Perspectives on Argument

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Overview

ALERT: Before you purchase, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. Several versions of Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products exist for each title, including customized versions for individual schools, and registrations are not transferable. In addition, you may need a CourseID, provided by your instructor, to register for and use Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This college text teaches students strategies for reading, thinking, and writing that they can use in all types of argument, both inside and outside the classroom. The author notes that modern arguments often encompass a variety of perspectives, rather than a right or wrong position, and do not always result in a declaration of winners. She includes 123 readings, 15 of which are argument papers written by students. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321964267
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 7/11/2014
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 656
  • Sales rank: 668,212
  • Product dimensions: 5.80 (w) x 8.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in aworld community needs to coexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to both MLA and APA style.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper; which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing; and the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary charts at the end of the rhetoric section present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 124 different readings in the rhetoric section and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Twelve of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • New five-part organization creates clearer assignment sequences, more immediate application of theory, and more flexibility for instructors. The three chapters on the research paper now follow the three chapters on argument theory, which encourages the use of theory in writing the research paper. The stand-alone chapters on Rogerian argument and argument and literature appear in Part Four and can be taught at any point in the course.
  • Improved explanations, clearer assignments, and new examples of the exploratory argument paper and the Rogerian argument paper appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Revised and improved assignments and assignment sequences that have been classroom-tested repeatedly appear at the end of every chapter. Less productive assignments have been deleted.
  • Earlier and more complete information on incorporating and documenting sources, and using electronic sources in particular, appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Information on how to evaluate online sources has been added to the research section of Chapter 9.
  • More than half (65) of the 124 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths (57) of the 75 essays in "The Reader" are new.
  • Four new issue areas explore issues associated with the family, computers, race and culture, and genetic engineering.
  • Thirteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of three to seven essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "How Do Men's and Women's Ideas about Themselves Influence the Roles They Play in Their Families?" "What Are Some Variations on the Traditional Family? How Effective Are These Variations?" "What Can Be Done to Improve Schools?" "How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?" "Do Violent Video Games and Books Cause Young People to Commit Crime?" "How Are Computers Changing the Culture?" "How Are Computers Changing Their Users?" "How Are Computers Changing Education?" "How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?" "How Close Has America Come to Achieving Racial Equality?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Agriculture?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Animals?" and "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Humans?"
  • Four new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and three new Rogerian argument papers, including a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
  • New examples of summary and response appear in Chapter 3.
  • More immediate connections between theory and practice are now included in Chapters 5, 6, and 7; in them, new assignments teach students to use the Toulmin model, the claim questions, and the proofs to generate material for argument papers.
  • Streamlined Chapters 8, 9,10 now function as one long assignment that culminates in the researched position paper.

ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in a more preferred order to supplement their own course organization.

Part One: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument in Chapter 1, helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument in Chapter 2, and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

Part Two: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument in Chapter 5, explains the types of claims and purposes for argument in Chapter 6, and presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity in Chapter 7. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis and the position paper based on "'The Reader."

Part Three: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience in Chapter 8, to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials in Chapter 9, and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper in Chapter 10. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. An Appendix to Chapter 10 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

Part Four: Further Applications: Rogerian Argument/Argument and Literature. This part explains Rogerian argument in Chapter 11 as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences. Chapter 12 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Writing assignments include Rogerian argument papers and papers about argument and literature. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 11 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

Part Five: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, computers, race and culture in America, genetic engineering, and social responsibility. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

In preparing the Instructor's Manual, my co-contributors and I have included chapter-by-chapter suggestions for using the book in both the traditional and the computer classroom. We have also included sample syllabi. Three instructors have written day-by-day teaching journals, in which they detail how they worked with this book in class and how the students responded. Also included in the manual are strategies for teaching students to use electronic databases, the Internet, and other resources for conducting online and library research. Another chapter suggests how student argument papers can be developed with the help of tutors in a writing center and by online MOOs and chat groups. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

A Companion Website for Perspectives on Argument can be accessed at (...

