Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Practice

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The Complete, Up-to-Date, Practical Guide to Modern Petroleum Reservoir Engineering

This is a complete, up-to-date guide to the practice of petroleum reservoir engineering, written by one of the world’s most experienced professionals. Dr. Nnaemeka Ezekwe covers topics ranging from basic to advanced, focuses on currently acceptable practices and modern techniques, and illuminates key concepts with realistic case histories drawn from decades of working on petroleum reservoirs worldwide.

Dr. Ezekwe begins by discussing the sources and applications of basic rock and fluid properties data. Next, he shows how to predict PVT properties of reservoir fluids from correlations and equations of state, and presents core concepts and techniques of reservoir engineering. Using case histories, he illustrates practical diagnostic analysis of reservoir performance, covers essentials of transient well test analysis, and presents leading secondary and enhanced oil recovery methods.

Readers will find practical coverage of experience-based procedures for geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and reservoir simulation. Dr. Ezekwe concludes by presenting a set of simple, practical principles for more effective management of petroleum reservoirs.

With Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Practice readers will learn to

• Use the general material balance equation for basic reservoir analysis

• Perform volumetric and graphical calculations of gas or oil reserves

• Analyze pressure transients tests of normal wells, hydraulically fractured wells, and naturally fractured reservoirs

• Apply waterflooding, gasflooding, and other secondary recovery methods

• Screen reservoirs for EOR processes, and implement pilot and field-wide EOR projects.

• Use practical procedures to build and characterize geologic models, and conduct reservoir simulation

• Develop reservoir management strategies based on practical principles

Throughout, Dr. Ezekwe combines thorough coverage of analytical calculations and reservoir modeling as powerful tools that can be applied together on most reservoir analyses. Each topic is presented concisely and is supported with copious examples and references. The result is an ideal handbook for practicing engineers, scientists, and managers—and a complete textbook for petroleum engineering students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137152834
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/24/2010
  • Pages: 770
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Nnaemeka Ezekwe holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical and petroleum engineering, and an MBA, all from the University of Kansas. For many years, he worked in several supervisory roles including manager of reservoir evaluation and development for Bechtel Petroleum Operations. As a senior petroleum engineer advisor for Pennzoil and later Devon Energy, he performed reservoir engineering analyses on many domestic and worldwide projects. Nnaemeka was an SPE Distinguished Lecturer in 2004–2005, during which he spoke on reservoir management strategies and practices to audiences in 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East, and North and South America. He has published numerous technical papers on chemical and petroleum engineering topics. Nnaemeka is a registered professional engineer in California and Texas.
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xxv

About the Author xxix

Chapter 1: Porosity of Reservoir Rocks 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Total Porosity and Effective Porosity 1

1.3 Sources of Porosity Data 3

1.4 Applications of Porosity Data 10

Nomenclature 12

Abbreviations 13

References 13

General Reading 14

Chapter 2: Permeability and Relative Permeability 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Sources of Permeability Data 16

2.3 Relative Permeability 23

2.4 Sources of Relative Permeability Data 25

2.5 Three-Phase Relative Permeability 32

2.6 Applications of Permeability and Relative Permeability Data 32

Nomenclature 33

Abbreviations 34

References 34

General Reading 37

Chapter 3: Reservoir Fluid Saturations 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Determination of Water Saturations 40

3.3 Determination of Reservoir Productive Intervals 48

Nomenclature 49

Abbreviations 50

References 50

General Reading 52

Chapter 4: Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Properties of Reservoir Fluids 53

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Phase Diagrams 53

4.3 Gas and Gas-Condensate Properties 63

4.4 Pseudo-critical Properties of Gas Mixtures 67

4.5 Wet Gas and Gas Condensate 70

4.6 Correlations for Gas Compressibility Factor 78

4.7 Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) 79

4.8 Gas Density 81

4.9 Gas Viscosity 82

4.10 Gas Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility 83

4.11 Correlations for Calculation of Oil PVT Properties 93

4.12 Correlations for Calculation of Water PVT Properties 103

Nomenclature 104

Subscripts 106

References 106

General Reading 108

Chapter 5: Reservoir Fluid Sampling and PVT Laboratory Measurements 111

5.1 Overview of Reservoir Fluid Sampling 111

5.2 Reservoir Type and State 116

5.3 Well Conditioning 119

5.4 Subsurface Sampling Methods and Tools 119

5.5 Wireline Formation Testers 121

5.6 PVT Laboratory Measurements 130

5.7 Applications of Laboratory PVT Measurements 134

Nomenclature 138

Subscripts 138

Abbreviations 139

References 139

General Reading 140

Appendix 5A: Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Black Oil Sample 142

