The Pharmacy Technician: Foundations and Practices / Edition 1

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Overview

The Pharmacy Technician: Fundamentals of Practice addresses today’s comprehensive educational needs for one of the fastest growing jobs in the United States – the pharmacy technician. With many State Boards of Pharmacy either considering, or having already enacted, mandatory registration, certification and/or formal education, the need for a comprehensive and up-to-date pharmacy technician book like The Pharmacy Technician: Fundamentals of Practice has never been greater. This book covers an introduction to pharmacy practice, how to properly perform pharmacy and dosage calculations, pharmacology- including anatomy and physiology, and an overview of special considerations in pharmacy practice.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132283090
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/3/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 816
  • Sales rank: 587,924
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

How to Use this Book

I. Fundamentals of Pharmacy Practice

1. History of Pharmacy Practice

Introduction

The Age of Antiquity

Ancient Man

Ancient Mesopotamia

Ancient China

Ancient Egypt

Ancient India

Ancient Greece

Ancient Rome

The Middle Ages

Monasteries

The First Apothecaries

The First Pharmacopeia

The Renaissance 1500s — 1600s

The First Anglo-Saxon Organization for Pharmacists

The First Apothecary in the American Colonies

The 18th Century

America’s First Female Pharmacist

America’s First Hospital

America’s First Apothecary General

The 19th Century

America’s First College of Pharmacy

The American Pharmaceutical Association

The Father of American Pharmacy

The United States Pharmacopoeia

The Father of Modern Genetics

The 20th Century

The American Council on Pharmaceutical Education

Evolution of the Pharmacist’s Role

Evolution of the Pharmacy Technician

The Future

Biotechnology

Pharmacogenomics

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

2. The Professional Pharmacy Technician

Introduction

Overview of the Pharmacy Profession

Educational Requirements

Roles of Pharmacy Professionals

Practice Settings

Characteristics of a Good Pharmacy Technician

Display a Professional Manner and Image

Demonstrate Initiative and Responsibility

Work as a Team Member

Adapt to Change

Enhance Skills and Knowledge through Continuing Education and Professional Development

Treat Patients with Compassion and Empathy

Preparing for Your Future as a Pharmacy Technician

Registration/Licensure for the Pharmacy Technician

Certification for the Pharmacy Technician

Professional Organizations

Career Opportunities

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

3. Communication and Customer Care

Introduction

The Communication Process

The Sender

The Message

The Receiver

Feedback

Communication Types and Methods

Verbal Communication

Written Communication

Nonverbal Communication

Barriers to Communication

Language Barriers

Communication Impairments

Defense Mechanisms

Conflict

Eliminating Communication Barriers

Caring for Customers & Patients

Patient Rights

Greeting Customers

Protecting Confidentiality

Pharmacist Consultations

Special Considerations

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

4. Pharmacy Law and Ethics

Introduction

Overview of Law

Constitutional Law

Statutes and Regulations

State Law and Regulations

Legislative Intent

Criminal, Civil and Administrative Law

Criminal Law

Civil Law

Administrative Law

Violations of the Law

Regulatory Agencies

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Drug Enforcement Administration

