Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective / Edition 1

Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective / Edition 1

by Carl D. Schlichting, Massimo Pigliucci
     
 

ISBN-10: 0878937994

ISBN-13: 9780878937998

Pub. Date: 01/15/1998

Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780878937998
Publisher:
Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Publication date:
01/15/1998
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
342
Product dimensions:
7.09(w) x 9.06(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

PrefaceXI
Chapter 1Phenotypic Evolution and Its Many Facets1
Fisher versus Wright?3
Open Questions on the Evolution of Phenotypes7
How Do We Connect Observed Patterns to Underlying Processes? Mechanistic Biology and the Comparative Method7
What Are the Limits to Variability? The Role of Constraints in Phenotypic Evolution8
How Are Complex Phenotypes Coordinated? The Evolution of Epigenetic Systems9
How Do Organisms Deal with Changing Environments? Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Plasticity9
How Do Novel Phenotypes Arise? Micro-versus(?) Macroevolution10
Theoretical Approaches10
Quantitative Genetics10
Optimality Models13
Complexity Theory15
Empirical Approaches16
Comparative Studies16
Evolution in the Field17
Phenotypic Manipulation18
Classical Quantitative Genetics18
Laboratory Evolution19
Artificial Life19
A Different View: The Developmental Norm of Reaction20
Ontogenetic Trajectories and Development21
Phenotypic Complexity and Multivariate Allometries21
Environmental Modifications: Reaction Norms and Phenotypic Plasticity22
Developmental Reaction Norms22
What Will Follow27
Chapter 2A Brief History of an Alternative Evolutionary Synthesis29
The Precursors: Baldwin, Woltereck, and Johannsen30
The Theoretical Framework: Goldschmidt and Schmalhausen33
The Empiricists: Waddington and Clausen, Keck and Hiesey41
Chapter 3Reaction Norms and Phenotypic Plasticity51
Adaptive Phenotypic Plasticity54
Recent Concepts of the Reaction Norm57
A Developmental Perspective on Reaction Norms60
Canalization and Homeostasis60
A Genetic Perspective on Reaction Norms66
Genetic Control of Plastic Responses72
Gene Expression in Different Environments77
Phenotypic Plasticity: Target or By-Product of Selection? Why It Makes a Difference78
Conceptual Summary83
Chapter 4Allometry85
On Size and Shape88
Classic and Recent Studies on Allometry89
Allometry and the DRN99
Plasticity and Allometry100
Plasticity of Character Correlations103
Conceptual Summary109
Chapter 5Ontogeny111
History111
The Insight of J. B. S. Haldane113
The Description of Ontogenetic Trajectories: Heterochrony and Sequence Models115
Examples of Heterochronic and Sequence Changes117
Models of Heterochrony128
The Mechanistic Bases of Ontogenetic Change130
Heterochrony: Caveat Emptor133
Heterotopy136
Non-Heterochrony and Non-Heterotopy140
What Is This Thing Called Homology?142
Environmental Influences on Developmental Phenotypes146
Conceptual Summary153
Chapter 6Constraints on Phenotypic Evolution: A Central Problem?155
A Brief History of the Concept155
Some Thoughts on Process Structuralism, Bauplane, and Related Matters162
A Plethora of Constraints and an Attempt to Distill Them166
Selection and Constraint on the Development Reaction Norm169
Null Models and A Priori Expectations178
Conceptual Summary188
Chapter 7Phenotypic Integration191
The History: From Phenotypic Grids to the Sierra Nevada192
A Conceptual Framework: Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics198
Morphometrics: Measuring Phenotypic Integration "Classically and Revolutionarily"206
The Ontogenetic Component: Developmental Integration211
The Environmental Component: Plasticity Integration214
Correlation of Plastic Responses216
Conceptual Summary225
Chapter 8Epigenetics227
The Hunt for Development's Master Switches: The Homeobox Genes232
Comparative Studies of Hox Gene Expression233
The Fly: Drosophila236
The Worm: Caenorhabditis239
The Plant: Arabidopsis thaliana243
Establishing the Body Plan244
Roots246
Vegetative and Leaf Development247
Inflorescences and Flowers249
Epigenetics and Phenotypic Plasticity252
Limitations to a "Modern" Approach253
Conceptual Summary257
Chapter 9Evolution of Developmental Reaction Norms and Phenotypes259
Integrating Allometry, Ontogeny and Plasticity259
Three-Way Integration Examples260
Theory of Evolution in Heterogeneous Environments269
Genetic Variation versus Plasticity, Specialists versus Generalists270
Costs of Plasticity and Environmental Assessment273
The Objects of Selection277
Simultaneous Selection on Multiple Traits278
Building a Norm of Reaction282
Bottom-Up Evolution of Genetic Systems282
Ontogeny and Epigenetics289
Context-Dependent Gene Regulation: Plasticity and Canalization of Development300
Conceptual Summary305
Chapter 10Implications and Projections309
Modes of Evolutionary Change310
The Origin of Phenotypic Novelty316
Evolutionary Futures324
Selection Experiments325
The Past as a Template for the Future?325
Developmental Reaction Norms as Evidence of Evolvability326
Mutational Variability and Latent Potentials328
A Research Program331
Core Concepts332
Auxiliary Concepts336
Research Projections338
Applying the Research Program340
Conclusions341
Literature Cited343
Index375

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