5A.1 Reservoir Fluid Summary 142

5A.2 Calculated Analysis of Reservoir Fluid 143

5A.3 Pressure-Volume Properties at 212°F (Constant Composition Expansion) 144

5A.4 Differential Liberation at 212°F 145

5A.5 Gas Differentially Liberated at 212°F 146

5A.6 Viscosity Data at 212°F 147

5A.7 Comparison of Reservoir Oil Flash Liberation Tests 147

Appendix 5B: Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Gas Condensate Sample 148

5B.1 Summary of Reservoir Data and Surface Sampling Conditions 148

5B.2 Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Gas at 1140 psig and 92°F 150

5B.3 Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Liquid at 1140 psig and 92°F 151

5B.4 Composition of Reservoir Fluid (Calculated) 152

5B.5 Measured Saturation Pressures from Stepwise Recombinations at 267°F 152

5B.6 Pressure-Volume Properties of Reservoir Fluid at 267°F (or CCE) 153

5B.7 Depletion Study at 267°F: Hydrocarbon Analyses of Produced Wellstream (Mole %) 154

5B.8 Retrograde Condensation During Gas Depletion at 267°F 155

Chapter 6: PVT Properties Predictions from Equations of State 157

6.1 Historical Introduction to Equations of State (EOS) 157

6.2 van der Waals (vdW) EOS 158

6.3 Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS 159

6.4 Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS 162

6.5 Phase Equilibrium of Mixtures 162

6.6 Roots from Cubic EOS 164

6.7 Volume Translation 165

6.8 Two-Phase Flash Calculation 168

6.9 Bubble Point and Dew Point Pressure Calculations 170

6.10 Characterization of Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions 171

6.11 Phase Equilibrium Predictions with Equations of State 174

Nomenclature 178

Subscripts 179

Superscripts 179

Abbreviations 179

References 180

Chapter 7: The General Material Balance Equation 183

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Derivation of the General Material Balance Equation (GMBE) 183

7.3 The GMBE for Gas Reservoirs 187

7.4 Discussion on the Application of the GMBE 188

Nomenclature 189

Subscripts 189

Abbreviations 189

References 190

Chapter 8: Gas Reservoirs 191

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Volumetric Gas Reservoirs 192

8.3 Gas Reservoirs with Water Influx 198

8.4 Water Influx Models 202

8.5 Geopressured Gas Reservoirs 213

8.6 Case Histories of Two Gas Reservoirs 221

Nomenclature 247

Subscripts 248

Abbreviations 248

References 248

General Reading 250

Appendix 8A: Correlations for Estimating Residual Gas Saturations for Gas Reservoirs under Water Influx 251

Appendix 8B: Dimensionless Pressure for Finite and Infinite Aquifers 252

Appendix 8C: Dimensionless Pressure for Infinite Aquifers 253

Chapter 9: Oil Reservoirs 255

9.1 Introduction 255

9.2 Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 255

9.3 Gravity Drainage Mechanism 257

9.4 Volumetric Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs 258

9.5 Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx 264

9.6 Volumetric Saturated Oil Reservoirs 276

9.7 Material Balance Approach for Saturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx 279

9.8 Case History of Manatee Reservoirs 279

Nomenclature 292

Subscripts 292

Abbreviations 293

References 293

Chapter 10: Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs 295

10.1 Introduction 295

10.2 Fluid Types 296

10.3 Definition of Fluid Flow Regimes 297

10.4 Darcy Fluid Flow Equation 301

10.5 Radial Forms of the Darcy Equation 302

10.6 Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Radial Form 310

10.7 Derivation of Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids 311

10.8 Solutions of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids 313

10.9 Derivation of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Compressible Fluids 321

10.10 Transformation of the Gas Diffusivity Equation with Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure Concept 322

10.11 The Superposition Principle 327

10.12 Well Productivity Index 338

10.13 Well Injectivity Index 338

Nomenclature 339

Subscripts 340

References 340

General Reading 341

Appendix 10A: Chart for Exponential Integral 342

Appendix 10B: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary 343

Appendix 10C: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary 345

Appendix 10D: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Constant Pressure Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary 350

