Perspectives on Argument / Edition 2

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Overview

This combination rhetoric/reader helps readers develop strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help the reader argue clearly and convincingly. It teaches them to identify and develop arguments, to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, to analyze an audience, to seek common ground, and to use a wide, realistic range of techniques to write argument papers that express their individual views and original perspectives on modern issues.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136245940
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 8/28/1997
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 704
  • Product dimensions: 6.92 (w) x 9.18 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

Part I: Engaging with Argument for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Images

Chapter 1: A Perspective on Argument

What Is Your Current Perspective on Argument?

A Definition of Argument

Recognizing Traditional and Consensual

Argument

Recognizing Visual Argument

Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best?

Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail?

Distinguish between Ethical and Unethical Argument

Engaging with Issues

How Should You Engage with Issues?

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

AUDREY ROCK-RICHARDSON / Pay Your Own Way! (Then Thank Mom)

ABBY ELLIN / The Laptop Ate My Attention Span

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Barbie Controversy

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. Blessed Art Thou

Image 2. The Tide Is High

Chapter 2: Identifying Your Preferred Argument Style

The Adversarial and Consensual Styles of Argument

Individual Styles of Argument

Influence of Background, Experience, and Role Models

Influence of Gender

Influence of Culture

A Study of the Influence of Students’ Gender and Culture on Their Argument Style

Influence of Nationality

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

SHIRLEE TAYLOR HAIZLIP / We Knew What Glory Was

RANDALL HAMUD / We’re Fighting Terror, But Killing Freedom

CHANG-LIN TIEN / A View from Berkeley

ERNEST MARTINEZ / Giving People a Second Chance

SUZETTE BREWER / One of Our Own: Training Native Teachers for the 21st Century

JUDY BRADY / Why I Want a Wife

REIKO HATSUMI / A Simple “Hai” Won’t Do

Images for Analysis: Five Advertisements

Image 1. Mary J. Blige and Her New Car

Image 2. Young Man Doing His Banking

Image 3. If I Stay on the Rez

Image 4. Blood Donor

Image 5. Cell Phones in Africa

Chapter 3: The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context

Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument

Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You View a Visual Image That Makes an Argument

Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write Argument

Conducting an Audience Analysis

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

CHRIS PIPER / “A” Is for “Absent”

BRENT STAPLES / Driving Down the Highway, Mourning the Death of American Radio

PETER APPLEBOME / The Man behind Rosa Parks

NEIL A. LEWIS / In the Shadow of Horror, SS Guardians Relax and Frolic

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. Rosa Parks Rides in the Front of the Bus

Image 2. Auschwitz victims of Medical Experiments

Image 3. Camp Officials at Leisure

Chapter 4: Reading, Thinking, and Writing about Issues

Getting Started on a Writing Assignment

Read to Develop Arguments for Your Paper

Take Notes and Avoid Plagiarism

Write Your Paper, Read It, Think about It, and Revise It

Organize Your Own Process for Reading, Thinking, and Writing about Issues

Practice Your Process by Writing These Papers

Submit Your Paper for Peer Review

Expressing Multiple Perspectives through Visual Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

JERRY ADLER / The Race for Survival

GINA KOLATA / Psst! Ask for Donor 1913

LANCE MORROW / The Year That Changed Everything

JEFF D. OPDYKE / Kids and Chores: All Work and No Pay?

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Controversy Behind Barbie

MAJOR GENERAL ROBERT SCALES (RET.) / Forget Flag Burning

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. Sperm Donors

Image 2. Three Perspectives on the American Flag as a Symbol

Part II: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Images

Chapter 5: The Essential Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model

The Outcomes of Argument: Probability versus Certainty

The Parts of an Argument According to the Toulmin Model

Value of the Toulmin Model for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. Sense of Community, Advertisement

Image 2. “The Price of Oranges” Cartoon

Essays for Analysis:

VIRGINIA HEFFERNAN / Calling Blue: And on That Farm He Had a Cellphone

MOHAMED T. DIABY JR. / Toulmin Analysis of “The Price of Oranges” Cartoon

RICHARD D. RIEKE AND MALCOLM O. SILLARS / American Value Systems

Chapter 6: Types of Claims

Getting a Sense of the Purpose and Parts of an Argument

Five Types of Claims

Claims and Argument in Real Life

Value of the Claims Types and the Claim Questions for Reading, Viewing, and Writing Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

HAYA EL NASSER / Fewer Call Themselves Multiracial

EDITORIAL / Brother, Can You Spare a Word?

