PHP and MySQL Web Development / Edition 5

Overview

Master today's best practices for succeeding with PHP 5.5 and MySQL 5.6 web database development! Long acknowledged as the clearest, most practical, and most down-to-earth guide to PHP/MySQL web development, the brand-new Fifth Edition of PHP and MySQL Web Development fully reflects the latest versions of PHP and MySQL. Maintaining the approach that has made this book so successful through, Luke Welling and Laura Thomson add extensive new coverage of security, cloud and mobile development, and using the PEAR repository's massive resources. Part I offers a crash course in using PHP, including data storage/retrieval, arrays, strings, regular expressions, code reuse, objects, and error/exception handling. Next, walk through designing, creating, accessing, and programming MySQL databases. Part III turns to e-commerce, adding extensive new coverage of web security, plus up-to-the-minute discussions of authentication and secure transactions. A full section of advanced PHP techniques addresses everything from networking and filesystem interaction to image generation and session control. The authors conclude with primers on real-world development and debugging, followed by ten start-to-finish case studies, from authentication to content management, personalized PDFs to web services and Web 2.0 apps.

An intermediate to advanced guide to PHP and MySQL, the free, open-sourced Web development products. Offers coverage of object-oriented Web programming, creating services using SSL and authentication, and other applications. The CD-ROM includes full versions of PHP, MySQL, and Apache for Windows and Linux/Unix systems, several graphics libraries, files containing the code listings in the book, and the entire book in PDF format.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
The Barnes & Noble Review
Thousands of web developers have found all the database help they need in PHP and MySQL Web Development. In their new Third Edition, Luke Welling and Laura Thomson update their classic to reflect new enhancements ranging from PHP5’s new object model to MySQL 5’s long-awaited stored procedures.

As before, you’ll find loads of practical sample code (all of it on the accompanying CD-ROM). The authors begin with a crash course on PHP itself: basic syntax, storing and retrieving data from flat file databases, using arrays; working with strings and regular expressions; functions; code reuse; and finally, object-oriented PHP.

One crucial PHP5 enhancement is exception handling: a unified, extensible, object-oriented solution for handling errors. Welling and Thompson cover PHP5 error handling in detail, from basic concepts and control structures through user-defined exceptions.

Next, you’ll master MySQL from the web developer’s point of view. Welling and Thompson introduce mysqli, PHP5’s new library for connecting with MySQL with either object-oriented or procedural syntax. Along the way, you’ll learn how to use MySQL's privilege system to secure your databases more effectively, and how to address the performance issues that arise in web database applications.

You'll find chapter-length coverage of networking, session control, interactions with filesystems and servers, managing dates and times, generating images, debugging, and more. The book’s highlight: seven start-to-finish projects, ranging from content management to email, generating on-the-fly PDFs to connecting with web services. Follow along with these case studies, and you should be ready to write just about anything. Bill Camarda

Bill Camarda is a consultant, writer, and web/multimedia content developer. His 15 books include Special Edition Using Word 2003 and Upgrading & Fixing Networks for Dummies, Second Edition.

Booknews
Shows how to combine the PHP scripting language with the MySQL database to produce interactive web sites. The guide provides examples that demonstrate tasks such as authenticating users, constructing a shopping cart, generating PDF documents and images dynamically, sending and managing email, facilitating user discussions, and managing content. Significant attention is paid to the importance of security. The CD-ROM contains PHP 4, MySQL, and Apache source code and binaries. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
“This book by Welling & Thomson is the only one which I have found to be indispensable.The writing is clear and straightforward but never wastes my time.The book is extremely well laid out.The chapters are the right length and chapter titles quickly take you where you want to go.”
–Wright Sullivan, President,A&E
Engineering, Inc., Greer South Carolina

“There are several good introductory books on PHP, but Welling & Thomson is an excellent handbook for those who wish to build up complex and reliable systems. It’s obvious that the authors have a strong background in the development of professional applications and they teach not only the language itself, but also how to use it with good software engineering practices.”
–Javier Garcia, senior telecom engineer,
Telefonica R&D Labs, Madrid

“This book rocks! I am an experienced programmer, so I didn’t need a lot of help with PHP syntax; after all, it’s very close to C/C++. I don’t know a thing about databases, though, so when I wanted to develop a book review engine (among other projects) I wanted a solid reference to using MySQL with PHP. I have O’Reilly’s mSQL and MySQL book, and it’s probably a better pure-SQL reference, but this book has earned a place on my reference shelf…Highly recommended.”
–Paul Robichaux

“The true PHP/MySQL bible, PHP and MySQL Web Development by Luke Welling and Laura Thomson, made me realize that programming and databases are now available to the commoners. Again, I know 1/10000th of what there is to know, and already I’m enthralled.”
–Tim Luoma,TnTLuoma.com

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321833891
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 9/7/2014
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 1008
  • Sales rank: 516,802

Meet the Author

Lead Authors


Laura Thomson is a senior software engineer at Mozilla Corporation. She was formerly a principal at both OmniTI and Tangled Web Design, and she has worked for RMIT University and the Boston Consulting Group. She holds a Bachelor of Applied Science (Computer Science) degree and a Bachelor of Engineering (Computer Systems Engineering) degree with honors.