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Table of Contents

Contents
Alternate Table of Contents 00
Preface 000

Part 1 Engaging with Argument  1

1 A PERSPECTIVE ON ARGUMENT 0
What Is Your Current Perspective on Argument? 0
A Definition of Argument 0
Recognizing Traditional and Consensual Argument 0
Recognizing Visual Argument 0
Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best? 00
Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail? 00
Distinguishing Between Ethical and Unethical Argument 00
Recognizing Argument in the 21st Century 00
Engaging with Issues 00
How Should You Engage with Issues? 00
Review Questions 00
Exercises and Activities 00
Essays for Analysis
Felix Carroll / No Escape from ’Helicopter Parents’ 00
Abby Ellin / The Laptop Ate My Attention Span 00
Prisna Virasin / The Barbie Controversy 00
Image for Analysis
Image 1: Waterfront Living 00

2 THE RHETORICAL SITUATION: UNDERSTANDING AUDIENCE AND CONTEXT 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You View a Visual Argument 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Encounter an Argument Online 00
Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write an Argument 00
Conducting an Audience Analysis 00
Review Questions 00
Exercises and Activities 00
Essays for Analysis
Chris Piper / “A” Is for “Absent” 00
Will Harrel / “A Defense of Grade Deflation” 00
The Library of Congress / The Civil Rights Era 00
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Rosa Parks Rides in the Front of the Bus 00
Image 2: Auschwitz Victims of Medical Experiments 00

3 READING, THINKING, AND WRITING ABOUT ISSUES 00
Getting Started on a Writing Assignment 00
Read to Develop Arguments for Your Paper 00
Take Notes and Avoid Plagiarism 00
Write Your Paper, Read It, Think about It, and Revise It 00
Practice Your Process by Writing These Papers 00
Submit Your Paper for Peer Review 00
Expressing Multiple Perspectives through Visual Argument 00
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Scientific American / As Spy Drones Come to the US, We Must Protect Our Privacy 00
Gina Kolata / PSST! Ask for Donor 1913 000
Randy Cohen / When Texting Is Wrong 000
Prisna Virasin / The Controvery behind Barbie 000
Congressional Research Service / Flag Protection: A Brief History of
 Recent Supreme Court Decisions 000
Images for Analysis: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View
Image 1: The Chinese Perspective 000
Image 2: The German Perspective 000
Image 3: The Israeli Perspective 000
Image 4: The Iraqi Perspective 000

Part 2 Understanding the Nature of Argument  113

4 THE ESSENTIAL PARTS OF AN ARGUMENT: THE TOULMIN MODEL 000
The Outcomes of Argument: Probability versus Certainty 000
The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model 000
Value of the Toulmin Model for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Frank DeFord / Bust the Amateur Myth 000
Mohamed T. Diaby Jr. / Toulmin
Analysis of the “Price of Oranges” Cartoon 000
Richard D. Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars / American Value Systems 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Sense of Community, Advertisement 000
Image 2: “The Price of Oranges” Cartoon 000

5 TYPES OF CLAIMS 000
Five Types of Claims 000
Value of the Claim Types and the Claim Questions
for Reading, Viewing, and Writing Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Stephen J. Handel / 2-Year Students Have Long Had 4-Year Dreams 000
Mark Levinson / Mismeasuring Poverty 000
Jeffrey Young / High Tech Cheating Abounds, and Professors
are Partly to Blame 000
A. K. Simon / Reality TV: More than Just a Guilty Pleasure 000
Rebecca Cho / Is Bottled Water a Moral Issue? 000
Barry Schwartz / When It’s All Too Much 172
Images for Analysis
Image 1: War Casualties 000
Image 2: U.S. Border Patrol 000
Image 3: The Rhone Glacier 000
Image 4: Go Paperless 000
Image 5: Corn Power 000

6 TYPES OF PROOF 000
The Traditional Categories of Proof 000
Types of Logical Proof: Logos 000
Proof That Builds Credibility: Ethos 000
Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos 000
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style 000
Value of the Proofs for Reading, Viewing, and Writing Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Careen Shannon / Stop Calling People “Aliens” 208
Government Accountability Office / ”Poverty in America: Consequences for Individuals and the Economy” 212
Thomas Jefferson / The Declaration of Independence 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Mothers Against Drunk Driving 000
Image 2: Poor Tenements in Holyoke, Massachusetts 000
Image 3: Little Girl on Bed in Rundown Bedroom 000

7 THE FALLACIES AND ETHICAL ARGUMENT 000
Fallacies in Logic 000
Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos 000
Emotional Fallacies 000
Ethics and Morality in Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Hannah Sternberg / Conservative Feminism Is Not an Oxymoron 000
Kelly Dickerson / Minor Problems? 238
Images for Analysis
Image 1: A Shower Gels Ad 000
Image 2: 1930s Drunk Driving Poster 000
Image 3: An Ad for a Blog 000
Essay with Images for Analysis
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 /
The Gettysburg Address 000
Image 1: President Lincoln Among the Crowd at Gettysburg 000
Image 2: The Soldier’s National Monument that Stands in the Center of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 000

