Phonemic Awareness In Young Children

Phonemic Awareness In Young Children

5.0 1
by Marilyn J. Adams, T. Beeler, Ingvar Lundberg, Barbara R. Foorman
     
 


This invaluable supplementary curriculum meets Reading First criteria and contains numerous classroom-ready activities designed to increase the phonemic awareness and preliteracy skills of preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade students.See more details below

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Overview


This invaluable supplementary curriculum meets Reading First criteria and contains numerous classroom-ready activities designed to increase the phonemic awareness and preliteracy skills of preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade students.

Editorial Reviews

Utah State Textbook Commission Evaluation
"The directions are easy to understand and the lessons follow a developmental sequence beginning with the easiest and most basic activities. . . . This book could be used with any reading program. . . . The games are user-friendly and do not require a large amount of preparation time. . . . Excellent resource book."
Teaching Exceptional Children
Listed as resource Resources: Examples of Phonological Awareness Programs Using Effective Scaffolding
Rondo Early Childhood Special Education, St. Paul Public Schools - Linda Kennedy
The literacy topic is very important. The book (Phonemic Awareness in Young Children) looks like it has some very useable and fun activities. The speaker was clearly very well informed and up-to-date. She had a pleasant style and demeanor.
Anonymous
The activities at the end were fun.
Joseph K. Torgesen
"This is the curriculum in phonemic awareness that many teachers have been waiting for."
American Educator
"This curriculum is an example of what we desperately need more of: research-based theory translated into field-tested materials that teachers can confidently and successfully use in the classroom."
Academic Language Therapist, Hattiesburg, Mississippi - Cena Holifield
"[The] activities reinforce the phonological awareness skills that are crucial for young children to develop the foundation required for becoming a successful reader."
Charles C. Wills

"Very user friendly. The activities serve as a bridge between enjoyment and needed fluency development of the basic phonemes. I recommend this text."
Wisconsin Bookwatch
"Highly recommended."
Australian Journal of Learning DIsabilities
"This book is ideal for schools who have a pre-prep grade or who have an intervention program for prep children at risk or a number of ESL students…Strongly recommended."
Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiologyvolume 22
"Useful for students who are developing normally and who can acquire the targeted skills through exposure."
From the Publisher

"The directions are easy to understand and the lessons follow a developmental sequence beginning with the easiest and most basic activities. . . . This book could be used with any reading program. . . . The games are user-friendly and do not require a large amount of preparation time. . . . Excellent resource book."
Booknews
The authors describe activities for teaching phonemic awareness in kindergarten and the first grade and offer for each set of activities a rationale that addresses issues related to linguistics and literacy development. The program is an adaptation of one developed by Ingvar Lundberg, J. Frost, and O.P. Peterson in Sweden and Denmark. The authors include materials for assessing students' phonological awareness. Spiral wire binding. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781557663214
Publisher:
Brookes, Paul H. Publishing Company
Publication date:
01/01/2001
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
180
Sales rank:
129,684
Product dimensions:
8.70(w) x 11.10(h) x 0.50(d)

Read an Excerpt

Excerpted from chapter 1 of Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum, by Marilyn Jager Adams, Ph.D., Barbara R. Foorman, Ph.D., Ingvar Lundberg, Ph.D., & Terri Beeler, Ed.D.

Copyright © 1998 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

The Nature and Importance of Phonemic Awareness

Before children can make any sense of the alphabetic principle, they must understand that those sounds that are paired with the letters are one and the same as the sounds of speech. For those of us who already know how to read and write, this realization seems very basic, almost transparent. Nevertheless, research shows that the very notion that spoken language is made up of sequences of these little sounds does not come naturally or easily to human beings.

The small units of speech that correspond to letters of an alphabetic writing system are called phonemes. Thus, the awareness that language is composed of these small sounds is termed phonemic awareness. Research indicates that, without direct instructional support, phonemic awareness eludes roughly 25% of middle-class first graders and substantially more of those who come from less literacy-rich backgrounds. Furthermore, these children evidence serious difficulty in learning to read and write (see Adams, 1990, for a review).

