By emphasizing both technique and visual awareness, the Sixth Edition of Photography by Barbara London and John Upton teaches the skills you will need to use the medium confidently and effectively. In particular, it features:
Basic black-and-white photography first, followed by special techniques such as color photography, lighting and close-up photography.
A completely updated chapter, Chapter 12, covers Digital Imaging, including information about posting pictures on the Internet and CD-ROM.
Step-by-step demonstration images have been completely redrawn to show techniques more clearly and to focus on key details.
"Lights Out" icons have been added to the step-by-step images to show when the room should be dark.
A new, fully illustrated Troubleshooting Appendix diagnoses common problems and tells how to prevent them.
For convenience, each major idea, skill or technique is covered on two facing pages.
The work of professional photographers is highlighted both in images throughout the book and in "Photographer at Work" interviews.
This venerable volume, now in its sixth edition, is uniquely suited to aide beginners and professionals alike. This edition has been updated to include a chapter on digital photography and internet-ready imaging. The insights of professional photographers are included throughout, in the form of images and interviews. When an instructional work has lasted through this many editions, you know it offers the advice and information photography buffs require.
Product dimensions: 10.12 (w) x 10.78 (h) x 0.88 (d)
Meet the Author
Jim Stone is an Associate Professor of Photography at the University of New Mexico. His photographs have been collected by the Museum of Modern Art and The Smithsonian American Art Museum, among many others. Books of his work include Stranger Than Fiction (Light Work, 1993),Historiostomy (Piltdown Press, 2001), and Why My Pictures are Good (Nazraeli Press, 2005).
He has also published six higher education titles that are widely used in university courses: A User¹s Guide to the View Camera, Darkroom Dynamics, Photography, Photography: The Essential Way, A Short Course in Photography, and A Short Course in Digital Photography.
Barbara London has authored and co-authored many photography books from their first editions to their current ones, including Photography, Photography: The Essential Way, A Short Course in Photography, A Short Course in Digital Photography, The Photograph Collector's Guide, and more.
John Upton, Professor Emeritus, was for many years Chair of Photography at Orange Coast College, one of the largest photography departments in the U.S. He has curated a number of exhibitions, including Color as Form: A History of Color Photography. His work is included in many private and public collections, including the New York Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.
Camera and Film.
Loading Film into the Camera.
Focusing and Setting the Exposure.
Taking Your Picture.
What Will You Photograph?
Basic Camera Controls.
Using Shutter and Aperture Together.
Choosing a Camera.
Keeping the Camera Steady.
Photographer at Work: Photojournalist James Nachtwey.
From Pinhole to Lens.
Lens Focal Length.
Focusing Your Lens.
Focus and Depth of Field.
How to Make a Close-up Photograph.
Guidelines for Buying a Lens.
Getting the Most from Your Camera and Lens.
4. LIGHT AND FILM.
Selecting and Using Film.
How Film Responds to Light.
Photographer at Work: Another Angle on Sports—Walter Iooss.
How to Meter.
6. DEVELOPING THE NEGATIVE.
How to Process Black-and-White Roll Film.
Processing Black-and-White Roll Film Step by Step.
How Film Processing Affects Your Picture.
Exposure and Development: Under, Normal, Over.
7. PRINTING THE POSITIVE.
Making a Black-and-White Print Step by Step.
Evaluating Density and Contrast in a Print.
Dodging and Burning.
Archival Processing for Maximum Permanence.
Toning for Color and Other Effects.
8. FINISHING AND MOUNTING.
Spotting to Remove Minor Flaws.
Mounting a Print.
Color: Additive or Subtractive.
Color Photographs: Three Image Layers.
Choosing a Color Film.
Developing Color Film.
Making a Color Print from a Negative.
Making a Color Print from a Transparency.
Photographer at Work: Advertising Photographer Chris Clemens.
10. DIGITAL CAMERA.
A Computer with a Lens.
Using a Digital Camera.
Choosing a Digital Camera.
11. DIGITAL DARKROOM.
Digital Imaging: An Overview.
Scanning a Photograph.
The Digital Photograph.
Working Memory, Storage, and Transmission.
Your Work Area and Tools.
Adjusting the Image Overall.
Printing and Display.
Ethics and Digital Imaging.
Using Digital Imaging.