Food and Drug Administration

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

State Board of Pharmacy

Overview of Pharmacy Law

State and Federal Functions

The Pure Food & Drug Act of 1906

The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938

The Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951

The Kefauver-Harris Amendment of 1962

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Act of 1970

The Poison Prevention Packing Act of 1970

The Occupational and Safety Health Act of 1970

The Drug Listing Act of 1972

The Medical Device Amendment of 1976

The Orphan Drug Act of 1983

The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984

The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987

The Anabolic Steroids Act of 1990

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990

The Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act of 1994

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005

Adulteration versus Misbranding

Adulterated Drugs

Misbranded Drugs

New Drugs

Samples

Medical Devices

Monographs

Description

Clinical Pharmacology

Indications and Usage

Contraindications

Warnings

Precautions

Drug Abuse and Dependence

Adverse Reactions

Dosage

How Supplied

Ethics and the Pharmacy Technician

Defining Ethics

Moral Philosophy

Practicing Ethics

Ethical Theories

Consequentialism

Nonconsequentialism

Social Contracts

The Ethics of Care

Rights-Based Ethics

Principle-Based Ethics

Virtues-Based Ethics

Law

Professional Code of Ethics

The Pharmacy Technician Code of Ethics

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

5. Terminology and Abbreviations

Introduction

Understanding Selected Roots

Understanding Selected Prefixes

Understanding Selected Suffixes

Understanding Combining Forms

Pharmacy Abbreviations

Dangerous Abbreviations

Terminology

Pharmaceutical Terminology

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

II. Community and Institutional Pharmacy

6. Retail Pharmacy

Introduction

Retail Pharmacy

Independent Pharmacies

Chain/Franchise Pharmacies

Retail Pharmacy Staff

Certified Pharmacy Technician

Pharmacy Clerk/Cashier

Pharmacy Manager

Doctor of Pharmacy

Pharmacist In Charge

Registered Pharmacist

Store Manager

Organization of Retail Pharmacies

OTC/Front End

Behind the Counter OTC

Prescription Drop-Off

Pharmacy Workstations

Pharmacy Counter

Storage

Pick-Up Area (Drive-Thru)

