Philosophical Problems: An Annotated Anthology / Edition 2

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Edited and assembled by one of philosophy's foremost scholars in collaboration with a distinguished teacher, this introductory anthology offers both classic and contemporary primary source readings and schools students in developing distinctly philosophical habits of mind.

In addition to the fine selection of primary source readings, this anthology offers a unique array of pedagogical features that, together, form a “roadmap” for thinking philosophically. These features begin with an introductory essay, followed by chapter introductions and marginal annotations that accompany the readings, and conclude with discussion questions and an appendix on writing about philosophy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205539376
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 8/13/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 654
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.84 (h) x 1.02 (d)

Table of Contents

*Selections new to this edition are indicated with an asterisk


Preface to the 2nd Edition

For the Student: An Introduction to the Annotations

Chapter 1 What is Philosophy?

Ann Baker: Philosophical Thinking

Plato: Euthyphro

Plato: Apology

Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy

Chapter 2 Knowledge and Skepticism

Do We Have Knowledge of the External World?

René Descartes: From Meditations on First Philosophy

John Locke: From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

George Berkeley: From Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous

Thomas Reid: Direct Realism, from Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man

Laurence BonJour: Knowledge of the External World, from Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses

Sextus Empiricus: From Outlines of Pyrrhonism*

Concluding Dialogue on the External World*

Is Induction Justified?

David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Wesley Salmon: The Problem of Induction, from The Foundations of Scientific Inference

A. C. Ewing: The “A Priori” and the Empirical, from The Fundamental Questions of Philosophy

Concluding Dialogue on the Problem of Induction*

Chapter 3 Minds and Bodies

Are Minds and Mental States Distinct from Bodies and Material States?

John Foster: A Defense of Dualism

J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes

Jerry Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem

Are Intentional Mental States Analogous to the States of a Computer?

A. M. Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence

John R. Searle: Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program?

Jerry Fodor: Searle on What Only Brains Can Do

John R. Searle: Author’s Response

Can Materialism Account for Qualitative Consciousness?

Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?

Frank Jackson: What Mary Didn’t Know

Laurence BonJour: What Is It Like to Be a Human (Instead of a Bat)?

David Lewis: Knowing What It’s Like

David J. Chalmers: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience

Concluding Dialogue on the Mind-Body Problem*

Chapter 4 Personal Identity and Free Will

What is Required for Personal Identity?

John Locke: Personal Identity

Thomas Reid: Of Mr. Locke’s Account of Personal Identity

Bernard Williams: The Self and the Future

Derek Parfit: Personal Identity

Concluding Dialogue on Personal Identity

Are Human Actions Genuinely Free?

Hard Determinism

Robert Blatchford: A Defense of Hard Determinism, from Not Guilty: A Defense of the Bottom Dog


David Hume: Of Liberty and Necessity

W. T. Stace: A Compatibalist Account of Free Will, from Religion and the Modern Mind

Paul Edwards: Hard and Soft Determinism

Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person*


C. A. Campbell: In Defense of Free Will

Robert Nozick: Choice and Indeterminism, from Philosophical Explanations

Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science, from A Contemporary Introduction to Free Will*

Back to Hard Determinism?

Galen Strawson: Free Will

Concluding Dialogue on Free Will*

Chapter 5 Morality and Moral Problems

What Is the Best Theory of Morality: Utilitarianism, Deontological Views, or Virtue Ethics?

Utilitarianism: Morality Depends on Consequences

Jeremy Bentham: From An Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation

John Stuart Mill: From Utilitarianism

J. J. C. Smart: Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism

Bernard Williams: A Critique of Utilitarianism

Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality*

Deontological Views: Morality Depends on Duties and Rights

Immanuel Kant: From Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals

Onora O’Neill: The Moral Perplexities of Famine Relief

David T. Ozar: Rights: What They Are and Where They Come From

Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion

Virtue Ethics: Morality Depends on Character Traits

Aristotle: From The Nichomachean Ethics

Rosalind Hursthouse: Normative Virtue Ethics

Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion*

Challenges to Morality: Relativism and Egoism

James Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism

Plato: Are We Better Off Behaving Morally or Immorally?

Concluding Dialogue on Morality and Moral Problems*

Chapter 6 The Legitimacy of Government and The Nature of Justice

What Is the Justification for Government?

Thomas Hobbes: The Social Contract, from Leviathan

John Locke: The Social Contract, from Second Treatise of Government

David Hume: Of the Original Contract

What Is Social Justice?

Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia

John Rawls: Justice as Fairness, from A Theory of Justice

Robert Nozick: A Critique of Rawls, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia

Thomas M. Scanlon: Nozick on Rights, Liberty, and Property

Concluding Dialogue on Government and Justice*

Chapter 7 God and Faith

Does God Exist?

The Cosmological Argument

St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways, from Summa Theologica

Samuel Clarke: The Cosmological Argument, from A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God

David Hume: Problems with the Cosmological Argument, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

The Argument from Design

William Paley: The Argument from Design, from Natural Theology

Stephen Jay Gould: The Panda’s Thumb

David Hume: Problems with the Argument from Design, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Antony Flew: Critique of the Global Argument from Design, from God: A Critical Inquiry

The Ontological Argument

St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument, from Proslogion*

René Descartes: The Ontological Argument

Immanuel Kant: The Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God

An Argument Against the Existence of God: The Problem of Evil

David Hume: The Problem of Evil, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

J. L. Mackie: Evil and Omnipotence

John Hick: The Problem of Evil, from Philosophy of Religion

Must We Have Reasons to Believe in God?

Walter Kaufmann: Pascal’s Wager, from Critique of Religion and Philosophy

William James: The Will to Believe

Concluding Dialogue on God and Faith*

Chapter 8 Philosophy and The Good Life

Epictetus: from the Manual

Robert Nozick: The Experience Machine

Thomas Nagel: The Absurd

Susan Wolf: Happiness and Meaning: Two Aspects of the Good Life

Concluding Dialogue on the Good Life*



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