8 VISUAL ARGUMENT 000
Recognizing Visual Argument 000
Why Visual Argument Is Convincing: Eight Special Features 000
Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual Argument 000
Bias in Visual Argument 000
Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument 000
Add Visual Argument to Support Written Argument 000
Create Visual Arguments That Stand Alone 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: West Bank Barrier 000
Image 2: Immigrant Rights 000
Image 3: Coming Home to a Destroyed Neighborhood 000
Image 4: LeBron James 000
Image 5: At Home Outdoors 000
Image 1: Adam and God 000
Image 2: Play Ball 000
Image 3: Robot with a Grappler 000
Visual Argument Created by Students
Student Visual Argument 1: Untitled 000
Student Visual Argument 2: Never Again 000
 Analytical Essay on Never Again 000

9 ROGERIAN ARGUMENT AND COMMON
GROUND 000
Achieving Common Ground in Rogerian Argument 000
Rogerian Argument as Strategy 000
Writing Rogerian Argument 000
Rogerian Argument in Academic Writing 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Mike Rose / Heal the Academic-Vocational Schism 000
Angela A. Boatwright / Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option? 000
Eric Hartman / Let Those Who Ride Decide! 000
Elizabeth Nabhan / Dear Boss 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Hands across the World 000
Image 2: Bridging the Gap 000
Image 3: Bipartisanship and What It Can Achieve 000

10 REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF ARGUMENT STRATEGIES  000
Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper 000
Writing the Argument Analysis Paper 000
Rhetorical Situation for “A Call to Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail” 000
Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters 000
Essays for Analysis
White Clergymen / A Call for Unity:
A Letter from Eight White Clergymen 000
Martin Luther King Jr. / Letter from Birmingham Jail 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000

Part III Writing a Researched Argument 000

11 THE RESEARCH PAPER: PLANNING, RESEARCH, AND INVENTION 000
Understanding the Assignment and Getting Started 000
Writing a Claim and Clarifying Your Purpose 000
Some Preliminary Questions to Help You Narrow and Develop Your Claim 000
Developing a Research Plan 000
Understanding the Audience 000
Analyzing Your Class as Your Audience 000
Constructing an Unfamiliar Audience 000
Using Information about Your Audience 000
Get Organized for Research 000
Locating Sources for Research 000
Evaluating Sources 000
Creating a Bibliography 000
Taking and Organizing Your Notes 000
Two Invention Strategies to Help You Think Creatively about Your Research and Expand Your Own Ideas 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Angela Boatwright / Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography 000
Image for Analysis
Image 1: What’s Wrong with Cloning Humans? 000

12 THE RESEARCH PAPER: USING SOURCES, WRITING, AND REVISING 000
Matching Patterns and Support to Claims 000
Outlining Your Paper and Cross-Reference Your Notes 000
Incorporating Research into Your First Draft 000
Making Revisions and Preparing the Final Copy 000
Present Your Paper Orally to the Class 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 12: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles 000
MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT 000
MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE WORKS CITED PAGE 000
MLA: STUDENT PAPER IN MLA STYLE 000
PRISNA VIRASIN / The Big Barbie Controversy 000
QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, MLA STYLE 000
APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT 000
APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE REFERENCES PAGE 000
APA: STUDENT PAPER IN APA STYLE 000
DARRELL D. GREER / Alaskan Wolf Management 000
QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, APA STYLE 000

Part IV Further Applications: Argument
and Literature 
000

13 ARGUMENT AND LITERATURE 000
Finding and Analyzing Arguments in Literature 000
Writing Arguments about Literature 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Literature for Analysis 000
Poem / Taylor Mali / Totally Like Whatever, You Know? 000
Poem / Robert Frost / Mending Wall 000
Story / Ursula K. Le Guin / The Ones Who Walk Away
  from Omelas 000

SYNTHESIS OF CHAPTERS 1–13: SUMMARY CHARTS 000
• TRACE: The Rhetorical Situation 000
• The Process 000
• The Toulmin Model 000
• Types of Claims 000
• Rogerian Argument 000
• Types of Proof and Tests of Validity 000
• Logical Fallacies 000

