Loading Film into the Camera.
Focusing and Setting the Exposure.
Taking Your Picture.
What Will You Photograph?
Using Shutter and Aperture Together.
Choosing a Camera.
Keeping the Camera Steady.
Photographer at Work: Photojournalist James Nachtwey.
Lens Focal Length.
Focusing Your Lens.
Focus and Depth of Field.
How to Make a Close-up Photograph.
Guidelines for Buying a Lens.
Getting the Most from Your Camera and Lens.
4. LIGHT AND FILM.
How Film Responds to Light.
Photographer at Work: Another Angle on Sports—Walter Iooss.
How to Meter.
6. DEVELOPING THE NEGATIVE.
Processing Black-and-White Roll Film Step by Step.
How Film Processing Affects Your Picture.
Exposure and Development: Under, Normal, Over.
7. PRINTING THE POSITIVE.
Making a Black-and-White Print Step by Step.
Evaluating Density and Contrast in a Print.
Dodging and Burning.
Archival Processing for Maximum Permanence.
Toning for Color and Other Effects.
8. FINISHING AND MOUNTING.
Mounting a Print.
Color Photographs: Three Image Layers.
Choosing a Color Film.
Developing Color Film.
Making a Color Print from a Negative.
Making a Color Print from a Transparency.
Photographer at Work: Advertising Photographer Chris Clemens.
10. DIGITAL CAMERA.
Using a Digital Camera.
Choosing a Digital Camera.
11. DIGITAL DARKROOM.
Scanning a Photograph.
The Digital Photograph.
Working Memory, Storage, and Transmission.
Your Work Area and Tools.
Adjusting the Image Overall.
Printing and Display.
Ethics and Digital Imaging.
Using Digital Imaging.
Photographer at Work: Merging Photography and Illustration—William Duke.
Degree of Diffusion: From Hard to Soft Light.
The Main Light: The Dominant Source.
The Fill Light: To Lighten Shadows.
Lighting with Flash.
Simple Portrait Lighting.
Multiple-Light Portrait Setups.
Lighting Textured Objects.
Lighting Reflective Objects.
Lighting Translucent Objects.
Photographer at Work: Dance Photographer Lois Greenfield.
13. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES.
Special Printing Techniques.
14. VIEW CAMERA.
View Camera Movements.
Using a View Camera to Control the Image.
Equipment You'll Need.
What to Do First—and Next.
Loading and Processing Sheet Film.
15. ZONE SYSTEM.
Using the Zone Scale While Metering.
How Development Controls Contrast.
Putting It All Together.
Photographer at Work: Using the Zone System—John Sexton.
16. SEEING PHOTOGRAPHS.
Looking at—and Talking About—Photographs.
Showing Your Work to Editors and Others.
17. HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
Daguerreotype: “Designs on Silver Bright.”
Collodion Wet-Plate: Sharp and Reproducible.
Gelatin Emulsion/Roll-Film Base: Photography for Everyone.
Early Travel Photography.
Early Images of War.
Time and Motion in Early Photographs.
The Photograph as Document.
Photography and Social Change.
Photography as Art in the 19th Century.
Pictorial Photography and the Photo-Secession.
The Direct Image in Art.
The Quest for New Vision.
Photography as Art in the 1950s and Beyond.
A Gallery of Contemporary Photography.