Physical Hydrology (Includes Diskette)

Physical Hydrology (Includes Diskette)

by S. Lawrence Dingman
     
 

ISBN-10: 002329745X

ISBN-13: 9780023297458

Pub. Date: 10/18/1993

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780023297458
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
10/18/1993
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
469
Product dimensions:
8.21(w) x 10.25(h) x 1.31(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Introduction to Hydrologic Science
1(5)
Definition and Scope of Hydrology
1(1)
Approach and Scope of This Book
1(3)
Development of Scientific Hydrology
4(2)
Basic Hydrologic Concepts
6(22)
Physical Quantities and Laws
6(1)
Hydrologic Systems
6(2)
The Conservation Equations
8(1)
Temporal Variability
9(5)
Time Series
9(2)
Duration Curves
11(3)
The Watershed (Drainage Basin)
14(1)
Definition
14(1)
Delineation
14(1)
Spatial Variability
15(1)
The Regional Water Balance
16(7)
Conceptual Water Balance
16(1)
Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration
17(6)
Storage, Storage Effects, and Residence Time
23(5)
Storage
23(1)
Storage Effects
23(2)
Residence Time
25(3)
Climate, the Hydrologic Cycle, Soils, and Vegetation: A Global Overview
28(59)
Basic Aspects of Global Climate
28(12)
The Energy Budget of the Earth
28(3)
Latitudinal Energy Transfer
31(2)
The General Circulation and the Distribution of Pressure and Temperature
33(4)
Teleconnections: El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
37(3)
The Global Hydrologic Cycle
40(40)
Stocks and Fluxes in the Global Cycle
40(4)
Distribution of Precipitation
44(10)
Distribution of Evapotranspiration
54(1)
Distribution of Runoff
54(3)
Continental Water Balances
57(1)
Major Rivers and Lakes
57(1)
Material Transport by Rivers
57(7)
Your Role in the Global Hydrologic Cycle
64(3)
Global Water Resources
67(13)
Climate, Soils, and Vegetation
80(7)
Climate and Soils
80(3)
Climate and Vegetation
83(4)
Precipitation
87(72)
Meteorology of Precipitation
87(13)
Uplift due to Convergence
87(6)
Uplift due to Convection
93(2)
Uplift due to Orography
95(2)
Critical Temperature for Rain-Snow Transition
97(2)
Moisture Sources and Transport
99(1)
Measurement at a Point
100(11)
Types of Precipitation Gages
100(2)
Factors Affecting Measurement Accuracy
102(5)
Checking the Consistency of Point Measurements
107(4)
Areal Estimation
111(19)
Direct Weighted Averages
111(2)
Surface-Fitting Methods
113(7)
Comparison of Methods and Summary
120(2)
Precipitation-Gage Networks
122(7)
Radar and Satellite Observation
129(1)
Precipitation and Rainfall Climatology
130(24)
Long-Term Average Precipitation Rates
130(1)
Seasonal Variability of Precipitation
130(4)
Storm Climatology
134(2)
Extreme Rainfall Amounts
136(15)
Anthropogenic Effects on Precipitation Climatology
151(3)
Precipitation Quality
154(5)
Snow and Snowmelt
159(51)
Material Characteristics of Snow
159(3)
Snow Properties
159(1)
Snowpack Metamorphism
160(2)
Measurement of Snow and Snowmelt
162(10)
Precipitation
163(1)
Snowfall
164(3)
Snowcover (Snowpack)
167(4)
Snowmelt, Ablation, and Water Output
171(1)
Hydrologic Importance and Distribution of Snow
172(8)
Water Input
172(1)
Distribution of Snow
173(7)
Snowmelt Processes
180(20)
Phases of Snowmelt
180(4)
The Energy Balance
184(13)
Movement of Water Through Snow
197(3)
Snowmelt Modeling
200(7)
Snowmelt at a Point
200(6)
Watershed Snowmelt Modeling
206(1)
Water-Quality Aspects
207(3)
Water in Soils: Infiltration and Redistribution
210(46)
Material Properties of Soil
211(6)
Distribution of Pore and Particle Sizes
211(3)
Particle Density
214(1)
Bulk Density
214(1)
Porosity
214(1)
Volumetric Water Content
214(1)
Degree of Saturation
215(2)
Hydraulic Properties of Soils