Part V The Reader 000

Introduction to “The Reader”: Reading and Writing About Issue Areas 000
Purpose of “The Reader” 000
How to Use “The Reader” 000
Section 1 Families and Personal Relationships 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF THE TRADITIONAL
AMERICAN FAMILY? HOW IS THE FAMILY
BEING REDEFINED? 000
Sarah Yoest Pederson / A Family of a Different Feather 000
Lorraine Ali / The Curious Lives of Surrogates 000
Margaret Rock / Till Tech Do Us Part 000
B. WHAT CAUSES PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS TO SUCCEED
OR FAIL? 000
Robert Weiss / Unmasking the Neurobiology of Love 000
Christine Hassler / Digital Dating: Desperation or Necessity? 000
Anita Jain / Is Arranged Marriage Really Any Worse Than Craigslist? 000
John Yemma / Millennial Generation: What’s Love Got to Do With It? 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Families and
  Personal Relationships 000
Section 2 Modern Technology 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. HOW ARE ONLINE TECHNOLOGIES CHANGING THE WAY
WE LIVE? 000
Nicholas Carr / Is Google Making Us Stupid? 000
Evgeny Morozov / Are Smart Gadgets Making Us Dumb?
Scott Steinberg / How Video Games Can Make You Smarter
Reading Images: Ways of Reading 000
Matthew Kirschenbaum / How Reading is Being Reimagined 000
B. HOW IS TECHNOLOGY CHANGING OUR DEFINITION OF WHAT IT MEANS TO BE HUMAN? 000
Ray Kurzweil / Our Bodies, Our Technologies 000
Peggy Orenstein / Your Gamete, Myself 000
Kathleen Craig / Making a Living in Second Life 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Modern Technology 000
Section 3 Education and Learning 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. WHAT ARE THE KEY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING HIGHER EDUCATION? 000
Tressie MacMillan Cottom, “Redefining the ‘Typical’ College Student” (new)
Scott Jaschik / Getting Out of Grading 000
Editorial Board, Daily Californian / Making College Affordable 000
Kevin Carey / College Consumerism Run Amok 000
B. WHAT ROLE SHOULD TECHNOLOGY PLAY IN EDUCATION? 000
Zach Miners / Twitter Goes to College 000
Sarah Perez / Social Network Profile Costs Woman
 College Degree 000
Mira Jacob / The Great Baby Einstein Scam 000
Kerry Soper / RateMyProfessorsAppearance.com 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About
 Education and School 000
Section 4 Race, Culture, and Identity 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. HOW IMPORTANT IS RACE TO AMERICAN IDENTITY? 000
Emma Daly / DNA Test Gives Students Ethnic Shocks 000
READING IMAGES: Racial Role Reversal in William
 Shakespeare’s Othello 000
Martin Luther King Jr. / I Have a Dream 000
K. A. Dilday / Go Back to Black 000
B. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY DEPEND ON ETHNIC AFFILIATION? 000
Mychal Denzel Smith / To Be Young and Black in America 000
Dorinne K. Kondo / On Being a Conceptual Anomaly 000
Katie Halper / Digging for Roots at Secular Camp 000
Carlos Lozada / What Makes Me Hispanic  000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Race,
 Culture, and Identity 000
Section 5 The Environment and Sustainability 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. HOW CAN WE CREATE A MORE SUSTAINABLE CULTURE OF EATING? 000
Lisa Hamilton / Unconventional Farmers; Let Them Eat Meat 000
James McWilliams / The Green Monster 000
Josh Viertel, The Soul of Slow Food 000
Martha Rosenberg, “Is Animal Treatment on Farms Our Business? 000
B. HOW CAN WE RESOLVE THE ECONOMY VERSUS ENVIRONMENT DEBATE? 000
Ramit Plushnick-Masti / Descendants of Slaves in East Texas Hold Out Against Luminant’s Coal Mining Plans 000
Reading Images: Coal Mining and the Environment 000
Stuart Price / Carving Up the Congo 000
Reading Images: The Rain Forest 000
Brian Wingfield / For Job Market, Green Means Growth 000
Bill Carter / The Hidden Costs of Going Green 000
Reading Images: “Near-Zero Energy Home” Advertisement 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Issues
of the Environment and Sustainability 000
Section 6 Immigration 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. HOW SHOULD WE RESPOND TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM
OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION? 000
Marc Cooper / Exodus 000
Peter Wilby / The Right to Sell Labor 000
Angela Maria Kelley / The Changing Face of Immigration in America 000
Jake and Calvin Ratana / Dispelling the Myth of the Model Minority 000
B. DO GOOD FENCES MAKE GOOD NEIGHBORS WHEN DEFINING NATIONAL BORDERS? 000
Jonah Goldberg / To Wall or Not to Wall 000
David Aaronovitch / It’s Not Immigrations We Fear, It’s Change 000
Reading Images: What Is American? 000
Miguel Bustillo / Town Against the Wall 000
Section 7 War and Peace 000
The Issues 000
Exploring Online Argument 000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. IS WAR INEVITABLE? HOW DOES WAR BECOME INTEGRAL
TO SOCIETY? 000
William James / The Moral Equivalent of War 000
Reading Images: War Memorials and Martial Character 000
Margaret Mead / Warfare: An Invention—Not a Biological Necessity 000
Reading Images: Child Soldiers 000
David Goodman / A Few Good Kids? 000
B. HOW DO PEOPLE JUSTIFY WAR? 000
Noah Charles Pierce / Iraq War Poems 000
Frank Deford / Sweetness and Light 000
Haim Watzman / When You Have to Shoot First 000
Credits 000
Subject Index 000
Author-Title Index 000

