Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology / Edition 1

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Rapid biological advances and new standards of philosophical rigor are casting age-old questions about the nature and methodology of the biological sciences in a dramatic new light. Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology offers a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of the field's most significant works. The text is organized to provide readers at all levels with a thorough grounding in the general history, philosophy, and science behind debates that remain at the heart of the philosophy of biology. Addressing the field's central issues, sections draw on works relating to Darwinism and its influence on the biological sciences, evolution and chance, the unit of selection debate, adaptationism, evolutionary psychology, and the burgeoning science of evolutionary developmental biology, to name just a few. Editors' introductions and further reading material throughout the text - combined with the readings themselves - provide novices with a solid basis on which to pursue further research in philosophy of biology.

Comprehensive in scope, Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology offers readers an accessible gateway into a field of study that holds the most crucial insights and implications into our understanding of the nature and methodology of the biological sciences.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
"This excellent anthology covers a wide range of biological disciplines and controversies.  It demonstrates the great value of reflective philosophical analysis in interpreting biology and its claims about human nature.  It is ideal for use in introductory courses in philosophy of biology."
Richard Burian, Virginia Tech

"Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology is a splendid collection of papers dedicated to the current issues in the philosophy of biology. The book is organized around twelve major topics, with at least two papers for each topic, expressing contrasting views as appropriate, and all written by leading experts. This book will serve well as a text for courses in the philosophy of biology, and as supplementary reading in philosophy of science and other classes."
Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Alex Rosenberg is the R. Taylor Cole Professor of Philosophy, Professor of Biology and Director of the Center for Philosophy of Biology at Duke University. He has published 11 books on the philosophy of science including The Philosophy of Biology: A Contemporary Introduction (2007) with Daniel McShea. In 1993, he won the Lakatos Prize in the Philosophy of Science and in 2007 was the National Phi Beta Kappa Rommell lecturer in philosophy.

Robert Arp is Research Associate with the National Center for Biomedical Ontology at the University of Buffalo and works with the Ontology Research Group at the New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics & Life Sciences in Buffalo, New York. A PhD in Philosophy from Saint Louis University, he has published in the areas of philosophy of biology, philosophy of mind, and biomedical ontology.

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Table of Contents

Personal Acknowledgments viii

Source Acknowledgments ix

General Introduction: A Short History of Philosophy of Biology 1

Part I Basic Principles and Proofs of Darwinism 15

Introduction Alex Rosenberg Robert Arp 17

1 Struggle for Existence and Natural Selection Charles Darwin 19

2 Evolution Eugenie G. Scott 25

Part II Evolution and Chance 45

Introduction 47

3 Beyond the Reach of Chance Michael Denton 49

4 Accumulating Small Change Richard Dawkins 60

5 Chance and Natural Selection John Beatty 65

6 The Principle of Drift: Biology's First Law Robert N. Brandon 84

Part III The Tautology Problem 95

Introduction 97

7 Darwin's Untimely Burial Stephen Jay Gould 99

8 Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory Robert N. Brandon 103

Part IV Adaptationism 121

Introduction 123

9 The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme Stephen Jay Gould Richard C. Lewontin 125

10 How to Carry Out the Adaptationist Program? Ernst Mayr 137

Part V Biological Function and Teleology 145

Introduction 147

11 The Modern Philosophical Resurrection of Teleology Mark Perlman 149

12 Neo-Teleology Robert Cummins 164

13 A Modern History Theory of Functions Peter Godfrey-Smith 175

Part VI Evolutionary Developmental Biology 189

Introduction 191

14 Endless Forms: The Evolution of Gene Regulation and Morphological Diversity Sean B. Carroll 193

15 Functional Evo-devo Casper J. Breuker Vincent Debat Christian Peter Klingenberg 198

Part VII Reductionism and the Biological Sciences 207

Introduction 209

16 1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences Philip Kitcher 213

17 The Multiple Realizability Argument Against Reductionism Elliott Sober 235

Part VIII Species and Classification Problems 251

Introduction 253

18 Species, Taxonomy, and Systematics Marc Ereshefsky 255

19 Speciation: A Catalogue and Critique of Species Concepts Jerry A. Coyne H. Allen Orr 272

Part IX The Units of Selection Debate 293

Introduction 295

20 Artifact, Cause and Genic Selection Elliott Sober Richard C. Lewontin 297

21 The Return of the Gene Kim Sterelny Philip Kitcher 313

22 The Levels of Selection Debate: Philosophical Issues Samir Okasha 327

Part X Sociobiology and Ethics 335

Introduction 337

23 Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Edward O. Wilson 339

24 The Evolution of Cooperation Robert Axelrod William D. Hamilton 347

25 Darwinism in Contemporary Moral Philosophy and Social Theory Alex Rosenberg 358

Part XI Evolutionary Psychology 371

Introduction 373

26 Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology John Tooby Leda Cosmides 375

27 The Environments of Our Hominin Ancestors, Tool-usage, and Scenario Visualization Robert Arp 387

Part XII Design and Creationism 403

Introduction 405

28 Science and Creationism Donald Prothero 407

29 Irreducible Complexity: Obstacle to Darwinian Evolution Michael J. Behe 427

30 The Flagellum Unspun: The Collapse of "Irreducible Complexity" Kenneth R. Miller 439

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