Petroleum Production Systems / Edition 2

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Overview

The Definitive Guide to Petroleum Production Systems–Now Fully Updated With the Industry’s Most Valuable New Techniques

Petroleum Production Systems, Second Edition, is the comprehensive source for clear and fundamental methods for about modern petroleum production engineering practice. Written by four leading experts, it thoroughly introduces modern principles of petroleum production systems design and operation, fully considering the combined behavior of reservoirs, surface equipment, pipeline systems, and storage facilities. Long considered the definitive text for production engineers, this edition adds extensive new coverage of hydraulic fracturing, with emphasis on well productivity optimization. It presents new chapters on horizontal wells and well performance evaluation, including production data analysis and sand management.

This edition features

  • A structured approach spanning classical production engineering, well testing, production logging, artificial lift, and matrix and hydraulic fracture stimulation
  • Revisions throughout to reflect recent innovations and extensive feedback from both students and colleagues
  • Detailed coverage of modern best practices and their rationales
  • Unconventional oil and gas well design
  • Many new examples and problems
  • Detailed data sets for three characteristic reservoir types: an undersaturated oil reservoir, a saturated oil reservoir, and a gas reservoir
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137031580
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 10/12/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 752
  • Sales rank: 174,808
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael J. Economides is professor of engineering at the University of Houston. His work focuses on optimizing hydrocarbon production from reservoir to market. A leading energy analyst, he is editor-in-chief of Energy Tribune and the Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering.

A. Daniel Hill is professor in the Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University, holds the R.L. Whiting endowed chair, and is a Distinguished Member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE).

Christine Ehlig-Economides is professor in the Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University and holds the A.B. Stevens endowed chair. She is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering.

Ding Zhu, is associate professor in the Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University, holds the W.D. Von Gonten Faculty Fellowship, and is a Distinguished Member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE).

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Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

About the Authors xix

Chapter 1: The Role of Petroleum Production Engineering 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Components of the Petroleum Production System 2

1.3 Well Productivity and Production Engineering 11

1.4 Units and Conversions 15

References 18

Chapter 2: Production from Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Steady-State Well Performance 19

2.3 Transient Flow of Undersaturated Oil 24

2.4 Pseudosteady-State Flow 26

2.5 Wells Draining Irregular Patterns 30

2.6 Inflow Performance Relationship 34

2.7 Effects of Water Production, Relative Permeability 37

2.8 Summary of Single-Phase Oil Inflow Performance Relationships 39

References 39

Problems 39

Chapter 3: Production from Two-Phase Reservoirs 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Properties of Saturated Oil 42

3.3 Two-Phase Flow in a Reservoir 53

3.4 Oil Inflow Performance for a Two-Phase Reservoir 55

3.5 Generalized Vogel Inflow Performance 56

3.6 Fetkovich’s Approximation 57

References 58

Problems 58

Chapter 4: Production from Natural Gas Reservoirs 61

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Correlations and Useful Calculations for Natural Gases 66

4.3 Approximation of Gas Well Deliverability 76

4.4 Gas Well Deliverability for Non-Darcy Flow 79

4.5 Transient Flow of a Gas Well 84

References 91

Problems 93

Chapter 5: Production from Horizontal Wells 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Steady-State Well Performance 97

5.3 Pseudosteady-State Flow 103

5.4 Inflow Performance Relationship for Horizontal Gas Wells 114

5.5 Two-Phase Correlations for Horizontal Well Inflow 115

5.6 Multilateral Well Technology 116

References 117

Problems 119

Chapter 6: The Near-Wellbore Condition and Damage Characterization; Skin Effects 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Hawkins’ Formula 122

6.3 Skin Components for Vertical and Inclined Wells 126

6.4 Skin from Partial Completion and Well Deviation 128

6.5 Horizontal Well Damage Skin Effect 134

6.6 Well Completion Skin Factors 138

6.7 Formation Damage Mechanisms 151

6.8 Sources of Formation Damage During Well Operations 157

References 163

Problems 165

Chapter 7: Wellbore Flow Performance 167

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Single-Phase Flow of an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid 168