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Preface

PREFACE PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs to coexistcooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to both MLA and APA style.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper; which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing; and the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary charts at the end of the rhetoric section present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 124 different readings in the rhetoric section and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Twelve of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
  • New five-part organization creates clearer assignment sequences, more immediate application of theory, and more flexibility for instructors. The three chapters on the research paper now follow the three chapters on argument theory, which encourages the use of theory in writing the research paper. The stand-alone chapters on Rogerian argument and argument and literature appear in Part Four and can be taught at any point in the course.
  • Improved explanations, clearer assignments, and new examples of the exploratory argument paper and the Rogerian argument paper appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Revised and improved assignments and assignment sequences that have been classroom-tested repeatedly appear at the end of every chapter. Less productive assignments have been deleted.
  • Earlier and more complete information on incorporating and documenting sources, and using electronic sources in particular, appear in Chapters 4 and 11.
  • Information on how to evaluate online sources has been added to the research section of Chapter 9.
  • More than half (65) of the 124 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths (57) of the 75 essays in "The Reader" are new.
  • Four new issue areas explore issues associated with the family, computers, race and culture, and genetic engineering.
  • Thirteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of three to seven essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "How Do Men's and Women's Ideas about Themselves Influence the Roles They Play in Their Families?" "What Are Some Variations on the Traditional Family? How Effective Are These Variations?" "What Can Be Done to Improve Schools?" "How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?" "Do Violent Video Games and Books Cause Young People to Commit Crime?" "How Are Computers Changing the Culture?" "How Are Computers Changing Their Users?" "How Are Computers Changing Education?" "How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?" "How Close Has America Come to Achieving Racial Equality?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Agriculture?" "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Animals?" and "To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Humans?"
  • Four new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and three new Rogerian argument papers, including a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
  • New examples of summary and response appear in Chapter 3.
  • More immediate connections between theory and practice are now included in Chapters 5, 6, and 7; in them, new assignments teach students to use the Toulmin model, the claim questions, and the proofs to generate material for argument papers.
  • Streamlined Chapters 8, 9,10 now function as one long assignment that culminates in the researched position paper.
ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in a more preferred order to supplement their own course organization.

Part One: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument in Chapter 1, helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument in Chapter 2, and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

Part Two: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument in Chapter 5, explains the types of claims and purposes for argument in Chapter 6, and presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity in Chapter 7. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis and the position paper based on "'The Reader."