Luke Welling is a web architect at OmniTI and regularly speaks on open source and web development topics at conferences such as OSCON, ZendCon, MySQLUC, PHPCon, OSDC, and LinuxTag. Prior to joining OmniTI, he worked for the web analytics company Hitwise.com, at the database vendor MySQL AB, and as an independent consultant at Tangled Web Design. He has taught computer science at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, and holds a Bachelor of Applied Science (Computer Science) degree.


Contributing Authors


Julie C. Meloni has been developing web-based applications since the Web first saw the light of day and remembers the excitement surrounding the first GUI web browser. She has authored numerous books and articles on web-based programming languages and database topics, including the bestselling Sams Teach Yourself PHP, MySQL and Apache All in One.


Adam DeFields is a consultant specializing in web application development, project management, and instructional design. He lives in Grand Rapids, Michigan where he runs Emanation Systems, LLC, a company he founded in 2002. He has been involved with web development projects using several different technologies, but has developed a strong preference toward PHP/MySQL-based projects.


Marc Wandschneider is a freelance software developer, author, and speaker who travels the globe working on interesting projects. In recent years, a lot of his attention has been focused on writing robust and scalable web applications, and in 2005 he wrote a book called Core Web Application Programming with PHP and MySQL. He was was previously the main developer of the SWiK open source community site.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 3: Using Arrays

This chapter shows you how to use an important programming construct—arrays. The variables that we looked at in the previous chapters are scalar variables, which store a single value. An array is a variable that stores a set or sequence of values. One array can have many elements. Each element can hold a single value, such as text or numbers, or another array. An array containing other arrays is known as a multidimensional array.

PHP supports both numerically indexed and associative arrays. You will probably be familiar with numerically indexed arrays if you've used a programming language, but unless you use PHP or Perl, you might not have seen associative arrays before. Associative arrays let you use more useful values as the index. Rather than each element having a numeric index, they can have words or other meaningful information.

We will continue developing the Bob's Auto parts example using arrays to work more easily with repetitive information such as customer orders. Likewise, we will write shorter, tidier code to do some of the things we did with files in the previous chapter.

Key topics covered in this chapter include

  • What is an array?

  • Numerically indexed arrays

  • Associative arrays

  • Multidimensional arrays

  • Sorting arrays

  • Further reading

What Is an Array?

We looked at scalar variables in Chapter 1, "PHP Crash Course." A scalar variable is a named location in which to store a value; similarly, an array is a named place to store a set of values, thereby allowing you to group common scalars.

Bob's product list will be the array for our example. In Figure 3.1, you can see a list of three products stored in an array format and one variable, called $products, which stores the three values. (We'll look at how to create a variable like this in a minute.)

Figure 3.1
Bob's products can be stored in an array.

After we have the information as an array, we can do a number of useful things with it. Using the looping constructs from Chapter 1, we can save work by performing the same actions on each value in the array. The whole set of information can be moved around as a single unit. This way, with a single line of code, all the values can be passed to a function. For example, we might want to sort the products alphabetically. To achieve this, we could pass the entire array to PHP's sort() function.

The values stored in an array are called the array elements. Each array element has an associated index (also called a key) that is used to access the element.

Arrays in most programming languages have numerical indexes that typically start from zero or one. PHP supports this type of array.

PHP also supports associative arrays, which will be familiar to Perl programmers. Associative arrays can have almost anything as the array indices, but typically use strings.

We will begin by looking at numerically indexed arrays.

Numerically Indexed Arrays

These arrays are supported in most programming languages. In PHP, the indices start at zero by default, although you can alter this.

Initializing Numerically Indexed Arrays

To create the array shown in Figure 3.1, use the following line of PHP code:

$products = array( "Tires", "Oil", "Spark Plugs" );

This will create an array called products containing the three values given—"Tires", "Oil", and "Spark Plugs". Note that, like echo, array() is actually a language construct rather than a function.

Depending on the contents you need in your array, you might not need to manually initialize them as in the preceding example.

If you have the data you need in another array, you can simply copy one array to another using the = operator.

If you want an ascending sequence of numbers stored in an array, you can use the range() function to automatically create the array for you. The following line of code will create an array called numbers with elements ranging from 1 to 10:

$numbers = range(1,10);

If you have the information stored in file on disk, you can load the array contents directly from the file. We'll look at this later in this chapter under the heading "Loading Arrays from Files."

If you have the data for your array stored in a database, you can load the array contents directly from the database. This is covered in Chapter 10, "Accessing Your MySQL Database from the Web with PHP."

You can also use various functions to extract part of an array or to reorder an array. We'll look at some of these functions later in this chapter, under the heading "Other Array Manipulations."

Accessing Array Contents

To access the contents of a variable, use its name. If the variable is an array, access the contents using the variable name and a key or index. The key or index indicates which stored values we access. The index is placed in square brackets after the name.

Type $products[0], $products[1], and $products[2] to use the contents of the products array.

