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Edited and assembled by one of philosophy's foremost scholars in collaboration with a distinguished teacher, this introductory anthology offers both classic and contemporary primary source readings and schools students in developing distinctly philosophical habits of mind.
In addition to the fine selection of primary source readings, this anthology offers a unique array of pedagogical features that, together, form a “roadmap” for thinking philosophically. These features begin with an introductory essay, followed by chapter introductions and marginal annotations that accompany the readings, and conclude with discussion questions and an appendix on writing about philosophy.
*Selections new to this edition are indicated with an asterisk
Preface to the 2nd Edition
For the Student: An Introduction to the Annotations
Chapter 1 What is Philosophy?
Ann Baker: Philosophical Thinking
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
Chapter 2 Knowledge and Skepticism
Do We Have Knowledge of the External World?
René Descartes: From Meditations on First Philosophy
John Locke: From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
George Berkeley: From Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous
Thomas Reid: Direct Realism, from Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man
Laurence BonJour: Knowledge of the External World, from Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses
Sextus Empiricus: From Outlines of Pyrrhonism*
Concluding Dialogue on the External World*
Is Induction Justified?
David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Wesley Salmon: The Problem of Induction, from The Foundations of Scientific Inference
A. C. Ewing: The “A Priori” and the Empirical, from The Fundamental Questions of Philosophy
Concluding Dialogue on the Problem of Induction*
Chapter 3 Minds and Bodies
Are Minds and Mental States Distinct from Bodies and Material States?
John Foster: A Defense of Dualism
J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes
Jerry Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem
Are Intentional Mental States Analogous to the States of a Computer?
A. M. Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence
John R. Searle: Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program?
Jerry Fodor: Searle on What Only Brains Can Do
John R. Searle: Author’s Response
Can Materialism Account for Qualitative Consciousness?
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
Frank Jackson: What Mary Didn’t Know
Laurence BonJour: What Is It Like to Be a Human (Instead of a Bat)?
David Lewis: Knowing What It’s Like
David J. Chalmers: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience
Concluding Dialogue on the Mind-Body Problem*
Chapter 4 Personal Identity and Free Will
What is Required for Personal Identity?
John Locke: Personal Identity
Thomas Reid: Of Mr. Locke’s Account of Personal Identity
Bernard Williams: The Self and the Future
Derek Parfit: Personal Identity
Concluding Dialogue on Personal Identity
Are Human Actions Genuinely Free?
Robert Blatchford: A Defense of Hard Determinism, from Not Guilty: A Defense of the Bottom Dog
David Hume: Of Liberty and Necessity
W. T. Stace: A Compatibalist Account of Free Will, from Religion and the Modern Mind
Paul Edwards: Hard and Soft Determinism
Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person*
C. A. Campbell: In Defense of Free Will
Robert Nozick: Choice and Indeterminism, from Philosophical Explanations
Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science, from A Contemporary Introduction to Free Will*
Back to Hard Determinism?
Galen Strawson: Free Will
Concluding Dialogue on Free Will*
Chapter 5 Morality and Moral Problems
What Is the Best Theory of Morality: Utilitarianism, Deontological Views, or Virtue Ethics?
Utilitarianism: Morality Depends on Consequences
Jeremy Bentham: From An Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation
John Stuart Mill: From Utilitarianism
J. J. C. Smart: Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism
Bernard Williams: A Critique of Utilitarianism
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality*
Deontological Views: Morality Depends on Duties and Rights
Immanuel Kant: From Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
Onora O’Neill: The Moral Perplexities of Famine Relief
David T. Ozar: Rights: What They Are and Where They Come From
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Virtue Ethics: Morality Depends on Character Traits
Aristotle: From The Nichomachean Ethics
Rosalind Hursthouse: Normative Virtue Ethics
Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion*
Challenges to Morality: Relativism and Egoism
James Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism
Plato: Are We Better Off Behaving Morally or Immorally?
Concluding Dialogue on Morality and Moral Problems*
Chapter 6 The Legitimacy of Government and The Nature of Justice
What Is the Justification for Government?
Thomas Hobbes: The Social Contract, from Leviathan
John Locke: The Social Contract, from Second Treatise of Government
David Hume: Of the Original Contract
What Is Social Justice?
Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
John Rawls: Justice as Fairness, from A Theory of Justice
Robert Nozick: A Critique of Rawls, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
Thomas M. Scanlon: Nozick on Rights, Liberty, and Property
Concluding Dialogue on Government and Justice*
Chapter 7 God and Faith
Does God Exist?
The Cosmological Argument
St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways, from Summa Theologica
Samuel Clarke: The Cosmological Argument, from A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God
David Hume: Problems with the Cosmological Argument, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
The Argument from Design
William Paley: The Argument from Design, from Natural Theology
Stephen Jay Gould: The Panda’s Thumb
David Hume: Problems with the Argument from Design, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Antony Flew: Critique of the Global Argument from Design, from God: A Critical Inquiry
The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument, from Proslogion*
René Descartes: The Ontological Argument
Immanuel Kant: The Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God
An Argument Against the Existence of God: The Problem of Evil
David Hume: The Problem of Evil, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
J. L. Mackie: Evil and Omnipotence
John Hick: The Problem of Evil, from Philosophy of Religion
Must We Have Reasons to Believe in God?
Walter Kaufmann: Pascal’s Wager, from Critique of Religion and Philosophy
William James: The Will to Believe
Concluding Dialogue on God and Faith*
Chapter 8 Philosophy and The Good Life
Epictetus: from the Manual
Robert Nozick: The Experience Machine
Thomas Nagel: The Absurd
Susan Wolf: Happiness and Meaning: Two Aspects of the Good Life
Concluding Dialogue on the Good Life*