The Phonological Structure of the Verbal Roots in Arabic and Hebrew

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Overview

This book contains an investigation of the co-occurrence between the consonants in the triliteral and quadriliteral verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew. The consonants are grouped on the basis of Manner or of Place. Both co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preferences of consonants and of consonant groups are described in detail. The statistical test for pronomial proportions is used in order to determine the statistical significance of the results. These results are compared to those of earlier work by other authors on this subject. The findings are explained within the framework of generative phonology. The methods used are described in detail and the book contains a wealth of tabulated material which can be of great use to other investigators.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
In his 1999 doctoral dissertation in Semitic languages and linguistics, Bachra studies the co-occurrence restrictions on consonant pairs in the verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew and evaluates his findings against the background of previous studies. He also looks into the possibility that the verbal roots may show preferences for certain consonant pairs, noting that though other scholars have studied co-occurrence restrictions, he knew of none who had systematically investigated preferred consonant pairs. To find both avoided and preferred consonant pairs, he uses the framework of generative phonology and an autosegmental approach, and tests for statistical significance because neither avoidance nor preference is absolute. His index is less than a page long. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Bernard N. Bachra, Ph.D. (1955), in Biochemistry at the Municipal University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and Ph.D. (1999) in Semitic Languages and Linguistics at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands. He has published several papers on the co-occurrence relationships of the consonants in the verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Abbreviations for the languages. Explanation of technical terms
Ch. 1 General introduction, purpose and scope of this study
Ch. 2 The verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew and their autosegmental representation
2.1 Aspects of the phonology of Arabic and Hebrew 8
2.2 Types of verbal roots 12
2.3 Autosegmental representation of phonological features 16
Ch. 3 Earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions in Semitic
3.1 Phonological constraints on pairs of consonants 25
3.2 The pregenerative approach 26
3.3 The generative approach 41
3.4 Discussion of the earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions and preferences 46
Ch. 4 Methodology used in this study
4.1 The files of verbal roots 51
4.2 Method of calculation for the triliterals 52
4.3 Method of calculation for the quadriliterals 56
4.4 Possible effects of low frequencies of occurrence 57
4.5 The two approaches used in this study 58
Ch. 5 Co-occurrence restrictions which act on the consonants in the verbal root patterns of Arabic and Hebrew
5.1 Introductory remarks 61
5.2 Types of phonological constraints which can cause co-occurrence restrictions 62
5.3 The consonant distribution in the three root positions of the Triliterals 63
5.4 Combinatory constraints which act on triliterals 65
5.5 Ordering constraints which act on triliterals 68
5.6 Co-occurrence restrictions on specific consonants 68
5.7 Co-occurrence restrictions on consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae 72
5.8 Co-occurrence restrictions on the quadriliterals 72
5.9 Co-occurrence restrictions on root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 74
5.10 Co-occurrence restrictions on triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions 75
Ch. 6 Co-occurrence preferences for verbal roots in Arabic and Hebrew
6.1 Introductory remarks 80
6.2 Co-occurrence preferences for triliteral root patterns with two specified consonant groups 80
6.3 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with a labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups 88
6.4 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae 94
6.5 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the quadriliterals 94
6.6 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 97
6.7 Preferred triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions 98
6.8 Triliteral root patterns with three specified positions which contain a labial or a coronal sonorant 106
6.9 Co-occurrence preferences among the Quadriliterals of the type C1C2C3C3 110
Ch. 7 Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preference in Arabic and Hebrew. Refinement and summary of the findings
7.1 Introductory remarks 112
7.2 Co-occurrence restrictions on triliterals with two specified root positions 112
7.3 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals 117
7.4 Co-occurrence relationships of the quadriliterals with two specified root positions 120
7.5 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with three specified root positions 123
7.6 Comparison of the Mediae Geminatae and the triliterals with three specified positions 134
Ch. 8 Theoretical implications
8.1 Introduction 135
8.2 Co-occurrence restrictions. The OCP and the NBC 136
8.3 The co-occurrence relationships of the uvular stop /q/ 137
8.4 The role of [continuant] in the co-occurrence relationships 143
8.5 Sonority and Manner features 147
8.6 The co-occurrence relationships of nasals, liquids and coronal sonorants 153
8.7 Root patterns with three specified positions classified on the basis of Place 155
8.8 Quadriliterals and triliterals. Similarities and differences in their co-occurrence relationships 157
8.9 Other explanations for the co-occurrence restrictions 158
8.10 Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preferences. Rules and exceptions 170
8.11 Comparison of the co-occurrence relationships of the consonants in the verbal roots of AR, BH and HEB 177
8.12 Reasons for the differences between AR, BH and HEB 181
Summary 183
References 189
Explanation for the symbols in the tables 195
Tables 197
Index 326
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