Physical Activity and Health-2nd Edition

Overview

The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in ...

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Overview

The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity.

Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes. The second edition has been fully updated based on the latest advances in this rapidly changing field and expanded to include the following new content:

• A chapter on the physiology of inactivity and the effects of sedentary behavior even in people who engage in appropriate amounts of physical activity, which is an area of growing interest

• More extensive coverage of physical activity, aging, and the brain, including a new chapter on the relationship between physical activity and brain structures and functions

• A chapter on the development of national and international physical activity and health guidelines, which will help readers better understand how scientific findings are converted into practical recommendations

Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, offers a detailed yet concise presentation of key concepts as well as a framework to help readers relate results from single studies or collections of studies to the overall paradigm linking physical activity and physical fitness to health. For each of the topics covered, the text provides an overview of the most important research findings, discusses the limitations of the current knowledge base, and identifies directions for future investigation.

At the core of the text is a review of our current understanding of how physical activity affects health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity as well as aging and mental health. The text identifies sedentary living habits and poor fitness as major public health problems and examines the potential of physical activity to prevent disease and enhance quality of life. This complete resource also looks at the evolution of the field of physical activity and health; variations in physical activity levels across age, sex, and ethnic groups; the body’s physiological responses to physical activity; dose-response issues; and the influence of genetics on physical activity, fitness, and health. The book ends with an integration of the issues covered and discusses new opportunities for research.

The second edition of Physical Activity and Health continues to offer clear, user-friendly coverage of the most important concepts and research in the field. Numerous special features will aid readers in their comprehension of the material. Chapter outlines and callout boxes help readers key in on important topics and focus their reading, and chapter summaries, definitions of key terms, and study questions provide tools for review and self-testing. Commonly used acronyms and abbreviations are found on the interior covers for handy reference.

Where other books have simply promoted physical activity for the individual or a population, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, completely integrates current knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and health. With contributions from some of the finest scientists in the field, this comprehensive text offers information unmatched in accuracy and reliability.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Erik H VanIterson, M.S., M.Bio(University of Minnesota School of Kinesiology)
Description: With its focus on the scientific study and application of physical activity and its potential health benefits, this book covers topics ranging from the basic physiology of physical activity to how physical activity may be used as a form of preventive medicine in people of all ages. This edition is updated with current scientific research.
Purpose: The authors' aim is to provide a resource focusing on physical activity and its purported benefits for human health. They present evidence-based research in a broad overview of physical activity research. The literature cited throughout is current and authored by some of the field's leading experts.
Audience: It is intended for students at both undergraduate and graduate levels as well as allied health professionals. Exercise physiologists, personal trainers, exercise specialists, and physicians all may find this book useful because of their interaction with people seeking advice on physical activity recommendations to improve their health.
Features: The book covers the science behind physical activity as well as how the basic principles are being applied in today's research and real-world settings. It includes many helpful illustrations to augment key points as well as to highlight important findings from the literature. It does a great job of covering the topic of physical activity and disease prevention, which is currently a primary focus of research in this field.
Assessment: With the vast number of topics it covers as well as the examples of the practical application of the underlying principles it presents, this book is an excellent learning and teaching resource. A much needed update from the first edition, it is well supported with evidence-based research and authored by the field's leading experts in physical activity research. It provides a general understanding of the many health factors that are affected by physical activity without overwhelming readers with too much science. It is a great resource for any person engaged in recommending physical activity for health benefits.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780736095419
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
  • Publication date: 2/29/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 456
  • Sales rank: 885,772
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Claude Bouchard, PhD, is the director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a campus of the Louisiana State University System, where he also holds the John W. Barton Sr. chair in genetics and nutrition. He was director of the Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory at Laval University, Quebec City, Canada, for over 20 years. Dr. Bouchard holds a BPed from Laval University, an MSc in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon at Eugene, and a PhD in population genetics from the University of Texas at Austin.

For four decades, his research has dealt with the role of physical activity, and the lack thereof, on physiology, metabolism, and indicators of health, taking into account genetic uniqueness. He has performed research on the contributions of gene sequence variation and the benefits to be expected from regular activity in terms of changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors

Dr. Bouchard has served as program leader for four consensus conferences and symposia pertaining to various aspects of physical activity and health. He has published more than 1,000 scientific papers and has edited several books and monographs dealing with physical activity and health.

Dr. Bouchard is the recipient of the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society, the Albert Creff Award of the National Academy of Medicine of France, and four honoris causa doctorates (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, University of South Carolina, University of Guelph, and Brock University). He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium and a member of the Order of Canada.