Part Three: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience in Chapter 8, to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials in Chapter 9, and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper in Chapter 10. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. An Appendix to Chapter 10 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

Part Four: Further Applications: Rogerian Argument/Argument and Literature. This part explains Rogerian argument in Chapter 11 as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences. Chapter 12 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Writing assignments include Rogerian argument papers and papers about argument and literature. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 11 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

Part Five: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, computers, race and culture in America, genetic engineering, and social responsibility. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

In preparing the Instructor's Manual, my co-contributors and I have included chapter-by-chapter suggestions for using the book in both the traditional and the computer classroom. We have also included sample syllabi. Three instructors have written day-by-day teaching journals, in which they detail how they worked with this book in class and how the students responded. Also included in the manual are strategies for teaching students to use electronic databases, the Internet, and other resources for conducting online and library research. Another chapter suggests how student argument papers can be developed with the help of tutors in a writing center and by online MOOs and chat groups. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

A Companion Website for Perspectives on Argument can be accessed at . Beth Break is the author of this site.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My greatest debt is to my husband, James A. Wood, who has also taught and written about argument. He helped me work out my approach to argument by listening to me, by discussing my ideas, and by contributing ideas of his own. The process renewed my faith in peer groups and writing conferences. Most writers, I am convinced, profit from talking through their ideas with someone else. I was lucky to find someone so knowledgeable and generous with his time and insights.

I also owe a debt to the first-year English program at The University of Texas at Arlington. When I joined the department a few years ago, I found myself caught up in the ideas and controversies of this program. It provided me with much of the interest and motivation to write this book.

For the past several years, I have trained the graduate teaching assistants in our department who teach argument. An exceptionally alert group of these students volunteered to meet with me and recommend revisions for this third edition. They include Nicole Siek, Christine Flynn Cavanaugh, Vera Csorvasi, Martha Villagomez, Barbara Saurer, Sara Latham, Vannetta Causey, Donna Brown, Kody Lightfoot, Beth Brunk, and Chris Murray Graduate students, many of whom are now faculty members elsewhere, who have contributed recommendations for revisions in earlier editions and that remain a part of the third edition include Leslie Snow, Samantha Masterton, Lynn Atkinson, J. T. Martin, Kimberly Ellison, Corri Wells, Steve Harding, Barbara Chiarello, Collin G. Brooke, Tracy Bessire, Cheryl Brown, Matthew Levy, Alan Taylor, and Deborah Reese. I hope they will be pleased when they see that I have followed many of their suggestions for improvement. Many other graduate teaching assistants in our program have also taught with this book and have made useful recommendations and suggestions. I am grateful to them for their insight and enthusiasm.

I am also indebted to other colleagues and friends who have helped me with this book. The late James Kinneavy is the originator of the exploratory paper as it is taught in this book. Audrey Wick, Director of First Year English at our university and a seasoned teacher of argument, has provided me with much counsel and advice, including one of her favorite class projects, the literary debate that appears at the end of Chapter 12 on argument and literature. My colleague Tim Morris helped me think through some of the ideas in Chapter 12, and he provided me with many excellent examples of poems and other literary works that make arguments. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Nicole Siek and Sara Latham, who joined me in reading and voting on all of the new essays in the third edition. I have only included those that survived our joint scrutiny. Christine Flynn Cavanaugh helped locate examples of online research and made recommendations for evaluating such material. Beth Brunk, Corri Wells, Steve Newton, Deborah Reese, Brad McAdon, Samantha Masterton, and Leslie Snow have all either provided chapters or have co-authored chapters in the Instructor's Manual. Beth Brunk formatted and typed it. It has been a constant pleasure to work with these bright, energetic, and creative colleagues, and I am grateful to all of them for the contributions they have made to this third edition.

I wish I had the space to acknowledge by name the many students from argument classes, including my own, who read the first and second editions and made recommendations for this third edition. Some of them also contributed their own essays to be used as examples, and their names appear on their work. I paid particularly close attention to these student's comments, and I know their suggestions and contributions have made this a better book for other argument students throughout the country.

At Prentice Hall, my greatest debt is to Phil Miller, President, Humanities and Social Sciences, who got me started with this project. I also thank Vivian Garcia, Assistant Development Editor, who was immensely helpful throughout the project, and Leah Jewell, editor in chief. These individuals provided excellent help with all of the various stages of writing and final editing. Thanks also to Brandy Dawson, Marketing Manager, who has always encouraged me along the way. Shelly Kupperman, Senior Production Editor, did her usual impressive and conscientious job of seeing the book through all phases of production. Bruce Emmer and Diane Garvey Nesin provided outstanding editorial suggestions. Fred Courtright obtained the permissions for this edition. I have felt fortunate to work with such conscientious, reliable, and capable professionals.