NICHOLAS BAKALAR / Nicotine Addiction Is Quick in Youths, Research Finds

MORTIMER B. ZUCKERMAN / What Sets Us Apart

KURT WIESENFELD / Making the Grade

MICHAEL CRICHTON / Let’s Stop Scaring Ourselves

JIM HOLT / Unintelligent Design

BARRY SCHWARTZ / When It’s All Too Much

DENISE GRADY / War Casualty Total Jumps, But Is Revised after Article

IAN URGINA / No Need to Stew: A Few Tips to Cope with Life’s Annoyances

PEG TYRE / Bringing Up Adultolescents

Images for Analysis:

Image 1: War Casualties

Image 2: Lunch at the United States—Mexico Border Fence

Image 3: The Rhône Glacier

Image 4. Liberate Your Cool, Advertisement

Image 5: Corn Power

Chapter 7: Types of Proof

The Traditional Categories of Proof

Types of Logical Proof: Logos

Proof That Builds Credibility: Ethos

Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated Through Language and Style

Value of the Proofs for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

ANNA QUINDLEN / Undocumented, Indispensable

JEFFREY SACHS / Sharing the Wealth

THOMAS JEFFERSON / The Declaration of Independence

Images for Analysis:

Image 1: Meet the Philip Morris Generation, Advertisement

Image 2: Helping Out

Image 3: Who Has the Money, Chart

Image 4: Malnutrition in the Congo

Image 5: Kenyan Refugees

Chapter 8: The Fallacies and Ethical Argument

Fallacies in Logic

Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos

Emotional Fallacies

Ethics and Morality in Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Images for Analysis: Three Advertisements

Image 1: A Vitamins Ad

Image 2: A Body Spray Ad

Image 3: An Ad for a Blog

Essay for Analysis:

RUSH LIMBAUGH / The Latest from the Feminist “Front”

KELLY DICKERSON / Minor Problems?

Essay with Images for Analysis:

ABRAHAM LINCOLN / The Gettysburg Address

Image 1. President Lincoln amid the Crowd at Gettysburg Battlefield

Image 2. The Soldiers’ National Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Chapter 9: Visual Argument

Recognizing Visual Argument

Why Visual Argument Is Convincing: Eight Special Features

Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual Argument

Bias in Visual Argument

Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument

Special Features of Visual Argument Employed in the Cartoon

Argument Theory Used for Analysis of the Cartoon

Add Visual Argument to Support Written Argument

Create Visual Arguments That Stand Alone

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. West Bank Barrier

Image 2. Crossing Over

Image 3. Coming Home to a Destroyed Neighborhood

Image 4. Mother and Child

Image 5. LeBron James

Image 6. At Home Outdoors

Multiple Visual Perspectives on an Issue for Analysis:

Image 1. Adam and God

Image 2. Play Ball

Image 3. Robot with a Grappler

Image 4. Missionary and Child

Cartoon: "Get Out!” for Analysis

Visual Arguments Created by Students:

Student Visual Argument 1. Untitled Artwork

Student Visual Argument 2. Never Again

Analytical Essay on Never Again

Student Visual Argument 3. Farm Town News

Analytical Essay on Farm Town News

Chapter 10: Rogerian Argument and Common Ground

Achieving Common Ground in Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument as Strategy

Writing Rogerian Argument

Variations of Rogerian Argument

Unethical and Ethical Rogerian Argument

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rogerian Argument

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Essays for Analysis:

EDWARD O. WILSON / The Future of Life

ANGELA A. BOATWRIGHT / Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option?

ERIC HARTMAN / Let Those Who Ride Decide!