Dr. Bouchard is former president of the Canadian Society for Applied Physiology, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Nutrition, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Steven N. Blair, PED, is a professor at the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease. As one of the most highly cited exercise scientists currently active in research, Dr. Blair has published more than 550 articles, chapters, and books in scientific and professional literature. He also was the senior scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health.

Dr. Blair has received numerous awards, including the Honor Award from the American College of Sports Medicine, Population Science Award from the American Heart Association, U.S. Surgeon General’s Medallion, Folksam Epidemiology Prize from the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm, and a MERIT award from the National Institutes of Health. He also has received honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States, Belgium, and England.

Dr. Blair is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, Society of Behavioral Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, and American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. He was also elected to membership in the American Epidemiological Society. He was the first president of the National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity and is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education.

William L. Haskell, PhD, is emeritus professor of medicine in the Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine. He holds an honorary MD degree from Linkoping University in Sweden.

For more than 40 years, his research has investigated the relationships between physical activity and health. He has been involved at the national and international levels in the development of physical activity and fitness guidelines and recommendations for physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention.

Dr. Haskell has served as principal investigator on major NIH-funded research projects demonstrating the health benefits of physical activity. For the past 17 years, he has been a member of the planning committee and faculty for the CDC-sponsored research course on physical activity and public health. From 1968 to 1970, he was program director for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. He also served as chair of the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which documented the scientific basis for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. From 2008 to 2010 he was a scientific advisor to the World Health Organization for the development of Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010) and to the United Kingdom Health Ministries for the development of physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for the home countries. Currently he is chair of the International Review Panel for the Evaluation of Exercise and Sports Sciences in the Nordic Countries.

He is past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and founder and past president of the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation. He was a fellow with the Exercise and Rehabilitation Council, American Heart Association, and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

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Table of Contents

Part I: History and Current Status of the Study of Physical Activity and Health

Chapter 1: Why Study Physical Activity and Health?

Claude Bouchard, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and William L. Haskell, PhD

Human Evolution, History, and Physical Activity

Burden of Chronic Diseases

Health and Its Determinants

Aging and Health

Defining Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

Physical Inactivity Versus Physical Activity

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

Russell R. Pate, PhD

Early Beliefs About Physical Activity and Health

Scientific Inquiry on Exercise and Health

Evolution of Physical Activity Guidelines

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 3: Physical Activity and Fitness With Age, Sex, and Ethnic Differences

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, PhD, FACSM

Physical Activity

Physical Fitness

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 4: Sedentary Behavior and Inactivity Physiology

Marc Hamilton, PhD; and Neville Owen, PhD

Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Public Health

Inactivity Physiology: The Underlying Biology of Acute and Chronic Muscular Inactivity

Sedentary Behavior and Metabolic Health: Emerging Epidemiological Evidence

Humans May Not Have Reached the Pinnacle of Physical Inactivity

A Comprehensive Sedentary Behavior Research Agenda

Public Health Implications

Summary

Review Materials

Part II: Effects of Physical Activity on the Human Organism

Chapter 5: Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity

Edward T. Howley, PhD

Relationship of Energy to Physical Activity

Oxygen Consumption and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Exercise

Effect of Training, Age, and Gender on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

Application to Exercise Training and Physical Activity Interventions

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 6: Acute Responses to Physical Activity and Exercise

Adrianne E. Hardman, MSc, PhD

Lipids and Lipoproteins

Endothelial Function

Insulin–Glucose Dynamics

Blood Pressure

Hematological Changes

Immune Function and Inflammation

Responses Related to Energy Balance

Augmentation of Acute Effects by Training

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 7: Hormonal Response to Regular Physical Activity

Peter A. Farrell, PhD

Defining Hormones

Importance of Hormonal Regulation

Regular Physical Activity and Hormonal Adaptations

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 8: Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Regular Physical Activity

Howard J. Green, PhD

Skeletal Muscle and Human Survival

Muscle Cell: Composition, Structure, and Function

Muscle Fiber Types and Subtypes

Muscle Adaptation and Functional Consequences

Aging Muscle: The Role of Training

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 9: Response of Liver, Kidney, and Other Organs and Tissues to Regular Physical Activity

Roy J. Shephard, MB, BS, MD (London), PhD, DPE

Acute Effects of Physical Activity

Chronic Effects of Physical Activity

Strengths and Limitations of the Current Evidence

Summary

Review Materials

Part III: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

Chapter 10: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Mortality Rates

Michael J. LaMonte, PhD; and Steven N. Blair, PED

Physical Activity and Mortality

Fitness and Mortality

Activity or Fitness and Mortality in Adults With Existing Diseases

Quantifying the Population Mortality Burden of Inactivity

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 11: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities

