Photosynthesis in Bryophytes and Early Land Plants

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Bryophytes, which are important constituents of ecosystems globally and often dominate carbon and water dynamics at high latitudes and elevations, were also among the pioneers of terrestrial photosynthesis. Consequently, in addition to their present day ecological value, modern representatives of these groups contain the legacy of adaptations that led to the greening of Earth. This volume brings together experts on bryophyte photosynthesis whose research spans the genome and cell through whole plant and ecosystem...

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Overview

Bryophytes, which are important constituents of ecosystems globally and often dominate carbon and water dynamics at high latitudes and elevations, were also among the pioneers of terrestrial photosynthesis. Consequently, in addition to their present day ecological value, modern representatives of these groups contain the legacy of adaptations that led to the greening of Earth. This volume brings together experts on bryophyte photosynthesis whose research spans the genome and cell through whole plant and ecosystem function and combines that with historical perspectives on the role of algal, bryophyte and vascular plant ancestors on terrestrialization of the Earth. The eighteen well-illustrated chapters reveal unique physiological approaches to achieving carbon balance and dealing with environmental limitations and stresses that present an alternative, yet successful strategy for land plants.

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Table of Contents

From the Series Editors.- Preface.- The Editors.- Contributors.- Author Index.- 1. What Can We Learn From Bryophyte Photosynthesis?; David T. Hanson, Steven K. Rice.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Terrestrialization.- III. Biochemical and Cellular Biology.- IV. Organization of the Bryophyte Photosynthetic System.- V. Ecophysiology of Bryophyte Photosynthesis: Adapting to Environmental Stress.- VI. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 2. Early Terrestrialization: Transition From Algal to Bryophyte Grade; Linda Graham et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Molecular Systematics Provides a Reasonably Well-resolved Framework For Investigations of Terrrestrialization Process and Pattern.- III. Early-evolved Physiological Traits Likely Fostered the Process by Which Streptophytes Made the Transition to Land.- IV. Comparison of Early-diverging Modern Photosynthesizers to Precambrian-Devonian Fossils Illuminates the Pattern of Terrestrialization.- V. Perspective.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 3. Photosynthesis in Early Land Plants: Adapting to the Terrestrial Environment; John A. Raven, Dianne Edwards.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Extant Terrestrial Cyanobacteria, Algae and Embryophytes.- III. The Time of Origin of Photosynthetic Taxa With Emphasis on Those Which Occur on Land.- IV. Evidence of Primary Productivity on Land Before and Contemporary With the First Evidence of Embryophytes.- V. Terrestrial Photosynthetic Organisms in the Upper Silurian and Devonian.- VI. Photosynthetic Capacities.- VII. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 4. The Diversification of Bryophytes and Vascular Plants in Evolving Terrestrial Environments; Michael C. F. Proctor.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Beginnings: The Transition From Water to Land.- III. Exchanges of Matter and Energy at the Earth’s Surface.- IV. Selection Pressures on Early Land Plants.- V. The Evolution of Vascular Plants.- VI. The Post-Palaeozoic Scene: Complex Habitats.- VII. Overview.- Acknowledgements.- References.-
5. Best Practices for Measuring Photosynthesis at Multiple Scales; Steven K. Rice, J. Hans C. Cornelissen.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. The Photosynthetic Organ in Bryophytes.- III. Standardizing Photosynthetic Measurements.- IV. Best Practices for Studies of Photosynthesis.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 6. Diffusion Limitation and CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms in Bryophytes; David T. Hanson et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Tissue Structure and CO2 Diffusion.- III. Evolutionary Trade-Off Between Cell Wall Structure and CO2 Diffusion.- IV. The Carbon Concentrating Mechanism (CCM) of Bryophytes.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 7. Sunsafe Bryophytes: Photoprotection from Excess and Damaging Solar Radiation; Sharon A. Robinson, Melinda J. Waterman.