Counseling Area

Regulatory Agencies

State Board of Pharmacy

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

The Prescription

Elements of the Prescription

The Patient Profile

Processing Prescriptions

Refills

Transfers

Pharmacy Technician Job Responsibilities

Over-the-Counter Medications and Pharmacy Technicians

Medical Equipment and Devices

Patient Confidentiality and HIPAA

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

7. Health System Pharmacy

Introduction

Health-System Pharmacies

Long-Term Care Facilities

Hospices

Nursing Homes

Correctional Facilities

Hospital Pharmacies

Hospital Staff

Doctor of Osteopathy

Doctor of Medicine

Physician Assistant

Certified Nursing Assistant

Licensed Nursing Assistant

Licensed Practical Nurse

Nurse Practitioner

Registered Nurse

Organization of Hospital Pharmacies

Centralized Pharmacy

Decentralized Pharmacies

Regulatory Agencies

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

State Board of Pharmacy

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

State Department of Public Health

The Policy and Procedure Manual

The Need

The Benefits

The Contents

Dispensing Systems

Floor Stock

Patient Prescriptions

Unit-Dose

The Medication Order

Medication Order Components

Types of Medication Orders

Receiving Medication Orders

Processing Medication Orders

Dispensing Medication Orders

Pharmacy Technician Job Responsibilities

Record Maintenance and Management

Unit-Dose Preparation

Compounding

Repackaging

Floor Stock Inspections

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

8. Computers Applications in the Pharmacy Setting

Introduction

Computers

Hardware

Software

Computers in the Pharmacy

Automation and Robotics in Community Pharmacies

Counting Machines

Bar Coding Equipment

Prescription Filling Robots

Automation and Robotics in Health-System Pharmacies

Automated Medication Delivery Systems

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems

Bar-Coding

Personal Digital Assistants

Telepharmacy

Pharmacy Technology and Patient Confidentiality

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

9. Inventory Management and Health Insurance Billing

Introduction

Purchasing Systems

Independent Purchasing

Group Purchasing

Methods of Purchasing

Purchasing Direct

Wholesalers

Primary Vendors

Formularies

The Ordering Process

Generate Order

Confirm Order

Submit Order

Supplier's Receipt of Order

Processing/Shipping of Order

The Receiving Process

Order Delivery

Order Verification

Inventory Adjustment

Stocking the Order

Recordkeeping

Returns

Expired Drugs

Recalls

Product Returns

Insurance Billing

Types of Insurance

Health Maintenance Organizations

Preferred Provider Organizations

Medicaid/Medicare

Worker's Compensation

Understanding the Insurance Billing Process

Insurance Terms

Collecting Insurance Data

Transmitting Prescriptions

Troubleshooting Insurance

Common Errors/Messages

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

10. Introduction to Compounding

Introduction

Overview of Compounding

Compounding a Prescription

Equipment and Supplies

Compounding Facilities

Quality Assurance

Dosage Forms and Basic Guidelines

Capsules

Powders

Lozenges and Troches

Suppositories

Solutions

Suspensions

Pastes

Creams

Gels

Ophthalmic Preparations

Otic Preparations

Nasal Preparations

Veterinary Compounding

Medication Flavoring

Psychological Impact

Flavoring Considerations

Four Taste Types

Flavoring Techniques

Coloring

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

11. Introduction to Sterile Products

Introduction

Aseptic Technique

Basic Equipment and Supplies

Laminar Flow Hoods

Vertical Flow Hoods

Needles

Syringes

IV Bags

Routes of Administration

Risks

Intravenous Administration

Sterile Products

Sterility

pH

Tonicity

Storage

Common Products

Compatibility

TPNs–Total Parenteral Nutrition

Chemotherapy

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

III. Pharmacy Calculations

12. Basic Math Skills

Introduction

Basic Math Pretest

Decimals

Decimals as Fractions

Key Points for Working with Decimals

Practice Problems 12.1

Rounding

Practice Problems 12.2

Adding and Subtracting Decimals

Practice Problems 12.3

Multiplying Decimals

Practice Problems 12.4

Dividing Decimals

Practice Problems 12.5

Roman Numerals

Rules for Roman Numerals

Practice Problems 12.6

Fractions

Proper Fractions

Improper Fractions

Simple Fractions

Complex Fractions

Rules for Calculating with Fractions

Practice Problems 12.7 — Calculating Fractions

Ratios and Proportions

Ratios

Practice Problems 12.8 Ratios as Fractions

Practice Problems 12.9 Fractions as Ratios

Practice Problems 12.10 Ratios as Percentages

Proportions

Solving for X

Practice Problems 12.11 Solving for X

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

References and Resources

13. Measurement Systems

Introduction

The Metric System

Guidelines for Metric Notation

Practice Problems 13.1

Practice Problems 13.2

International Units

Practice Problems 13.3

Milliequivalent

Practice Problems 13.4

The Apothecary System

The Avoirdupois System

The Household System

Practice Problems 13.5

Converting Measurements

Converting the Household System

Formula: Conversion of Systems

Practice Problems 13.6

Converting the Apothecary System

Practice Problems 13.7

Temperature Conversions

Practice Problems 13.9

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

References and Resources

14. Dosage Calculations

Introduction

Calculating the Number of Doses

Practice Problems 14.1 — Calculating the Number of Doses

Calculating the Quantity to Dispense

Practice Problems 14.2 — Calculating the Quantity to Dispense

Calculating the Quantity of Ingredient

Practice Problems 14.3 — Calculating the Quantity of Ingredient

Calculating the Correct Days Supply

Practice Problems 14.4 — Calculating the Correct Days Supply

Solving Multiple Dosage Calculations

Practice Problems 14.5 — Solving Multiple Dosage Calculations

Calculating Pediatric Dosages

Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Fried’s Rule

Practice Problems 14.6 — Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Fried’s Rule

Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Young’s Rule

Practice Problems 14.7 — Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Young’s Rule

Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Clark’s Rule

Practice Problems 14.8 — Calculating Pediatric Dosages using Clark’s Rule

Converting Weight from Pounds to Kg

Practice Problems 14.9 — Converting Weight

Calculating Dosages using Mg/Kg/Day

Practice Problems 14.10 — Calculating Dosages using Mg/Kg/Day

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

References and Resources

15. Concentrations and Dilutions

Introduction

Concentrations

Weight/Weight Concentrations

Practice Problems 15.1 — W/W Concentrations

Weight/Volume Concentrations

Practice Problems 15.2 — Weight/Volume Concentrations

Volume/Volume Concentrations

Practice Problems 15.3 -Volume/Volume Concentrations

Dilutions

Practice Problems 15.4 - Dilutions

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

References and Resources

16. Alligations

Introduction

Solving Alligations

The Alligation Grid

Practice Problems 16.1

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

References and Resources

17. Parenteral Calculations

Introduction

Basic Dimensional Analysis

Practice Problems 17.1 Basic Dimensional Analysis

Flow Rates

Flow Rate Duration

Practice Problems 17.2 Flow Rate Duration

Volume per Hour

Practice Problems 17.3 Volume per Hour

Drug per Hour

Practice Problems 17.4 Drug per Hour

Drop Factors

Practice Problems 17.5 Drip Rates

TPN Milliequivalents

Electrolyte Solutions

Practice Problems 17.6 Milliequivalents

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

References and Resources

IV. Pharmacology

18. Dosage Formulations and Administration

Introduction

Sources of Drugs

Natural Drug Sources

Synthetic Drug Sources

Genetically Engineered Drug Sources

Drug Nomenclature

Chemical Name

Generic Name

Trade or Brand Name

Medication Errors

The Five “Rights” of Medication Administration

Types of Medication Errors

Dosage Formulations

Solid Dosage Forms

Liquid Dosage Forms

Solutions

Inhalants

Liniments

Emulsions

Suspensions

Powders

Granules

Aerosol

Extended-Release Dosage Forms

Routes of Administration

Oral

Transdermal

Inhalation

Nasal

Parenteral

Topical

Rectal

Vaginal

Ophthalmic

Otic

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

19. The Body and Drugs

Introduction

Pharmacodynamics

Receptor Complex

Site of Action

Mechanism of Action

Receptor Site

Agonists and Antagonists

The Dose-Response Curve

Half Life

Time-Response Curve

Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms

Pharmacokinetics

Plasma Concentration (Cp)