Element zero is the first element in the array. This is the same numbering scheme as used in C, C++, Java, and a number of other languages, but it might take some getting used to if you are not familiar with it.

As with other variables, array elements contents are changed by using the = operator. The following line will replace the first element in the array "Tires" with "Fuses".

$products[0] = "Fuses";

The following line could be used to add a new element—"Fuse"—to the end of the array, giving us a total of four elements:

$products[3] = "Fuses";

To display the contents, we could type

echo "$products[0] $products[1] $products[2] $products[3]";

Like other PHP variables, arrays do not need to be initialized or created in advance. They are automatically created the first time you use them.

The following code will create the same $products array:

$products[0] = "Tires";
$products[1] = "Oil";
$products[2] = "Spark Plugs";

If $products does not already exist, the first line will create a new array with just one element. The subsequent lines add values to the array.

Using Loops to Access the Array

Because the array is indexed by a sequence of numbers, we can use a for loop to more easily display the contents:

for ( $i = 0; $i<3; $i++ )
 echo "$products[$i] ";

This loop will give similar output to the preceding code, but will require less typing than manually writing code to work with each element in a large array. The ability to use a simple loop to access each element is a nice feature of numerically indexed arrays. Associative arrays are not quite so easy to loop through, but do allow indexes to be meaningful.

Associative Arrays

In the products array, we allowed PHP to give each item the default index. This meant that the first item we added became item 0, the second item 1, and so on. PHP also supports associative arrays. In an associative array, we can associate any key or index we want with each value.

Initializing an Associative Array

The following code creates an associative array with product names as keys and prices as values.

$prices = array( "Tires"=>100, "Oil"=>10, "Spark Plugs"=>4 );

Accessing the Array Elements

Again, we access the contents using the variable name and a key, so we can access the information we have stored in the prices array as $prices[ "Tires" ], $prices[ "Oil" ], and $prices[ "Spark Plugs" ].

Like numerically indexed arrays, associative arrays can be created and initialized one element at a time.

The following code will create the same $prices array. Rather than creating an array with three elements, this version creates an array with only one element, and then adds two more.

$prices = array( "Tires"=>100 );
$prices["Oil"] = 10;
$prices["Spark Plugs"] = 4;

Here is another slightly different, but equivalent piece of code. In this version, we do not explicitly create an array at all. The array is created for us when we add the first element to it.

$prices["Tires"] = 100;
$prices["Oil"] = 10;
$prices["Spark Plugs"] = 4;

Using Loops with each() and list()

Because the indices in this associative array are not numbers, we cannot use a simple counter in a for loop to work with the array. The following code lists the contents of our $prices array:

while( $element = each( $prices ) )
{
 echo $element[ "key" ];
 echo " - ";
 echo $element[ "value" ];
 echo "<br>";
}

The output of this script fragment is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2
An each statement can be used to loop through arrays.

In Chapter 1, we looked at while loops and the echo statement. The preceding code uses the each() function, which we have not used before. This function returns the current element in an array and makes the next element the current one. Because we are calling each() within a while loop, it returns every element in the array in turn and stops when the end of the array is reached.

In this code, the variable $element is an array. When we call each(), it gives us an array with four values and the four indexes to the array locations. The locations key and 0 contain the key of the current element, and the locations value and 1 contain the value of the current element. Although it makes no difference which you choose, we have chosen to use the named locations, rather than the numbered ones.

There is a more elegant and more common way of doing the same thing. The function list() can be used to split an array into a number of values. We can separate two of the values that the each() function gives us like this...

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Table of Contents

PHP and MySQL Web Development, 5th Edition

Introduction

Part I Using PHP
1 PHP Crash Course
2 Storing and Retrieving Data
3 Using Arrays
4 String Manipulation and Regular Expressions
5 Reusing Code and Writing Functions
6 Object-Oriented PHP
7 Error and Exception Handling

Part II Using MySQL
8 Designing Your Web Database
9 Creating Your Web Database
10 Working with Your MySQL Database
11 Accessing Your MySQL Database from the Web with PHP
12 Advanced MySQL Administration
13 Advanced MySQL Programming

Part III E-commerce and Security
14 Running an E-commerce Site
15 E-commerce Security Issues
16 Web Application Security
17 Implementing Authentication with PHP and MySQL
18 Implementing Secure Transactions with PHP and MySQL

Part IV Advanced PHP Techniques
19 Interacting with the File System and the Server
20 Using Network and Protocol Functions
21 Managing the Date and Time
22 Generating Images
23 Using Session Control in PHP
24 Other Useful Features

Part V Building Practical PHP and MySQL Projects
25 Using PHP and MySQL for Large Projects
26 Debugging
27 Building User Authentication and Personalization: Social Bookmarking
28 Building a Shopping Cart
29 Building a Content Management System
30 Building a Web-Based Email Service
31 Building a Mailing List Manager
32 Building Web Forums
33 Generating Personalized Documents in Portable Document Format (PDF)
34 Connecting to Web Services with XML and SOAP
35 Building Web 2.0 Applications with Ajax

Part VI: Appendices
A Installing PHP5 and MySQL5
B Web Resources

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