages of writing and final editing. Thanks also to Brandy Dawson, Marketing Manager, who has always encouraged me along the way. Shelly Kupperman, Senior Production Editor, did her usual impressive and conscientious job of seeing the book through all phases of production. Bruce Emmer and Diane Garvey Nesin provided outstanding editorial suggestions. Fred Courtright obtained the permissions for this edition. I have felt fortunate to work with such conscientious, reliable, and capable professionals.

I am also indebted to John Schaeffer and the faculty of Blinn College who volunteered suggestions for revisions—and I was able to incorporate all of them. Bob Esch at the University of Texas at El Paso has been generous with his comments and observations, and he has also sent me suggestions for essays for this third edition. I also want to acknowledge the many instructors and students around the country who have e-mailed observations and suggestions for improvement. It a special treat to receive e-mail from people who are using the book and have ideas for improving it.

Other colleagues around the country provided additional ideas and recommended changes that have helped improve the first, second, and third editions. They include Margaret W. Batschelet, University of Texas at San Antonio; Linda D. Bensel-Meyers, University of Tennessee; Gregory Clark, Brigham Young University; Dan Damesville, Tallahassee Community College; Alexander Friedlander, Drexel University; William S. Hockman, University of Southern Colorado; James Kinneavy, University of Texas at Austin; Elizabeth Metzger, University of South Florida; Margaret Dietz Meyer, Ithaca College; Susan Padgett, North Lake College; Randall L. Popken, Tarleton State University; William E. Sheidley, United States Air Force Academy; Diane M. Thiel, Florida International University; Jennifer Welsh, University of Southern California; Shannon Martin, Elizabethtown Community College; Keith Rhodes, Northwest Missouri State University; Kim Donehower, University of Maryland; Lynce Lewis Gaillet, Georgia State University; Carol David, Iowa State University; and Sue Preslar, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. I am grateful to them for the time and care they took reviewing the manuscript.

Finally, I thank all of you who use this book. I would like to hear about your experiences with it, and I am especially interested in your ideas for improving the chapters and readings. My e-mail address is .

This book has been a genuinely collaborative effort, and I expect that it will continue to be. I hope students will profit from the example and learn to draw on the expertise of their instructors and classmates to help them write their papers. Most writing is more fun and more successful when it is, at least partly, a social process.

N.V.W

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Introduction

PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Perspectives on Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are. sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs tocoexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Perspectives on Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided along with criteria for evaluating all types of sources, including those found online. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to the most up-to-date MLA and APA styles.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper, which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience; and the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary Charts at the end of "The Rhetoric" present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 108 different readings in "The Rhetoric" and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Eleven of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • Two new chapters have been added:

    Chapter 8, "The Fallacies or Pseudoproofs," is an expanded version of the material about fallacies that previously appeared in Chapter 7, "The Types of Proof," now itself a more manageable length. The new Chapter 8 teaches students not only to recognize fallacies but also to evaluate the support and eliminate the fallacies in their own argument.

    Chapter 13, "Visual and Oral Argument," teaches students to analyze the argument they see and hear every day.
    • A color portfolio of ten visual arguments, accompanied by Questions for Discussion and Questions for Writing, provides students with opportunities to practice analyzing visual argument.
    • Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech, "I Have a Dream," provides students with an opportunity to practice analyzing oral argument. It is accompanied by a Web site address that enables students to listen to the speech as it was first delivered.
  • WHERE IS IT? Major Writing Assignments and Sample Papers by Students appears on the inside front cover of the book to help students locate frequently visited pages quickly.
  • Improved organization: Rogerian argument is now taught before the researched position paper so that students may include Rogerian elements in the research paper as one possible strategy.
  • A worksheet and additional explanations to help students organize and write an exploratory paper are added to Chapter 4.
  • Extended information and examples of plagiarism in Chapters 4 and 12 teach students how to avoid it.
  • Two new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, and 14.
  • Recent updates on MLA and APA style along with new examples of how to cite electronic sources appear in the Appendix to Chapter 12.
  • More than half (57) of the 108 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths of the essays in "The Reader" are new, and one-third of the essays in "The Rhetoric" are new.
  • Three new issue areas in "The Reader" explore issues associated with freedom, the future, and war and peace.
  • Fifteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of related essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "What Is the Status of the Traditional American Family? How Far Are We Willing to Go to Find Alternatives?" "What Are the Benefits and Pitfalls of Being Married?" "What Creates Successful Relationships? What Causes Them to Fail?" "What Should Colleges and Universities Teach? Is There Anything They Should Not Teach?" "What Helps Students Learn and Succeed in College? What Hinders Them?" "To What Extent Should Individuals Allow Their Cultural Heritage to Be Assimilated?" "How Rigorously Should We Protect Our Civil Liberties?" "How Can We Balance Security Against Privacy in a Technological Age?" "How Does Profiling Threaten Civil Liberties?" "What Are Some Possible Issues for the Future?" "What Might Affect the Future of Human Beings?" "What Might Affect the Future of the Planet?" "Is War Inevitable?" "How Do People Justify War?" "What Might Help Establish Peace?"
  • Questions to Consider Before You Read now appear at the beginning of each issue question in "The Reader" to help students access their background knowledge.
  • Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research are now provided for each issue area in "The Reader" to guide students to possible research sites.

ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in an order they prefer to supplement their own course organization.

PART ONE: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument, in Chapter 1; helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument, in Chapter 2; and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument, in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

PART TWO: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument, in Chapter 5; explains the types of claims and purposes for argument, in Chapter 6; presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity, in Chapter 7; identifies the fallacies and teaches students to use reliable support in their own writing, in Chapter 8; and explains Rogerian argument as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences in Chapter 9. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis, the position paper based on "The Reader," and Rogerian argument papers. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 9 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

PART THREE: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience, in Chapter 10; to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials, in Chapter 11; and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper, in Chapter 12. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 11 and 12. An Appendix to Chapter 12 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

PART FOUR: Further Applications: Visual and Oral Argument/Argument and Literature. Chapter 13 teaches students to extend and apply in new ways what they have learned about argument to the analysis and critique of visual and spoken argument as they encounter it in all parts of their lives. Chapter 14 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Assignments include creating a visual argument, creating an oral argument, and writing papers about argument and literature.

PART FIVE: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, marriages, and relationships; education; crime and the treatment of criminals; race, culture, and identity; freedom; the future; and war and peace. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

My co-contributors and I have included five chapters in the Instructor's Manual, three of them new, that provide syllabi, day-by-day teaching journals, and handouts to facilitate classroom management in five different types of argument classes that use Perspectives on Argument as the primary textbook. Since these five classes and syllabi have been classroom tested repeatedly, they may be followed or changed and adapted with confidence. One class follows the textbook closely, another employs a considerable amount of student discussion of issues, a third includes a number of effective ways for teaching visual argument, a fourth describes an argument class that can be taught in a computer classroom, and the fifth describes a class that can be taught online as a distance education class.

Another chapter in the manual provides descriptions of each chapter's contents and the exercises that accompany them. Instructors can save themselves considerable time by reading these descriptions before they read the chapters themselves. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

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