Physical Principles of Meteorology and Environmental Physics: Global, Synoptic and Micro Scales

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More About This Textbook

Overview

This book starts with the big picture, relating Einstein's famous mass-energy formula E = mc[superscript 2] to the global climate; and then proceeds to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, from the synoptic scale through to the microscale, including the interaction of living things with their environment. It covers a range of topics from the laboratory to the field, including the analysis of thermodynamic diagrams and dispersion of pollutants, simple micrometeorological experiments on a sports field, as well as a detailed study on the measurement of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and tropical rainforests.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789812813848
  • Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/9/2008
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents


About the Authors vii Preface ix Acknowledgments xi List of Figures xix List of Tables xxv Theoretical Foundations 1
1 The Big Picture 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The Atmospheric Environment 5
1.2.1 Composition of the Atmosphere 5
1.2.2 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 7
1.2.3 The Horizontal Picture 9
1.2.4 Water in the Atmosphere 9
1.3 Solar Radiation 11
1.3.1 Solar Constant 11
1.3.2 Radiative Equilibrium, Atmospheric Solar Energy Budget 12
1.4 Estimation of Average Terrestrial Temperatures 12
1.5 Enhanced Greenhouse Effect 15
1.6 Problems for Chapter 1 16 Problems for Chapter 1 16
2 Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Stability 21
2.1 Equation of State of the Atmosphere 21
2.2 Atmospheric Thermodynamics 23
2.3 Hydrostatic Equilibrium, Height Computations 28
2.4 Thermodynamic Diagrams 31
2.5 Examples on the Use of the F160 Diagram 33
2.6 Lapse Rate and Stability, Adiabatic Lapse Rate 36
2.7 Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate 39
2.8 Stable Atmosphere, Brunt-Vaisala Frequency 41
2.9 Model Atmospheres 41
2.9.1 Homogeneous Atmosphere 41
2.9.2 Isothermal Atmosphere 42
2.9.3 Constant Lapse Rate Atmosphere 42 Problems for Chapter 2 43
3 Air Flow on a Rotating Earth 47
3.1 Introduction, Equation of Motion 47
3.2 Decoupling of Vertical and Horizontal Motion 51
3.3 Geostrophic Approximation 52
3.4 Balanced Curved Flow: Natural Coordinates 53
3.4.1 Acceleration in Natural Coordinates 53
3.4.2 Equation of Motion in Natural Coordinates 55
3.5 Inertial, Cyclostrophic and Gradient Flow 56
3.5.1 Inertial Flow 56
3.5.2 Cyclostrophic Flow 57
3.5.3 Geostrophic Flow 58
3.5.4 Gradient Flow58
3.5.5 Trajectories and Streamlines 60
3.6 Frictional Effects 60
3.7 Vertical Variation of the Geostrophic Wind 62
3.7.1 Isobaric Coordinates 62
3.7.2 Wind Shear and Thermal Wind Equation 64
3.7.3 Implications of the Equations 65 Problems for Chapter 3 69
4 Divergence, Vorticity and Circulation 73
4.1 Equation of Continuity 73
4.2 Mechanism of Pressure Change 75
4.3 Vorticity and Circulation Theorems 77
4.4 The Vorticity Equation and its Implications 79
4.5 Potential Vorticity 83
4.6 Further Comments on Vorticity 84
4.7 Rossby Waves 85 Problems for Chapter 4 87
5 Boundary Layer Meteorology 91
5.1 Introduction 91
5.2 Turbulence in the Atmosphere 91
5.3 Turbulent Balance Equation 94
5.3.1 Momentum Balance (Equation of Motion) 96
5.3.2 Energy Balance 96
5.3.3 Moisture Balance Equation 96
5.4 Calculation of Vertical Flux; Flux-Gradient Relationships 97
5.5 Turbulent Transport Equations 98
5.6 Surface Boundary Layer 98