7.3 Single-Phase Flow of a Compressible, Newtonian Fluid 179

7.4 Multiphase Flow in Wells 184

References 214

Problems 215

Chapter 8: Flow in Horizontal Wellbores, Wellheads, and Gathering Systems 217

8.1 Introduction 217

8.2 Flow in Horizontal Pipes 217

8.3 Flow through Chokes 236

8.4 Surface Gathering Systems 247

8.5 Flow in Horizontal Wellbores 250

References 256

Problems 258

Chapter 9: Well Deliverability 261

9.1 Introduction 261

9.2 Combination of Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) and Vertical Flow Performance (VFP) 262

9.3 IPR and VFP of Two-Phase Reservoirs 268

9.4 IPR and VFP in Gas Reservoirs 270

Problems 274

Chapter 10: Forecast of Well Production 275

10.1 Introduction 275

10.2 Transient Production Rate Forecast 275

10.3 Material Balance for an Undersaturated Reservoir and Production Forecast Under Pseudosteady-State Conditions 277

10.4 The General Material Balance for Oil Reservoirs 281

10.5 Production Forecast from a Two-Phase Reservoir: Solution Gas Drive 286

10.6 Gas Material Balance and Forecast of Gas Well Performance 294

References 296

Problems 297

Chapter 11: Gas Lift 299

11.1 Introduction 299

11.2 Well Construction for Gas Lift 299

11.3 Continuous Gas-Lift Design 303

11.4 Unloading Wells with Multiple Gas-Lift Valves 310

11.5 Optimization of Gas-Lift Design 312

11.6 Gas-Lift Performance Curve 316

11.7 Gas-Lift Requirements versus Time 328

References 332

Problems 333

Chapter 12: Pump-Assisted Lift 335

12.1 Introduction 335

12.2 Positive-Displacement Pumps 338

12.3 Dynamic Displacement Pumps 354

12.4 Lifting Liquids in Gas Wells; Plunger Lift 359

References 362

Problems 362

Chapter 13: Well Performance Evaluation 365

13.1 Introduction 365

13.2 Open-Hole Formation Evaluation 366

13.3 Cased Hole Logs 368

13.4 Transient Well Analysis 387

References 438

Problems 439

Chapter 14: Matrix Acidizing: Acid/Rock Interactions 443

14.1 Introduction 443

14.2 Acid—Mineral Reaction Stoichiometry 446

14.3 Acid—Mineral Reaction Kinetics 453

14.4 Acid Transport to the Mineral Surface 460

14.5 Precipitation of Acid Reaction Products 461

References 464

Problems 466

Chapter 15: Sandstone Acidizing Design 469

15.1 Introduction 469

15.2 Acid Selection 470

15.3 Acid Volume and Injection Rate 472

15.4 Fluid Placement and Diversion 496

15.5 Preflush and Postflush Design 509

15.6 Acid Additives 512

15.7 Acidizing Treatment Operations 512

References 513

Problems 516

Chapter 16: Carbonate Acidizing Design 519

16.1 Introduction 519

16.2 Wormhole Formation and Growth 522

16.3 Wormhole Propagation Models 525

16.4 Matrix Acidizing Design for Carbonates 535

16.5 Acid Fracturing 541

16.6 Acidizing of Horizontal Wells 554

References 555

Problems 558

Chapter 17: Hydraulic Fracturing for Well Stimulation 559

17.1 Introduction 559

17.2 Length, Conductivity, and Equivalent Skin Effect 562

17.3 Optimal Fracture Geometry for Maximizing the Fractured Well Productivity 566

17.4 Fractured Well Behavior in Conventional Low-Permeability Reservoirs 574

17.5 The Effect of Non-Darcy Flow on Fractured Well Performance 579

17.6 Fractured Well Performance for Unconventional Tight Sand or Shale Reservoirs 585

17.7 Choke Effect for Transverse Hydraulic Fractures 592

References 594

Problems 597

Chapter 18: The Design and Execution of Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments 601

18.1 Introduction 601

18.2 The Fracturing of Reservoir Rock 602

18.3 Fracture Geometry 609

18.4 The Created Fracture Geometry and Net Pressure 616

18.5 Fracturing Fluids 635

18.6 Proppants and Fracture Conductivity 642

18.7 Fracture Diagnostics 646

18.8 Fracturing Horizontal Wells 651

References 655

Problems 657

Chapter 19: Sand Management 661

19.1 Introduction 661

19.2 Sand Flow Modeling 662

19.3 Sand Management 676

19.4 Sand Exclusion 677

19.5 Completion Failure Avoidance 698

References 699

Problems 702

Appendix A: 703

Appendix B: 705

Appendix C: 709

Index 711

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