Appendix 10E: Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary 358

Appendix 10F: Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary 361

Chapter 11: Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods 367

11.1 Introduction 367

11.2 Basic Concepts in Well Test Analysis 368

11.3 Line Source Well, Infinite Reservoir Solution of the Diffusivity Equation with Skin Factor 378

11.4 Well Test Analyses with Straightline Methods 381

11.5 Special Topics in Well Test Analyses 432

Nomenclature 439

Subscripts 440

Abbreviations 441

References 441

General Reading 444

Chapter 12: Well Test Analysis: Type Curves 445

12.1 Introduction 445

12.2 What Are Type Curves? 445

12.3 Gringarten Type Curves 447

12.3.1 Unit-Slope Line 448

12.4 Bourdet Derivative Type Curves 449

12.5 Agarwal Equivalent Time 450

12.6 Type-Curve Matching 451

12.7 Procedures for Manual Application of Type-Curve Matching in Well Test Analysis 452

12.8 Stages of the Type-Curve Matching Procedures 454

Nomenclature 459

Subscripts 460

Abbreviations 460

References 461

Appendix 12A: Characteristic Shapes of Pressure and Pressure-Derivative Curves for Selected Well, Reservoir, and Boundary Models 463

Appendix 12B: Buildup Test Data for Example 12.1 467

Appendix 12C: Calculation of Pressure Derivatives 473

Chapter 13: Well Test Analysis: Hydraulically Fractured Wells and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs 475

13.1 Introduction 475

13.2 Hydraulically Fractured Wells 475

13.3 Definition of Dimensionless Variables for Fractured Wells 476

13.4 Flow Regimes in Fractured Wells 476

13.5 Fractured Well Flow Models 478

13.6 Fractured Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods 480

13.7 Fractured Well Test Analysis: Type-Curve Matching 487

13.8 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs 497

13.9 Naturally Fractured Reservoir Models 497

13.10 Well Test Analysis in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Based on Double Porosity Model 505

13.11 Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Straightline Method s 506

13.12 Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Type Curves 509

13.13 Procedure for Analysis of Well Test from NFRs Assuming Double Porosity Behavior 512

Nomenclature 520

Subscripts 521

Abbreviations 521

References 522

General Reading 523

Chapter 14: Well Test Analysis: Deconvolution Concepts 525

14.1 Introduction 525

14.2 What Is Deconvolution? 525

14.3 The Pressure-Rate Deconvolution Mod el 526

14.4 Application of Deconvolution to Pressure-Rate Data 528

14.5 Examples on the Application of the von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Real Well Test Data 529

14.6 General Guidelines for Application of von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Pressure-Rate Data from Well Tests 534

References 535

General Reading 536

Chapter 15: Immiscible Fluid Displacement 537

15.1 Introduction 537

15.2 Basic Concepts in Immiscible Fluid Displacement 538

15.3 Fractional Flow Equations 544

15.4 The Buckley-Leverett Equation 549

15.5 The Welge Method 553

15.6 Summary 559

Nomenclature 560

References 561

General Reading 562

Chapter 16: Secondary Recovery Methods 563

16.1 Introduction 563

16.2 Waterflooding 564

16.3 Gasflooding 575

Nomenclature 580

Abbreviations 580

References 580

General Reading 582

Chapter 17: Enhanced Oil Recovery 583

17.1 Introduction 583

17.2 EOR Processes 584

17.3 EOR Screening Criteria 587

17.4 Miscible Gas Injection Processes 589

17.5 Methods for Determination of MMP or MME for Gasfloods 595

17.6 Types of Miscible Gas Flooding 612

17.7 Chemical Flooding Processes 614

17.8 Thermal Processes 616

17.9 Implementation of EOR Projects 624

Nomenclature 630

Abbreviations 630

References 631

General Reading 638

Chapter 18: Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization 641

18.1 Introduction 641

18.2 Sources of Data for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization 641

18.3 Data Quality Control and Quality Assurance 644

18.4 Scale and Integration of Data 644

18.5 General Procedure for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization 645

Nomenclature 676

Abbreviations 676

References 677

General Reading 678

Chapter 19: Reservoir Simulation 681

19.1 Introduction 681

19.2 Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Rectangular Form 684

19.3 Flow Equations for Three-Phase Flow of Oil, Water, and Gas 686

19.4 Basic Concepts, Terms, and Methods in Reservoir Simulation 689

19.5 General Structure of Flow Reservoir Models 706

Nomenclature 708

Subscripts 709

Abbreviations 709

References 710

General Reading 714

Chapter 20: Reservoir Management 717

20.1 Introduction 717

20.2 Reservoir Management Principles 718

20.3 Case Histories Demonstrating Applications of Reservoir Management Principles 720

References 741

General Reading 744

Index 745

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