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Avoiding Absorption of Excessive or Damaging Radiation.- III. Dealing With Excess Light Absorbed Within the Chloroplast.- IV. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 8. Chloroplast Movement in Higher Plants, Ferns and Bryophytes: A Comparative Point of View; Martina Königer.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Photoreceptors.- III. The Role of the Cytoskeleton.- IV. Chloroplast Movement Speed.- V. Degrees of Movement.- VI. Effects of Other Environmental Factors on Chloroplast Positioning.- VII. Chloroplast Movement in Different Cellular Locations.- VIII. Ecological Importance.- IX. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 9. Scaling Light Harvesting from Moss “Leaves” to Canopies; Ülo Niinemets, Mari Tobias.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Light Interception in Mosses.- III. Gradients of “Leaf” Traits in Moss Canopies: Acclimation or Senescence?.- IV. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 10. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bryophyte Canopies; Steven K. Rice et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Chlorophyll Fluorescence 2D Imaging in Sphagnum.- III. 3D Thermal Mapping of Bryophyte Canopies.- IV. Light Dynamics in Virtual Bazzania trilobata Canopies.- V. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 11. Genetics and Genomics of Moss Models: Physiology Enters the 21st Century; David J. Cove, Andrew C. Cuming.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Propagation.- III. Genetic Manipulation.- IV. Genomic Data and Applications.- V. Potential for Photosynthetic Studies.- References.- 12. Photosynthesis in Aquatic Bryophytes; Janice M. Glime.- Summary.- I. Introduction: History of Photosynthesis in Aquatic Bryophytes.- II. The Role of Plant and Habitat Structure in Photosynthesis.- III. Substrate Availability and Utilization in Aquatic Bryophytes.- IV. Desiccation.- V. Storage Compounds.- VI. Productivity.- VII. Seasons.- VIII. Future Research.- References.- 13. Physiological Ecology of Peatland Bryophytes; Tomáš Hájek.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Specific Adaptations of Peatland Bryophytes.- III. Specific Properties of Peatlands.- IV. Seasonal Variability of Photosynthesis and Respiration.- V. Photosynthesis and Production in a Warmer and Richer World.- VI. Suggestions for Further Research.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 14. Interacting Controls on Ecosystem Photosynthesis and Respiration in Contrasting Peatland Ecosystems; Lawrence B. Flanagan.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Characteristics of Study Sites and Ecosystem CO2 Flux Measurements.- III. Comparison of a Sphagnum-dominated Poor Fen and a Carex-dominated Rich Fen.- IV. Sensitivity of CO2 Exchange in a Moderately-rich Fen to Warmer and Drier Conditions.- V. Peatland Succession and Implications for Historical and Future Carbon Sequestration.- VI. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 15. Physiological Ecology of Tropical Bryophytes; Sebastian Wagner et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. The Physical Setting.- III. The Carbon Balance of Tropical Bryophytes.- IV. Effects of Hydration and Desiccation on the Carbon Balance.- V. Effects of Light and CO2 on the Carbon Balance.- VI. Effects of Temperature on the Carbon Balance.- VII. Nutrients.- VIII. The Fate of Non-Vascular Epiphytes under Global Change.- IX. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 16. Physiological Ecology of Dryland Biocrust Mosses; Kirsten K. Coe et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Desiccation Tolerance, Precipitation Pulses, and Carbon Balance.- III. Water Relations.- IV. Temperature Relations.- V. Response to Variation in Light.- VI. Responses to Elevated CO2.- VII. Nutrient Relations.- VIII. Distributions and Ecological Roles of Biocrust Moss in a Future Climate.- IX. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 17. Dominating the Antarctic Environment: Bryophytes in a Time of Change; Jessica E. Bramley-Alves et al.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Water Availability.- III. Temperature.- IV. The Ozone Hole and Increased Ultraviolet Radiation.- V. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 18. Opportunities in Bryophyte Photosynthesis Research; Steven K. Rice, David T. Hanson.- Summary.- I. Introduction.- II. Opportunities in Bryophyte Photosynthesis Research.- III. Bryophyte Biology and Related Resources.- IV. Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Subject Index.

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