ELIZABETH NABHAN / Dear Boss

Images for Analysis:

Image 1. Hands Across the World

Image 2. Bridging the Gap

Image 3. Bipartisanship and What It Can Achieve

Appendix to Chapter 10: Review and Synthesis of the Strategies for Reading, Writing, and Argument Viewing–The Argument Analysis Paper

Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper

Writing the Argument Analysis Paper

Rhetorical Situation for “A Call to Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters

Letters for Analysis

A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. / Letter from Birmingham Jail

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Part III: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument

Chapter 11: The Research Paper: Clarifying Purpose and Understanding the Audience

Understanding the Assignment and Getting Started

Writing a Claim and Clarifying Your Purpose

Some Preliminary Questions to Help You Develop Your Claim

Developing a Research Plan

Understanding the Audience

Analyzing Your Class as Your Audience

Constructing an Unfamiliar Audience

Using Information about Your Audience

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Chapter 12: The Research Paper: Research and Invention

Get Organized for Research

Locating Sources for Research

Evaluate Both Print and Online Sources

Create a Bibliography

Survey, Skim, and Read Selectively

Develop a System for Taking and Organizing Your Notes

Two Invention Strategies to Help You Think Creatively about Your Research and Expand Your Own Ideas

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Add Visual Material to the Annotated Bibliography

EXAMPLE IMAGE / Welcome Clones of 2012!

Annotated Bibliography

ANGELA A. BOATWRIGHT / Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 13: The Research Paper: Organizing, Writing, and Revising

Classical Organization of Arguments

Classical and Modern Organization

Use Organizational Patterns to Help You Think and Organize

Incorporate Ideas from Your Exploratory Paper

How to Match Patterns and Support to Claims

Outline Your Paper and Cross-Reference Your Notes

Incorporating Research into Your First Draft

Make Revisions and Prepare the Final Copy

Present Your Paper Orally to the Class

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Appendix to Chapter 13: How to Document Sources Using

MLA and APA Styles

MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT

MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE “WORKS CITED” PAGE

MLA: STUDENT PAPER IN MLA STYLE

PRISNA VIRASIN / The Big Barbie Controversy

QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, MLA STYLE

APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT

APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE “REFERENCES” PAGE

APA: STUDENT PAPER IN APA STYLE

DARRELL D. GREER / Alaskan Wolf Management

QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, APA STYLE

Part IV: Further Applications: Argument and Literature

Chapter 14: Argument and Literature

Finding and Analyzing Arguments in Literature

Writing Arguments about Literature

Review Questions

Exercises and Activities

Literature for Analysis:

Poem / LANGSTON HUGHES / Theme for English B

Poem / TAYLOR MALI / Totally Like Whatever, You Know?

Poem / ROBERT FROST / Mending Wall

Short Story / URSULA K. LE GUIN / The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

Graphic Novel / ART SPIEGELMAN / Maus: A Survivor’s Tale

Synthesis of Chapters 1-14: Summary Charts

Part V: The Reader

Introduction to “The Reader”: Reading and Writing about Issue Areas

Purpose of “The Reader”

How to Use “The Reader”

Section 1: Issues Concerning Families and Personal Relationships

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Films and Literature Related to Families and Personal Relationships

The Rhetorical Situation

A. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF THE TRADITIONAL AMERICAN FAMILY? HOW IS THE FAMILY

BEING REDEFINED?

MEGAN KELSO / Watergate Sue: Epilogue

SARAH YOEST PEDERSON / A Family of a Different Feather

LISA TAKEUCHI CULLEN AND LEV GROSSMAN / Fatherhood 2.0

HEATHER CABOT / Loving Late Motherhood

SAMMY CAHN AND JIMMY VAN HEUSEN / “Love and Marriage”

B. WHAT CAUSES PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS TO SUCCEED OR FAIL?

STEVEN PINKER / Crazy Love

READING IMAGES: Movie Madness

BELINDA LUSCOMBE / Why We Flirt

ANITA JAIN / Is Arranged Marriage Really Any Worse Than Craigslist?

JENNIFER 8 LEE / The Man Date

JOHN TIERNEY / Hitting It Off, Thanks to Algorithms of Love

Questions to Help You Think and Write About Families and Personal Relationships

Section 2: Issues Concerning Modern Technology

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Films and Literature Related to Modern Technology

The Rhetorical Situation

A. HOW ARE WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES CHANGING THE WAY WE LIVE AND OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD?