Drug Absorption

Drug Distribution

Membrane Transport Mechanisms

The Quality of Drugs — Solubility

Drugs and Their Ionization

Drug Distribution and Metabolism

The Path

Plasma Binding Protein

Absorption

Rate of Administration

Volume of Distribution

Clearance

Addiction

Characteristics of Addiction

Causes of Addiction

The Criteria for Addiction

Alcohol

Smoking Withdrawal and Cessation

Drug Dependency

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

20. Drug Classifications

Introduction

Classification of Drugs

Analgesics

Antirheumatics

Anti-infectives

Antineoplastics

Antiseptics

Cardiovascular Agents

Central Nervous System Agents

Diuretics

Endocrine and Metabolic Agents

Adrenocortical Steroids

Sex Hormones

Uterine-Active Agents

Gastrointestional Agents

Hemotological Agents

Muscle Relaxants

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Nutritional Agents

Respiratory Agents

Other Criteria for Drug Classification

Pregnancy Categories

Controlled Substance Categories

Over-the-Counter Drugs

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

21. The Skin

Introduction

Anatomy

Diseases and Conditions of the Skin

Rash

Eczema

Psoriasis

Skin Infections

Acne

Cellulitis

Parasitic Infestations

Tumors and Cancerous Growths

Pigmentation Disorders

Miscellaneous Skin Conditions and Diseases

Pharmaceutical Treatment of Various Skin Diseases

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

22. Eyes and Ears

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye

How the Eye Works

Diseases of the Eyes

Infections of the Eye and their Pharmaceutical Treatment

Stye

Blepharitis

Conjunctivitis

Eye Disorders that Affect Vision

Glaucoma

Cataract

Vascular Retinopathies

Cycloplegic Drugs, Mydriatic Drugs, and Lubricants

The Ear

Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear

Disorders and Diseases of the Ear

Complications of Earwax Buildup

Types of Hearing Loss

Conductive Hearing Loss

Sensory Hearing Loss

Drug Induced Hearing Loss

Neural Hearing Loss

Presbycusis

Otitis Media

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

23. The Gastrointestinal System

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System

Digestion

Disorders of the Digestive System

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Nausea and/or Vomiting

Ulcers

Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Constipation

Nutrition

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

USDA MyPyramid Food Guidance System

Food Allergies

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

24. The Musculoskeletal System

Introduction

Anatomy of the Muscles

Muscle Action

The Bones

Bone Marrow

The Functions of Bones

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Osteomyelitis

Osteoporosis

Paget’s Disease

Treatment of Weak, Fragile, or Soft Bones

Bursitis

Tendonitis

Myalgia

Bone Marrow Disorders

Arthritis

Arthritis Treatment

Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDS)