Ian Janssen, PhD

Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Morbidities

Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Pulmonary Morbidities

Biological Mechanisms

Role of Physical Activity in Patients with Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 12: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Obesity

Robert Ross, PhD; and Ian Janssen, PhD

Definition and Problem of Overweight and Obesity

Fat Depots

Relationships Among Excess Weight, Physical Activity, and Fitness

Role of Physical Activity in Prevention and Treatment of Excess Weight

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 13: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Diabetes Mellitus

R. Jan-Willem Middelbeek, MD, MS; Oscar Alcazar, PhD; and Laurie J. Goodyear, PhD

Diabetes: Definitions and Prevalence

Epidemiology, Etiology, and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

Impact of Physical Activity on Insulin and Glucose Metabolism

Epidemiological Evidence Indicating Benefits of Physical Activity in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Importance of Regular Physical Activity for People With Type 2 Diabetes

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 14: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cancer

I-Min Lee, MBBS, ScD

Importance of Cancer

How Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer

How We Study Whether Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Site-Specific Cancers

Physical Activity and Cancer Survivors

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 15: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Joint and Bone Health

Jennifer Hootman, PhD, ATC, FACSM, FNATA

Scientific Evidence

Strengths and Limitations of the Evidence

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 16: Physical Activity, Muscular Fitness, and Health

Neil McCartney, PhD; and Stuart Phillips, PhD

History of Resistance Training and Its Role in Health

Fundamental Aspects of Resistance Training

Resistance Training Throughout the Life Span

Resistance Training in Disease and Disability

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 17: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Children

Thomas Rowland, MD

Understanding the Exercise–Health Link in Children

Defining the Kinds and Amount of Physical Activities for Health

Optimal Intervention Strategies

Biological Effects on Physical Activity in Youth

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 18: Risks of Physical Activity

Evert A.L.M. Verhagen, PhD; Esther M.F. van Sluijs, PhD; and Willem van Mechelen, MD, PhD

Risks of Physical Activity and Sport Participation

Minimizing Risk and Maximizing Benefits

Recommendations for Future Research

Summary

Review Materials

Part IV: Physical Activity, Fitness, Aging, and Brain Functions

Chapter 19: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Aging

Loretta DiPietro, PhD, MPH

The Aging Process

Methodological Considerations in Aging Research

Demographics of Physical Activity Among Older Adults

Dimensions of Physical Activity and Their Relationship to Health and Function in Aging

Programmatic Issues in Promoting Physical Activity in Older Populations

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 20: Physical Activity and Brain Functions

Kirk I. Erickson, PhD

Descriptive Questions

Mechanistic Questions

Applied Questions: Populations Benefiting From Physical Activity

Moderating Questions: Factors Moderating the Effect of Physical Activity

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 21: Exercise and Its Effects on Mental Health

John S. Raglin, PhD; and Gregory S. Wilson, PED, FACSM

Research Paradigms of Exercise and Mental Health Research

Exercise and Depression

Exercise and Anxiety

Exercise and Schizophrenia

Putative Mechanisms for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise

Detrimental Psychological Responses to Exercise: The Overtraining Syndrome

Summary

Review Materials

Part V: How Much Is Required and How Do We Get There?

Chapter 22: Dose–Response Issues in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

William L. Haskell, PhD

Principles Guiding the Body’s Response to Activity

Components of the Physical Activity Dose

Factors Determining Optimal Activity Dose

Physical Activity and Fitness: Dose for Health Benefits

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 23: From Science to Physical Activity Guidelines

Mark S. Tremblay, PhD; and William L. Haskell, PhD

Stages of Physical Activity Guideline Development

Strengths, Limitations, and Challenges

Summary

Review Materials

Part VI: New Challenges and Opportunities

Chapter 24: Genetic Differences in the Relationships Among Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

Tuomo Rankinen, PhD; and Claude Bouchard, PhD

Basics of Human Genetics

Events in Human Genes and Genomes

Genetic Variation in Exercise Traits Among Sedentary People

Genetics of Physical Activity Level

Individual Differences in Response to Regular Exercise

Genes and Responses to Exercise

Trait-Specific Response to Exercise

Personalized Exercise Medicine

Summary

Review Materials

Chapter 25: An Integrated View of Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

William L. Haskell, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and Claude Bouchard, PhD

Physical Activity Versus Inactivity: Universal Value Versus Damaging Consequences

Developing and Implementing Physical Activity Plans

Research Questions and Issues

Summary

Review Materials

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