217(7)
Darcy's Law
217(1)
Soil-Water Pressure
217(2)
Pressure-Water Content Relations
219(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity
220(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity-Water Content Relations
220(1)
Analytic Approximations of Soil Hydraulic Properties
221(3)
Water Conditions in Natural Soils
224(5)
Soil-Water Status
224(1)
Soil Profiles
225(4)
Infiltration: Measurement and Qualitative Description
229(7)
Definitions
230(1)
Measurement
230(1)
Basic Characteristics of the Infiltration Process
231(3)
Factors Affecting Infiltration Rate
234(2)
Quantitative Modeling of Infiltration at a Point
236(11)
The Richards Equation
237(1)
The Green-and-Ampt Model for Deep Soils
237(7)
Green-and-Ampt Approach for Shallow Soils
244(2)
The Philip Approach to Modeling Infiltration
246(1)
Infiltration over Areas
247(3)
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Infiltration
247(2)
Infiltration in Watershed Models
249(1)
Redistribution
250(6)
Observations
251(1)
Modeling
251(1)
Summary
252(4)
Evapotranspiration
256(47)
Physics of Evaporation and Turbulent Energy Exchange
257(2)
Evaporation
257(1)
Vapor-Pressure Relations
257(1)
Latent-Heat Exchange
258(1)
Sensible-Heat Exchange
258(1)
The Bowen Ratio and the Psychrometric Constant
258(1)
The Energy Balance
258(1)
Classification of Evapotranspiration Processes
259(1)
Estimating Free-Water and Lake Evaporation
259(16)
Water-Balance Approach
260(2)
Mass-Transfer Approach
262(3)
Energy-Balance Approach
265(3)
Penman or Combination Approach
268(3)
Pan-Evaporation Approach
271(4)
Transpiration
275(9)
The Transpiration Process
275(1)
Modeling Transpiration
275(9)
Interception and Interception Loss
284(7)
Definitions
284(1)
Measurement
285(1)
Modeling
285(4)
Hydrologic Importance of Interception Loss
289(2)
Water-Quality Aspects
291(1)
Potential Evapotranspiration
291(3)
Conceptual Definition
291(1)
Operational Definitions
292(2)
Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration
294(9)
Water-Balance Approaches
294(2)
Turbulent-Transfer Methods
296(1)
Potential-Evapotranspiration Approaches
297(4)
Methods Based on Water-Quality Analysis
301(2)
Ground Water in the Hydrologic Cycle
303(58)
Basic Principles of Ground-Water Flow
304(8)
Darcy's Law
304(1)
Classification of Ground-Water Flows
305(1)
Storage Properties of Porous Media
306(2)
Transmission Properties of Porous Media
308(1)
Actual Velocity of Ground-Water Flow
308(1)
Ground-Water Flow Equation
308(4)
Regional Ground-Water Flow
312(19)
General Features
313(1)
Effects of Topography
314(1)
Effects of Geology
314(2)
Ground-Water-Surface-Water Relations
316(15)
Ground Water in the Regional Water Balance
331(19)
Basic Water-Balance Relations
331(3)
Estimating Recharge from Infiltration, RI
334(8)
Estimating Ground-Water Contributions to Streamflow, QGW
342(4)
Estimating Capillary Rise, CR
346(1)
Estimating Deep Seepage, Gin and Gout
347(3)
Impacts of Ground-Water Development on Basin Hydrology
350(11)
Hydraulics of Ground-Water Development
351(4)
Effects of Ground-Water Extraction
355(4)
Safe Yield
359(2)
Stream Response to Water-Input Events
361(69)
Basic Aspects of Stream Response
362(2)
Physics of Open-Channel Flows
364(15)
Equation of Motion
364(5)
Open-Channel Flow Equations
369(6)
Streamflow Routing
375(4)
The Stream Network
379(3)
Stream Order and the Laws of Drainage-Network Composition
379(1)
Drainage Density
380(2)
Systems Approach to Response Hydrographs
382(27)
Overview of the Systems Approach
382(2)
Graphical Hydrograph Separation
384(1)
Event-Flow Volume
385(10)
Quantitative Description of Response Hydrographs
395(2)
Factors Affecting Hydrograph Shape
397(5)
Transfer Functions: The Unit Hydrograph