I am also indebted to John Schaeffer and the faculty of Blinn College who volunteered suggestions for revisions—and I was able to incorporate all of them. Bob Esch at the University of Texas at El Paso has been generous with his comments and observations, and he has also sent me suggestions for essays for this third edition. I also want to acknowledge the many instructors and students around the country who have e-mailed observations and suggestions for improvement. It a special treat to receive e-mail from people who are using the book and have ideas for improving it.

Other colleagues around the country provided additional ideas and recommended changes that have helped improve the first, second, and third editions. They include Margaret W. Batschelet, University of Texas at San Antonio; Linda D. Bensel-Meyers, University of Tennessee; Gregory Clark, Brigham Young University; Dan Damesville, Tallahassee Community College; Alexander Friedlander, Drexel University; William S. Hockman, University of Southern Colorado; James Kinneavy, University of Texas at Austin; Elizabeth Metzger, University of South Florida; Margaret Dietz Meyer, Ithaca College; Susan Padgett, North Lake College; Randall L. Popken, Tarleton State University; William E. Sheidley, United States Air Force Academy; Diane M. Thiel, Florida International University; Jennifer Welsh, University of Southern California; Shannon Martin, Elizabethtown Community College; Keith Rhodes, Northwest Missouri State University; Kim Donehower, University of Maryland; Lynce Lewis Gaillet, Georgia State University; Carol David, Iowa State University; and Sue Preslar, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. I am grateful to them for the time and care they took reviewing the manuscript.

Finally, I thank all of you who use this book. I would like to hear about your experiences with it, and I am especially interested in your ideas for improving the chapters and readings. My e-mail address is .

This book has been a genuinely collaborative effort, and I expect that it will continue to be. I hope students will profit from the example and learn to draw on the expertise of their instructors and classmates to help them write their papers. Most writing is more fun and more successful when it is, at least partly, a social process.

N.V.W

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Introduction

PURPOSE

The most important purpose of Perspectives on Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.

A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are. sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs tocoexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Both instructors and students who pick up Perspectives on Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.

  • Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader."
  • Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication styles are presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Explanations of the elements and structure of argument include the Toulmin model of argument, the classical modes of appeal, the traditional categories of claims derived from classical stasis theory, and the rhetorical situation. Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing.
  • Audience analysis includes the concepts of the familiar and the unfamiliar audience as well as Chaim Perelman's concept of the universal audience.
  • Productive invention strategies help students develop ideas for papers.
  • Library and online research is presented as a creative activity that students are invited to enjoy. Workable strategies for research and note taking are provided along with criteria for evaluating all types of sources, including those found online. Students are taught to document researched argument papers according to the most up-to-date MLA and APA styles.
  • Exercises, class projects, and writing assignments at the ends of the chapters invite individual, small group, and whole class participation. Collaborative exercises encourage small groups of students to engage in critical thinking, and whole class projects invite students to participate in activities that require an understanding of argument. Classroom-tested writing assignments include the exploratory paper, which teaches students to explore an issue from several different perspectives; the position paper based on "The Reader," which teaches students to incorporate readily available source material from "The Reader" in their first position paper; the Rogerian argument paper, which teaches students an alternative strategy that relies on establishing common ground with the audience; and the researched position paper, which teaches students to locate outside research, evaluate it, and use it to develop an issue of their own choosing. Examples of student papers are provided for each major type of paper. The writing assignments in this book are models for assignments that students are likely to encounter in their other classes.
  • Summary Charts at the end of "The Rhetoric" present the main points of argument in a handy format. They also integrate the reading and writing processes for argument by placing strategies for both side by side and showing the interconnections.
  • A total of 108 different readings in "The Rhetoric" and "The Reader" provide students with multiple perspectives on the many issues presented throughout the book. Eleven of these readings are argument papers written by students.
  • The readings in "The Reader" are clustered under eighteen subissues that are related to the seven major general issue areas that organize "The Reader." This helps students focus and narrow broad issues. Furthermore, the readings in each subissue group "talk" to each other, and questions invite students to join the conversation.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • Two new chapters have been added:

    Chapter 8, "The Fallacies or Pseudoproofs," is an expanded version of the material about fallacies that previously appeared in Chapter 7, "The Types of Proof," now itself a more manageable length. The new Chapter 8 teaches students not only to recognize fallacies but also to evaluate the support and eliminate the fallacies in their own argument.