Photographer at Work: Merging Photography and Illustration—William Duke.
Direction of Light.
Degree of Diffusion: From Hard to Soft Light.
The Main Light: The Dominant Source.
The Fill Light: To Lighten Shadows.
Lighting with Flash.
Simple Portrait Lighting.
Multiple-Light Portrait Setups.
Lighting Textured Objects.
Lighting Reflective Objects.
Lighting Translucent Objects.
Photographer at Work: Dance Photographer Lois Greenfield.
13. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES.
Special Printing Techniques.
14. VIEW CAMERA.
Inside a View Camera.
View Camera Movements.
Using a View Camera to Control the Image.
Equipment You'll Need.
What to Do First—and Next.
Loading and Processing Sheet Film.
15. ZONE SYSTEM.
The Zone System Scales.
Using the Zone Scale While Metering.
How Development Controls Contrast.
Putting It All Together.
Photographer at Work: Using the Zone System—John Sexton.
16. SEEING PHOTOGRAPHS.
Looking at—and Talking About—Photographs.
Showing Your Work to Editors and Others.
17. HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
The Invention of Photography.
Daguerreotype: “Designs on Silver Bright.”
Collodion Wet-Plate: Sharp and Reproducible.
Gelatin Emulsion/Roll-Film Base: Photography for Everyone.
Early Travel Photography.
Early Images of War.
Time and Motion in Early Photographs.
The Photograph as Document.
Photography and Social Change.
Photography as Art in the 19th Century.
Pictorial Photography and the Photo-Secession.
The Direct Image in Art.
The Quest for New Vision.
Photography as Art in the 1950s and Beyond.
A Gallery of Contemporary Photography.
Troubleshooting: Finding the Problem/Finding the Solution.
More than a million copies of Photography are now in print. Many people who have used this book have become professional photographers or photography instructors, or are continuing to pursue their personal interest in photography. Whatever your interest in photography is, this book is designed to teach the skills that you will need to use the medium confidently and effectively.
The emphasis of this edition continues to be in two major areas—technique and visual awareness. The technical material helps you learn how to control the photographic process, or as Ansel Adams put it, to "understand the way that the lens 'sees' and the film 'sees.'" Equally important, this book can help you see by showing you the choices that other photographers have made and that you can make when you raise a camera to your eye.
Clarity and convenience have always been a focus of this book. In this edition even more effort has been made to organize and format information into an easy guide for beginning photographers and a quick reference for those with experience.
The easy-to-use format has been maintained, with each two facing pages completing a single idea, skill, or technique.
Boldfaced topic sentences outline the text on every page.
"More About . . ." boxes on many pages cross-reference related topics in other parts of the book.
Computer icons call attention to related information about digital imaging or to information in the digital imaging chapters.
The general organization of technical information has been maintained, with the addition of a technical update.
Generalphotographic techniques are covered completely in Chapters 1-8: camera, lens, film, exposure, developing and printing black-and-white film, and mounting.
Chapters 10 and 11 expand and update information on digital imaging.
Chapters 9, 12, 13, 14, and 15 cover color photography, lighting, special techniques (such as cyanotyping ), view camera use, and a specialized method of exposure and development—the Zone System.
A fully illustrated "Troubleshooting Appendix," beginning on page 400, groups together technical problems, their causes, and ways to prevent them.
Improving visual awareness is a major emphasis of the book. Many new demonstration photographs have been added to make topics easy to understand. Throughout the book you will find hundreds of illustrations by the best photographers showing how they have put to use various technical concepts. See for example:
The photographs illustrating lens focal length on pages 45, 47, and 49, or how one photographer uses electronic flash plus available light on page 289.
"Photographer at Work" pages throughout the book feature interviews with photographers who have developed successful careers in everything from dance photography (pages 290 291) to digital illustration (pages 256-257).
Chapter 16, "Seeing Photographs" (pages 340-365), deals with composition, tonality, sharpness, and other visual elements that will help you make better pictures yourself, and see other people's photographs with a more sophisticated eye.
Chapter 17 (pages 366-399) surveys the history of photography so that you can place today's photography—and your own—in an historical context.
We are pleased to announce an expanded and interactive Website. You can visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/london. It contains many features, including:
Simulations and demonstrations of various photographic processes
A study guide
Links to other photography e-sites
An instructor's manual and integrated student lab manual/journal are available, which include:
processing and exposure records
numerous tips to complement the text.
