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This text examines the environmental setting and resulting phosphorites that formed during the Miocene, one of the major and most recent phosphogenic periods throughout the geological record. Sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) are of major commercial significance, being one of the world's most important non-renewable resources, and essential in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers and phosphate based chemicals. An oceanographic perspective is provided by investigations of modern oceanic ...
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This text examines the environmental setting and resulting phosphorites that formed during the Miocene, one of the major and most recent phosphogenic periods throughout the geological record. Sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) are of major commercial significance, being one of the world's most important non-renewable resources, and essential in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers and phosphate based chemicals. An oceanographic perspective is provided by investigations of modern oceanic environments where phosphorites are presently forming. Together, the geologic and marine approaches provide a complete outlook on this important mineral resource. This is the third of four planned reference volumes that together will cover the achievements of the International Geological Correlation Programme Project 156 (Phosphates) during the ten years of the project's existence. As with the previous volumes, this will form an essential work of reference for geologists and mining engineers interested in the search for, and exploitation of, phosphate rock deposits.
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. The Modern Setting: 1. Upwelling processes associated with Western Boundary Currents; 2. Diagenesis of phosphorus in sediments from non-upwelling areas; 3. Organic matter in Modern marine phosphatic sediments from the Peruvian continental margin; 4. Pore water, petrologic and stable carbon isotopic data bearing on the origin of Modern Peru margin phosphorites and associated authigenic phases; 5. Phosphorite growth and sediment dynamics in the Modern Peru shelf upwelling system; Part II. Modern and Neogene Phosphorites and Associated Sediments: 6. Occurrence of dolomite in Neogene phosphatic sediments; 7. Organic geochemistry of phosphorites: relative behaviors of phosphorus and nitrogen during the formation of humic compounds in phosphate-bearing sequences; 8. Neogene to Holocene phosphorites of Australia; 9. Miocene phosphorites of Cuba; 10. Phosphorite deposits in the Upper Oligocene, San Gregorio Formation at San Juan de la Costa, Baja California Sur, Mexico; 11. Phosphates in West and Central Africa - the problem of Neogene and Recent formations; 12. Phosphorite deposits on the Namibian continental shelf; 13. Phosphorite deposits on the South African continental margin and coastal terrace; 14. Moroccan offshore phosphorite deposits; 15. Neogene phosphorites of the Sea of Japan; 16. Physical and chemical properties of the phosphate deposit on Nauru, western equatorial Pacific Ocean; 17. The submerged phosphate deposit of Mataiva Atoll, French Polynesia; Part III. The Neogene Environment: 18. Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic controls of the temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cenozoic continental margin phosphorites; 19. Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic setting of the Miocene phosphogenic episode; 20. Isotopic evidence for temperature and productivity in the Tertiary oceans; 21. Climate model evidence for variable continental precipitation and its significance for phosphorite formation; 22. Neogene geochemical cycles: implications concerning phosphogenesis; Part IV. Neogene Phosphorites of California and the Southeastern USA: 23. Miocene phosphogenesis in California; 24. The role of bacterial mats in phosphate mineralization with particular reference to the Monterey Formation; 25. Coupled changes of oxygen isotopes in PO3/4- and CO2/3- in apatite, with emphasis on the Monterey Formation, California; 26. The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group of peninsular Florida; 27. Clay mineralogy of the phosphorites of the southeastern United States; 28. Paleoceanography and paleogeography of the Miocene of the southeastern United States; 29. Carolina continental margin: Part I. Stratigraphic framework for cyclical deposition of Miocene sediments in the Carolina Phosphogenic Province; 30. Carolina continental margin: Part II. The seismic stratigraphic record of shifting Gulf Stream flow paths in response to Miocene glacio-eustacy: implications for phosphogenesis along the North Carolina continental margin; 31. Carolina continental margin: Part III. Patterns of phosphate deposition and lithofacies relationships within the Miocene Pungo River Formation, North Carolina continental margin; 32. Carolina continental margin: Part IV. Relationships between benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Neogene phosphatic sediments; North Carolina coastal plain and continental shelf.