BBC NEWS STAFF / “Amateur Culture” Set to Explode

ANDREW KEEN / Introduction, The Cult of the Amateur

READING IMAGES: DICK LOCHER / “Today’s Technology”

KURT SOLLER / Facebook: Why I Love It . . .

SARAH KLIFF / Facebook: Why I Hate It . . .

ASHLEY JONES / YouTube’s Legal Issues Grow

EDWARD TENNER / Searching for Dummies

READING IMAGES: Ways of Reading

MATTHEW KIRSCHENBAUM / How Reading Is Being Reimagined

B. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS AND DANGERS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING BOTH FOR INDIVIDUALS AND FOR SOCIETY?

RAY KURZWEIL / Our Bodies, Our Technologies

JEREMY RIFKIN / Ultimate Therapy: Commercial Eugenics in the 21st Century

PEGGY ORENSTEIN / Your Gamete, Myself

Questions to Help You Think and Write About Modern Technology

Section 3: Issues Concerning Crime and the Treatment of Criminals

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Films and Literature Related to Crime and the Treatment of Criminals

The Rhetorical Situation

A. HOW SHOULD WE TREAT CONVICTED CRIMINALS?

JAMES GILLIGAN / Reflections from a Life Behind Bars: Build Colleges, Not Prisons

MARY WILTENBURG / Shakespeare Behind Bars: Hamlet

RAY QUINTANILLA / Dog Training in Women’s Prison

READING IMAGES: Methods of Execution

ROBERT TANNER / Studies Say Death Penalty Deters Crime

THE ECONOMIST STAFF / Revenge Begins to Seem Less Sweet

B. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE WITH YOUNG OFFENDERS?

ARISTOTLE / The Characteristics of Youth

CLAUDIA WALLIS / Too Young to Die

DANIEL R. WEINBERGER / A Brain Too Young for Good Judgment

WILLIAM GLABERSON / A Legal Debate in Guantánamo on Boy Fighters

ALAN FEUER / Out of Jail, Into Temptation: A Day in a Life

Questions to Help You Think and Write About Crime and the Treatment of Criminals

Section 4: Issues Concerning Race, Culture, and Identity

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Films and Literature Related to Race, Culture, and Identity

The Rhetorical Situation

A. HOW IMPORTANT IS RACE TO AMERICAN IDENTITY?

RICHARD DYER / The Matter of Whiteness

READING IMAGES: Racial Role Reversal in William Shakespeare’s Othello

EMMA DALY / DNA Test Gives Students Ethnic Shocks

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. / I Have a Dream

K. A. DILDAY / Go Back to Black

B. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY DEPEND ON ETHNIC AFFILIATION?

YAHLIN CHANG / Asian Identity Crisis

DORINNE K. KONDO / On Being a Conceptual Anomaly

KATIE HALPER / Digging for Roots at Secular Camp

RICHARD RODRIGUEZ / Surnames Reflect Changing Face of America

Questions to Help You Think and Write About Race, Culture, and Identity

Section 5: Issues Concerning the Environment

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Film and Literature Related to the Environment

The Rhetorical Situation

A. IS GLOBAL WARMING A PROBLEM, AND IF IT IS, WHAT

CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT?

AL GORE / Introduction, An Inconvenient Truth

TOM HARRIS / Al Gore, Global Warming, Inconvenient Truth: Scientists Respond to Gore’s Warning of Climate Catastrophe

GREGG EASTERBROOK / Some Convenient Truths

BRIAN CLARK / The Butterfly Effect and the Environment: How Tiny Actions Can Save the World

B. HOW CAN WE RESOLVE THE ECONOMY VERSUS ENVIRONMENT DEBATE?

GEORGE F. WILL / An Inconvenient Price

READING IMAGES: Coal Mining and the Environment

ERIC REECE / Moving Mountains: The Battle for Justice Comes to the Coal Fields of Appalachia