5.7 Momentum Flux, Vertical Wind Profile 99
5.8 Energy Fluxes at the Earth's Surface 103
5.9 Planetary Boundary Layer 107
5.9.1 Heat Transfer in the Planetary Boundary Layer 108
5.9.2 Wind in the Planetary Boundary Layer 111
5.9.3 Dispersion of Pollutants from an Elevated Source 113
5.10 Richardson Number, Obukhov Length 116 Problems for Chapter 5 118
6 Biometeorology, Environmental Biophysics 123
6.1 Introduction 123
6.2 Metabolism, Maintenance of Body Temperature 124
6.3 Molecular Versus Turbulent Transport 125
6.4 Modes of Heat Transfer 128
6.4.1 Radiation 128
6.4.2 Convective Heat Transfer 130
6.4.3 Evaporation, Latent Heat Exchange 130
6.4.4 Heat Conduction 131
6.5 Summary of Formulae and Expression for Total Heat Loss 133
6.6 The Importance of Latent Heat: Some Examples 133
6.6.1 Energy Expended in Respiration 134
6.6.2 Heat loss from a New-Born Infant 136
6.7 Inside the Organism: When Heat Conduction is Important 137
6.7.1 Temperature Rise in a Working Muscle 137
6.7.2 Conduction and Convection 139
6.8 Transpiration in Plants 141
6.8.1 Resistance to Diffusion 141
6.8.2 Leaf Structure 142
6.8.3 Diffusion from a Circular Orifice, Perforated Screen 142
6.8.4 Transpiration from Leaves 145
6.9 Flux Versus Temperature, Fact Versus Fiction 146 Problems for Chapter 6 148 Experiments in the Tropical Boundary Layer 155
7 Introduction to the Experiments 157
7.1 Measurements 157
7.2 A Brief Survey of Eddy Correlation Measurements 161
7.2.1 Instrumentation 162
7.2.2 Topography, Vegetation and Geophysical Variability 164
7.3 Practical Considerations 167
8 Approaches to Measurement of Net Ecosystem Exchange 169
8.1 Introduction 169
8.2 Comparison of Flux Measurement Techniques 170
8.2.1 Flux Gradient Methods 170
8.2.2 Eddy Correlation Methods 170
8.3 Approaches to NEE Measurement 171
8.3.1 The Balance Equation 171
8.3.2 The Reynolds Approach 172
8.3.3 The WPL Approach 173
8.3.4 The Lee Approach 176
8.3.5 Reconciling the WPL and Lee Approaches 178
8.4 Summary 180
9 Application of the WPL Method 183
9.1 Introduction 183
9.2 Coordinate Frames 183
9.2.1 General 183
9.2.2 Coordinate Rotations 184
9.3 Fourier Analysis 186
9.4 Averaging Periods 188
9.5 Sampling Rates 190
9.6 Sensor Placement 192
9.6.1 Sensor Height 192
9.6.2 Sensor Separation, Flow Distortion and Path Length Averaging 192
9.7 Summary 193
10 Experimental Methods 195
10.1 Introduction 195
10.2 Instrumentation 196
10.2.1 Sonic Anemometer 196
10.2.2 Infrared Gas Analyser (IRGA) 197
10.2.3 Datalogger 197
10.2.4 Flux Measurement System 197
10.3 Calibration 198
10.3.1 Sonic Anemometer 198
10.3.2 Infrared Gas Analyser 199
10.4 Processing Software 201
10.4.1 Fourier Analysis 201
10.4.2 Logger Program 203
10.4.3 Analysis Program 203
10.5 Error Analysis 206
10.6 Experimental Sites 208
10.7 Summary 209
11 Results and Analysis 211
11.1 Introduction 211
11.2 Time Series Analysis 212
11.2.1 Rainforest 212
11.2.2 Sugar Cane 219
11.2.3 Summary 223
11.3 Effects of Averaging Period and Sampling Rate Variations on Flux Measurements 228
11.3.1 Averaging Periods 228
11.3.2 Sampling Rates 229
11.4 Fluxes 231
11.5 Error Analysis 239
11.6 Summary of Experimental Issues 239
11.7 Main Results 241
11.8 Recommendations for Further Study 242
11.8.1 Allowance for Convergence in the Horizontal Wind 242
11.8.2 Energy Balance Closure 242
11.8.3 Transfer Functions 242
11.8.4 Equipment Mounting 243
11.8.5 Detrending 243
11.8.6 Software 243 Appendix A Some Useful Numerical Values 245 Appendix B Saturated Vapour Density and Pressure of H[subscript 2]O 247 Appendix C Vector Identities 249 Bibliography 251 References 255 Index 257
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