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Phototransformation Of Organophosporus Pesticides

Overview

Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides are a large group of chemicals that have been widely used because of their high acute toxicity and relatively high degradation rates. They have been detected in surface and ground waters and pose potential health threats to the ecosystem. UV and UV/H2O 2 (AOPs) are considered to be effective techniques for the degradation of the pesticides. Direct photolysis by two types of Hg UV lamps, low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP), and the UV/H2O2 AOP was utilized to evaluate the ...
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Overview

Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides are a large group of chemicals that have been widely used because of their high acute toxicity and relatively high degradation rates. They have been detected in surface and ground waters and pose potential health threats to the ecosystem. UV and UV/H2O 2 (AOPs) are considered to be effective techniques for the degradation of the pesticides. Direct photolysis by two types of Hg UV lamps, low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP), and the UV/H2O2 AOP was utilized to evaluate the kinetics and mechanisms of the degradation of three OP pesticides including chlorpyrifos, parathion and diazinon in various waters. Results demonstrated that direct photolysis was slow and ineffective for the destruction of the pesticides. On the other hand, UV/H2O2 AOP treatment was proved more effective due to the reactions between the produced hydroxyl radicals and pesticides. The second-order reaction rate constants between hydroxyl radicals and OP pesticides were determined to be 4.9 +/- 0.1 x109 and 9.70 +/- 0.45 x10 9 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos and parathion, respectively, indicating these pesticides are vulnerable to AOP treatment. Bicarbonate was an important factor in controlling the effectiveness of UV/H2O2 AOP against the pesticides through the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and generating carbonate radicals. Phototransformation of the pesticides by UV/H2O2 AOP yielded several inorganic and organic byproducts identified by using GC/EI-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) and IC (ion chromatograph). The mechanisms of degradation included several simultaneous pathways. The degradation of these pesticides through sensitized phototransformation by sunlight was also evaluated. Although major water constituents affect the degradation of the pesticides, the contribution of natural organic matter (NOM) was identified as a primary factor. Finally, removal of toxicity as a function of phototransformation was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Results demonstrated that the UV/H2O2 AOP can effectively reduce the overall toxicity of pesticides despite the formation of various byproducts.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781244067189
  • Publisher: BiblioLabsII
  • Publication date: 9/11/2011
  • Pages: 96
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 9.69 (h) x 0.20 (d)

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