READING IMAGES: The Rain Forest

STUART PRICE / Carving Up the Congo

CLAIRE ANDRE AND MANUEL VELASQUEZ / Ethics and the Spotted Owl Controversy

BRIAN WINGFIELD / For Job Market, Green Means Growth

READING IMAGES: “Near-Zero Energy Home” Advertisement

Questions to Help You Think and Write About the Environment

Section 6: Issues Concerning Immigration

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Film and Literature Related to Immigration

The Rhetorical Situation

A. HOW SHOULD WE RESPOND TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION?

MARC COOPER / Exodus

DANIEL ALTMAN / Shattering Stereotypes about Immigrant Workers

PETER WILBY / The Right to Sell Labor

EDITORIAL, “SIGNS OF THE TIMES” / Migration: The Larger Picture

B. DO GOOD FENCES MAKE GOOD NEIGHBORS WHEN DEFINING NATIONAL BORDERS?

JONAH GOLDBERG / To Wall or Not to Wall

KEVIN G. HALL / Low-Tech Fence Cuts Down on Problems

STAFF WRITER, MCCLATCHY NEWSPAPERS / Most of Town’s Residents Say They Support Solution

READING IMAGES: What Is American?

MIGUEL BUSTILLO / Town Against the Wall

C. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY?

ARIAN CAMPO-FLORES / America’s Divide

JAE RAN KIM / The Great American Melting Pot?

LYNN AHRENS / The Great American Melting Pot

READING IMAGES: American Ideals

JAMES MONTAGUE / They Just Won’t Mix

Questions to Help You Think and Write About Immigration

Section 7: Issues Concerning War and Peace

The Issues

Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research

Films and Literature Related to War and Peace

The Rhetorical Situation

A. IS WAR INEVITABLE? HOW DOES WAR BECOME INTEGRAL TO SOCIETY?

WILLIAM JAMES / The Moral Equivalent of War

READING IMAGES: War Memorials and Martial Character

MARGARET MEAD / Warfare: An Invention–Not a Biological Necessity

CHRIS HEDGES / War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning

HAMZA HENDAWI / Iraqi Kids Play Make-Believe War Games

READING IMAGES: KHALID MOHAMMED / Seeking Shelter Where He Can Find It

JOAN RYAN / Army’s War Game Recruits Kids

B. HOW DO PEOPLE JUSTIFY WAR?

WILLIAM J. BENNETT / Why We Fight

GERARD F. POWERS / Our Moral Duty in Iraq

HAIM WATZMAN / When You Have To Shoot First

C. WHAT MIGHT HELP ESTABLISH PEACE?

RICHARD RHODES / Living with the Bomb

ROBERT HIRSCHFIELD / Battle Stories Bring Former Enemies Together

SUSAN NEIMAN / To Resist Hitler and Survive

MICHAEL WALZER / The Politics of Rescue

Questions to Help You Think and Write About War and Peace

Credits

Topic Index

Author-Title Index

Brief Contents:

Part I: Engaging with Argument for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Images

1 A Perspective on Argument

2 Identifying Your Preferred Argument Style

3 The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context

4 Reading, Thinking, and Writing About Issues

Part II: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Images

5 The Essential Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model

6 Types of Claims

7 Types of Proof

8 The Fallacies and Ethical Argument

9 Visual Argument

10 Rogerian Argument and Common Ground

Appendix to Chapter 10: Review and Synthesis of the Strategies

for Reading and Writing Argument

Part III: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument

11 The Research Paper: Clarifying Purpose and Understanding the Audience

12 The Research Paper: Research and Invention

13 The Research Paper: Organizing, Writing, and Revising

Appendix to Chapter 13: How to Document Sources Using MLA

and APA Styles

Part IV: Further Applications: Argument and Literature

14 Argument and Literature

Synthesis of Chapters 1—14: Summary Charts

Part V: The Reader

Section 1 Issues Concerning Families and Personal Relationships

Section 2 Issues Concerning Modern Technology

Section 3 Issues Concerning Crime and the Treatment of Criminals

Section 4 Issues Concerning Race, Culture, and Identity

Section 5 Issues Concerning the Environment

Section 6 Issues Concerning Immigration

Section 7 Issues Concerning War and Peace

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