402(7)
Application of the Systems Approach
409(1)
Mechanisms Producing Event Response
409(21)
Channel Interception
410(1)
Overland Flow
410(5)
Subsurface Event Flow
415(8)
Overview of Event-Response Mechanisms
423(7)
Hydrology and Water-Resource Management
430(41)
Water-Resource Management
430(3)
The Management Process
430(1)
Goals of Water-Resource Management
431(1)
Overview of Water-Resource Issues: The Second National Assessment
432(1)
Water-Quantity Issues
433(10)
Definitions and Basic Concepts
433(5)
Hydrologic Analysis
438(3)
Major United States Issues
441(2)
Water-Quality Issues
443(13)
Definitions and Basic Concepts
443(3)
Hydrologic Analysis
446(7)
Major United States Issues
453(3)
Water-Hazard Issues
456(15)
Definitions and Basic Concepts
456(4)
Framework for Analysis of Floodplain-Management Alternatives
460(3)
Hydrologic Analysis
463(1)
Major United States Issues
464(7)
A Hydrologic Quantities 471(7)
Dimensions
471(1)
Units
472(3)
Unit Conversion
472(1)
Dimensional Analysis of Equations
473(1)
Equation Conversion
474(1)
Numerical Precision and Significant Figures
475(3)
Absolute Precision
475(1)
Relative Precision
476(2)
B Water as a Substance 478(13)
Structure of Water
478(5)
Molecular and Intermolecular Structure
478(3)
Freezing---Melting
481(1)
Evaporation---Condensation
482(1)
Dissociation
482(1)
Isotopes
482(1)
Properties of Water
483(8)
Density
483(2)
Surface Tension
485(1)
Boundary-Layer Flow, Viscosity, and Turbulence
486(3)
Thermal Capacity
489(1)
Latent Heats
490(1)
Solvent Power
490(1)
C Basic Statistics 491(20)
Random Variables and Probability
491(1)
Probability Distributions
492(3)
Discrete Random Variables
492(1)
Continuous Random Variables
492(1)
Quantiles
492(2)
Moments
494(1)
Covariance and Correlation
495(1)
Exceedence Probability and Return Period
496(2)
The Normal Distribution
498(1)
Sampling Error
499(9)
Standard Errors
502(2)
Sampling Distributions
504(1)
Confidence Intervals
504(4)
Persistence and Autocorrelation
508(3)
Definition
508(1)
Effects of Persistence on Uncertainty in Quantile and Moment Estimates
509(1)
Effects of Persistence on Uncertainty of Correlation Estimates
510(1)
D Water and Energy in the Atmosphere 511(18)
Physics of Radiant Energy
511(3)
Composition and Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
514(2)
Composition
514(1)
Vertical Structure
514(1)
Pressure-Temperature Relations
515(1)
Water Vapor
516(1)
Vapor Pressure
516(1)
Absolute Humidity
516(1)
Relative Humidity
516(1)
Dew Point
517(1)
Physics of Evaporation
517(2)
Mass (Water) Transfer
517(1)
Latent-Heat Transfer
518(1)
Physics of Precipitation
519(3)
Cooling
519(1)
Condensation
520(1)
Droplet Growth
521(1)
Importation of Water Vapor
522(1)
Physics of Turbulent Transfer near the Ground
522(7)
Diffusion
522(2)
Momentum Transfer
524(2)
Latent-Heat Transfer
526(1)
Sensible-Heat Transfer
527(1)
Effects of Atmospheric Stability on DWV/DM and DH/DM
527(2)
E Estimation of Daily Clear-Sky Solar Radiation on Sloping Surfaces 529(7)
Radiation Incident on a Horizontal Plane
529(5)
Extraterrestrial Radiation
529(3)
Direct (Beam) Radiation at the Surface
532(2)
Diffuse Radiation
534(1)
Global Radiation
534(1)
Backscattered Radiation
534(1)
Total Incident Radiation
534(1)
Radiation on a Sloping Plane
534(2)
Equivalent Slope
534(1)
Solar Noon, Sunrise, and Sunset
535(1)
Extraterrestrial Radiation
535(1)
Total Incident Radiation at the Surface
535(1)
F Stream-Gaging Methods for Short-Term Studies 536(1)
Selection of Measurement Location
536(1)
Velocity-Area Method
537(1)
Selection of Measurement Section
537(1)
Method of Integration
538(1)
Measurement of Velocity
539(2)
Accuracy
541

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