Every edition of Photography has been a collaborative effort. Instructors, students, photographers, manufacturers, editors, gallery people, and many others participated in it. They fielded queries, made suggestions, responded to material, and were unfailingly generous with their time, energy, and creative thinking.
Special thanks go to instructors who reviewed the previous edition of Photography as well as parts of this edition, and who volunteered many good ideas. They brought a particularly useful point of view, contributing many ideas on not only what to teach, but how to teach it:
Ayana Baltrip, University of California, Berkeley
Rick Bruner, Shepherd College
Elizabeth Burnham, Barton College
Susan Ciricialo, California College of Arts and Crafts
Charles Dmytriw, Northwestern Connecticut Community College
Steve Dzerigian, Fresno City College
Harris Fogel, University of the Arts, Philadelphia
Jack Fulton, San Francisco Art Institute
Chris Johnson, California College of Arts and Crafts
Jim Kelly, Southern Illinois University
John Knowlton, Green River Community College
Philip Krejcarek, Carroll College
John Labadie, University of North Carolina, Pembroke
Libby Rowe, Oregon College of Arts and Crafts
Ken Smith, University of Wyoming
Evon Streetman, Florida State University
Deborah Tharpe, University of Alaska, Anchorage
Catherine Wagner, Mills College
Al Wildey, University of Idaho School of Communications
Susan Zavoina, University of North Texas
Without editorial and production assistance, a book of this size and complexity would be impossible to complete. Barbara London and John Upton would like to thank Peggy Jones, who made many contributions to the digital imaging chapters, both in terms of technical concepts and how to put those concepts to creative use. Joe Ciaglia, as usual, could answer any question about digital imaging. Jim Stone's experience with his own books provided many insights. Blade Gillissen had information on everything from lenses to flash meters. Sean Upton handled a host of editorial tasks—and more.
At Prentice Hall, special thanks to Bud Therien and Kimberly Chastain, and to Barbara DeVries for somehow keeping track of it all.
Ken Kobre and Betsy Brill appreciate the help of Debra Klochko, Director, Friends of Photography, Ansel Adams Gallery; Doug Nickel, Photography Curator at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Arthur Oilman, Director, Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego; and collector David Raymond.
Many equipment manufacturers and technical reviewers were helpful, both in lending equipment and in reviewing material. Richard LoPinto and Mike Phillips, Nikon USA; Bernard Denevi, Nikon France; Sally Smith-Clemens, John Knaur, and Ray Acevedo, Olympus America; Wendy Erickson, Ilford; Shlomo Cazary, Sony; Tom Kunhardt, Kodak; Polaroid Corp.; Lexar; Genuine Fractals; Vivid Details; Larry Guyer, Better Light, Inc.; and Dave Christensen, North Light Products, Inc.
Special thanks for many helpful suggestions from industry consultant Fran Herman; Dave Guralnick, Detroit News; Barbara Fredericks, Infoworld magazine; Adobe Evangelist Julianne Kost; Fireside Camera, San Francisco; Unruh Photography Shop and Sonoma Image in Santa Rosa, California.
Warren Hsu, a chemist, photographer, and versatile assistant, conducted many experiments for us. Warren and Scot Tucker spent long hours assisting with the new chemical darkroom step-by-step pictures. Many of the new color demos were photographed and scanned for publication by Sibylla Herbrich, a teacher of photography at San Francisco State. Artist Ben Barbante, Infoworld art director and teacher at City College of San Francisco, contributed his considerable skills in digital illustration and photography.
Ken and Betsy owe special thanks to Nancy, McDermid, Dean of Humanities at San Francisco State University, where Ken is a professor of photojournalism; to Annemarie and Lou Madison; Karen Russell; and, most important of all, Ken's mother, Reva Kobre, Betsy's father, Earl Wright, and our supportive and loving daughter, Daria Brill.
This is a book that students keep. They refer to it long after they have finished the basic photo course for which it was purchased. Some of the people who contributed to this edition used the book themselves when they were studying photography, and still have their original, now dog-eared edition. As you work with the book, you may have suggestions on how to improve it. Please send them to us. They will be sincerely welcomed.
Dedicated to everyone who is part of this new edition.