Treatment of Gout

Inflammation

Treatment for Inflammation

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

Spastic Diseases

Multiple Sclerosis

Cerebral Palsy

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

25. The Respiratory System

Introduction

Function of the Respiratory System

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The Diaphragm

The Lungs

Respiration

Diseases and Conditions of the Respiratory Tract

Colds

Coughs

Treatment of Allergies

Antihistamines

Mast Cell Stabilizers

Cystic Fibrosis

Asthma

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Emphysema

Chronic Bronchitis

Treatment Asthma and COPD

Bronchodilators

Xanthines

Anticholinergics

Anti-inflammatory Agents

Mast Cell Inhibitors

Anti-Leukotriene Drugs

Other Treatments

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

26. The Cardio, Circulatory, and Lymph Systems

Introduction

Anatomy of the Heart

Blood

Function of the Heart

The Conduction System

Diseases of the Heart

Hypertension

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Ischemia

Myocardial Infarction

Arrhythmias

Treatment for Heart Disease

Cardiac Glycosides

Diuretics

Vasodilators

ACE Inhibitors

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

Beta-Adrenergic Blockers

Antiadrenergic Agents

Coronary Artery Disease

Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

Antiplatelets

Anticoagulants

Tissue Plasminogen Activators

Thrombin Inhibitors

Antidotes for Overdose of Antiplatelets or Anticoagulants

Cholesterol

Triglycerides

Antihyperlipidemics

The Lymphatic System

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

27. The Immune System

Introduction

The Body’s Defense Mechanisms

Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms

Specific Defense Mechanisms

Lymphocytes

Types of Infectious Organisms

Animal Microorganisms

Virus

Plant Microorganisms

HIV/AIDS

Progression of HIV to AIDS to Death in Five Stages

HIV/AIDS Drugs

Autoimmune Diseases

Methods of Pathogenic Transmission

Antiinfectives

Antibacterials

Antifungals

Amebicides/Antiprotozoal

Antivirals

Drug Resistance

Solutions to Resistance

Vaccines

Various Infectious Disease States

Malaria

Cancer

Cancer Treatments

Drugs Used to Treat Cancer

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

28. The Renal System

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Renal System

The Nephron

The Bladder and Urine

Diseases, Conditions, and Treatments of the Urinary System

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Retention

Urinary Tract Infections

Other Signs and Symptoms of Renal System Conditions

Kidney Stones

Edema and Hypertension

Diabetes Mellitus and the Kidneys

Diuretics

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

29. The Endocrine System

Introduction

Anatomy of the Endocrine System

Hormones

The Endocrine Glands

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

Thyroid and Parathyroid

Adrenal Glands

The Nephron

Gonads

Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Menopause

Testosterone Hormonal Replacement

Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids

Androgen Precautions

Glandular Disease States

Examples of Conditions that Benefit from Endocrine Therapy

Endocrine System Disorders

Pituitary Gigantism

Pituitary Dwarfism

Acromegaly

Diabetes

Diabetes Insipidus

Abnormalities of the Adrenal Gland

Cushing’s Syndrome

Addison’s Disease

Cretinism

Myxedema (Secondary Hypothyroidism)

Grave’s Disease

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

30. The Reproductive System

Introduction

The Female Reproductive System

Anatomy

Reproductive Cycle

Hormone Contraception

Drug—Drug and Drug—Herb Interactions with Hormone Contraception

Topical Contraceptives

Contraceptive Devices

Mammary Glands and Childbirth

Female Infertility

The Male Reproductive System

Anatomy

Male Infertility

Erectile Dysfunction

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Treatment and Prevention of STDs

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

31. The Nervous System

Introduction

Anatomy of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System

The Neuron

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous System

Spinal Cord

Brain

The Limbic System

Blood Brain Barrier

Diseases Affecting the Central Nervous System

Anxiety

Depression

Bipolar Disorder

Psychosis

Mechanism of Action of Antipsychotic Drugs

Insomnia

Hypnotics, Sedatives, and Barbiturates

Benzodiazepines

Non-Benzodiazepines Drugs

Stimulants

Adverse Actions of Stimulants

Contraindications

Withdrawal Treatment

ADHA and ADD

Stimulants Used in the Treatment of ADHD and ADD

Nonstimulants Used in the Treatment of ADHD and ADD

Convulsions, Seizures, and Epilepsy

Types and Classifications of Seizures

Status Epilepticus

Treatment of Seizures and Convulsions

Parkinson’s Disease

Pharmaceutical Treatments

Dementia

Signs and Symptoms of Dementia

Treatment of Dementia

Migraine Headaches

Classic Migraine

Common Migraine

Cancer Pain

Treatment of Cancer Pain

Nonpharmaceutical Pain Relief

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

V. Special Topics

32. Pediatric and Neonatal Patients

Introduction

Pharmacological Differences in Pediatric Patients

Drug Metabolism

Pediatric Medication Administration

Medication Errors and Pediatric Patients

Hospital Wide Action to Prevent Medication Errors

Pharmacy Actions to Prevent Medication Errors

Pharmacy Education and Communication

Common Childhood Illnesses

Respiratory Diseases

Cardiovascular and Blood Disorders

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

33. Geriatric Patients

Introduction

The Physiological Factors

Nutrition and the Presence of Disease

Disease-Drug interactions

Noncompliance

Role of the Pharmacy Technician

Dosage Forms as Related to Compliance

Polypharmacy

Medicare Part D

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

34. Introduction and Future of Biopharmaceuticals

Introduction

Biopharmaceuticals

Process of FDA Approval

Genetic Engineering

Stem cell Research

The Political Climate

Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Critical Thinking Questions

Web Challenge

References and Resources

Appendices

Appendix A: Top 200 Drugs

Appendix B: Over-the-Counter Product Guide

Appendix C: Advanced Career Path Options

Appendix D: Professional Resources

Appendix E: Referencing

Appendix F: Practice Certification Exam

Practice Certification Exam I

Practice Certification Exam II

Practice Certification Exam III

Index

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  • Posted July 3, 2009

    Illogically and Poorly Organized.

    Incredibly out of order, there was at least one instance where a chapter review question asked about something that wasn't even mentioned until several chapters later. I expected something much better for the high price. The cd-rom is also completely useless, makes a nice drink coaster I guess.

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