    Chapter 13, "Visual and Oral Argument," teaches students to analyze the argument they see and hear every day.
    • A color portfolio of ten visual arguments, accompanied by Questions for Discussion and Questions for Writing, provides students with opportunities to practice analyzing visual argument.
    • Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech, "I Have a Dream," provides students with an opportunity to practice analyzing oral argument. It is accompanied by a Web site address that enables students to listen to the speech as it was first delivered.
  • WHERE IS IT? Major Writing Assignments and Sample Papers by Students appears on the inside front cover of the book to help students locate frequently visited pages quickly.
  • Improved organization: Rogerian argument is now taught before the researched position paper so that students may include Rogerian elements in the research paper as one possible strategy.
  • A worksheet and additional explanations to help students organize and write an exploratory paper are added to Chapter 4.
  • Extended information and examples of plagiarism in Chapters 4 and 12 teach students how to avoid it.
  • Two new examples of student writing provide models for an issue proposal and a Rogerian response paper.
  • New essays for analysis have been added to Chapters 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, and 14.
  • Recent updates on MLA and APA style along with new examples of how to cite electronic sources appear in the Appendix to Chapter 12.
  • More than half (57) of the 108 essays in the book are new. Three-fourths of the essays in "The Reader" are new, and one-third of the essays in "The Rhetoric" are new.
  • Three new issue areas in "The Reader" explore issues associated with freedom, the future, and war and peace.
  • Fifteen new issue questions, each accompanied by sets of related essays that provide different perspectives on the questions, appear in "The Reader." These questions include, "What Is the Status of the Traditional American Family? How Far Are We Willing to Go to Find Alternatives?" "What Are the Benefits and Pitfalls of Being Married?" "What Creates Successful Relationships? What Causes Them to Fail?" "What Should Colleges and Universities Teach? Is There Anything They Should Not Teach?" "What Helps Students Learn and Succeed in College? What Hinders Them?" "To What Extent Should Individuals Allow Their Cultural Heritage to Be Assimilated?" "How Rigorously Should We Protect Our Civil Liberties?" "How Can We Balance Security Against Privacy in a Technological Age?" "How Does Profiling Threaten Civil Liberties?" "What Are Some Possible Issues for the Future?" "What Might Affect the Future of Human Beings?" "What Might Affect the Future of the Planet?" "Is War Inevitable?" "How Do People Justify War?" "What Might Help Establish Peace?"
  • Questions to Consider Before You Read now appear at the beginning of each issue question in "The Reader" to help students access their background knowledge.
  • Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research are now provided for each issue area in "The Reader" to guide students to possible research sites.

ORGANIZATION

The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in an order they prefer to supplement their own course organization.

PART ONE: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument, in Chapter 1; helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument, in Chapter 2; and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument, in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.

PART TWO: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument, in Chapter 5; explains the types of claims and purposes for argument, in Chapter 6; presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity, in Chapter 7; identifies the fallacies and teaches students to use reliable support in their own writing, in Chapter 8; and explains Rogerian argument as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences in Chapter 9. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis, the position paper based on "The Reader," and Rogerian argument papers. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 9 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.

PART THREE: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience, in Chapter 10; to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials, in Chapter 11; and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper, in Chapter 12. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 11 and 12. An Appendix to Chapter 12 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.

PART FOUR: Further Applications: Visual and Oral Argument/Argument and Literature. Chapter 13 teaches students to extend and apply in new ways what they have learned about argument to the analysis and critique of visual and spoken argument as they encounter it in all parts of their lives. Chapter 14 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Assignments include creating a visual argument, creating an oral argument, and writing papers about argument and literature.

PART FIVE: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, marriages, and relationships; education; crime and the treatment of criminals; race, culture, and identity; freedom; the future; and war and peace. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.

THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE

My co-contributors and I have included five chapters in the Instructor's Manual, three of them new, that provide syllabi, day-by-day teaching journals, and handouts to facilitate classroom management in five different types of argument classes that use Perspectives on Argument as the primary textbook. Since these five classes and syllabi have been classroom tested repeatedly, they may be followed or changed and adapted with confidence. One class follows the textbook closely, another employs a considerable amount of student discussion of issues, a third includes a number of effective ways for teaching visual argument, a fourth describes an argument class that can be taught in a computer classroom, and the fifth describes a class that can be taught online as a distance education class.

Another chapter in the manual provides descriptions of each chapter's contents and the exercises that accompany them. Instructors can save themselves considerable time by reading these descriptions before they read the chapters themselves. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.

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