Why is awareness of phonemes so difficult? The problem, in large measure, is that people do not attend to the sounds of phonemes as they produce or listen to speech. Instead, they process the phonemes automatically, directing their active attention to the meaning and force of the utterance as a whole. The challenge, therefore, is to find ways to get children to notice the phonemes, to discover their existence and separability. Fortunately, many of the activities involving rhyme, rhytmn, listening, and sounds that have long been enjoyed with preschool-age children are ideally suited for this purpose. In fact, with this goal in mind, all such activities can be used effectively toward helping children to develop phonemic awareness.

The purpose of this book is to provide concrete activities that stimulate the development of phonemic awareness in the preschool or elementary classroom. It is based on a program orginally developed and validated by Lundberg, Frost, and Petersen (1988) in Sweden and Denmark. After translating and adapting it for U.S. classrooms, we field-tested it with kindergarten students and teachers in two schools receiving Title I funds. We, too, found that kindergartners developed the ability to analyze words into sounds significantly more quickly than kindergartners who did not have this program (Foorman, Francis, Beeler, & Fletcher, 1997). This ability to analyze words into sounds is exactly the skill that promotes sucessful reading in first grade (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1994).

About the Structure of Language

In order to build phonemic awareness in all children, classroom teachers should know a little about the structure of language, especially phonology. Phonology is the study of the unconscious rules governing speech-sound production. In contrast, phonetics is the study of the way in which speech sounds are articulated, and phonics is the system by which symbols represent sounds in an alphabetic writing system.

Phonological rules constrain speech-sound production for biological and environmental reasons. Biological constraints are due to the limitations of human articulatory-motor production. For example, humans are not able to produce the high-frequency vocalizations of whales. Other constraints on our ability to produce speech have to do with the way our brains classify and perceive the minimal units of sound that make a difference to meaning — the units we call phonemes.

The differences between the sounds of two phonemes are often very subtle: Compare /b/ with /p/. Yet, these subtle differences in sound can signal dramatic differences in meaning: Compare bat with pat. Fortunately, because phonemes are the basic building blocks of spoken language, babies become attuned to the phonemes of their native language in the first few months of life. However, this sensitivity to the sounds of the phonemes and the differences between them is not conscious. It is deeply embedded in the subattentional machinery of the language system.

Phonemes are also the units of speech that are represented by the letters of the alphabetic language. Thus, developing readers must learn to separate these sounds, one from another, and to categorize them in a way that permits understanding how words are spelled. It is this sort of explicity, reflective knowledge that falls under the rubric of phonemic awareness. Conscious awareness of phonemes is distinct from the huolt-in sensitivity that supports speech production and reception. Unfortunately, phonemic awareness is not easy to establish.

Part of the difficulty in acquiring phonemic awareness is that, form word to word and speaker to speaker, the sound of any given phoneme can vary considerably. These sorts of variations in spoken form that do not indicate a difference in meaning are referred to as allophones of a phoneme. For exmaple, in the northern part of the United States, the pronunciation of grease typically rhymes with peace, whereas in parts of the South, it shymes with sneeze. Similarly, the pronunciations of the vowels vary greatly across regions, dialects, and individuals. Alternately, variations in spokn form sometimes eliminate phonetic distinctions between phonemes. Thus, for some people, the words pin and pen are pronounced differently woth distinct medial sounds corresponding to their distinct bowels. For other people, however, these words are phonetically indistinguishable, leaving context as the only clue to meaning. Indeed, because of variations in the language even linguists find it difficult to say exactly how many phonemes there are in English; answers vary from 44 to 52.

Excerpted from chapter 1 of Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum, by Marilyn Jager Adams, Ph.D., Barbara R. Foorman, Ph.D., Ingvar Lundberg, Ph.D., & Terri Beeler, Ed.D.

Copyright © 1998 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

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