The Physical Universe / Edition 5

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This is an outstanding text with a long history that has been updated and given a fresh look, including worked examples pulled out of the text into numbered boxes. Aimed at presenting the essentials of physics, chemistry, earth science, and astronomy in a clear, easy-to-understand way, The Physical Universe shows students how science works, how scientists approach problems, and why science constantly evolves in its search for understanding. The text can also be packaged with its long time companion student study guide, which includes a review of chapter terms and concepts; self quizzing for extra practice; and solved problems from the text.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780070354845
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 1/28/1986
  • Edition description: 5th ed
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 800

Meet the Author

Konrad B. Krauskopf was born and raised in Madison, Wisconsin and earned a B.S. in chemistry from University of Wisconsin in 1931. He then earned a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of California in Berkeley. When the Great Depression made jobs in chemistry scarce, Professor Krauskopf decided to study geology, which had long fascinated him. Through additional graduate work at Stanford University, he earned a second Ph.D. and eventually a position on the Stanford faculty. He remained at Stanford until his retirement in 1976. During his tenure, Professor Krauskopf also worked at various times with the U.S. Geological Survey, served with the U.S. army in occupied Japan, and traveled to Norway, France, and Germany on sabbatical leaves. His research interests included field work on granites and metamorphic rocks and laboratory study on applications of chemistry to geologic problems, especially the formation of ore deposits. In recent years, Professor Krauskopf had spent time working with various government agencies on the problem of radioactive waste disposal.

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

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Table of Contents

Preface     xii
The Scientific Method     1
How Scientists Study Nature     2
The Scientific Method     2
Why Science Is Successful     5
The Solar System     8
A Survey of the Sky     8
The Ptolemaic System     10
The Copernican System     12
Kepler's Laws     14
Why Copernicus Was Right     16
Universal Gravitation     18
What Is Gravity?     18
Why the Earth Is Round     20
The Tides     21
The Discovery of Neptune     23
How Many of What     24
The SI System     24
Important Terms and Ideas     27
Multiple Choice     28
Exercises     29
Motion     31
Describing Motion     32
Speed     32
Vectors     35
Acceleration     36
Distance, Time, and Acceleration     38
Acceleration of Gravity     40
Free Fall     40
Air Resistance     44
Force and Motion     46
First Law of Motion     46
Mass     47
Second Law of Motion     48
Mass and Weight     51
Third Law of Motion     52
Gravitation     54
Circular Motion     54
Newton's Law of Gravity     56
Artificial Satellites     58
Important Terms and Ideas     62
Important Formulas     62
Multiple Choice     62
Exercises     65
Energy     71
Work     72
The Meaning of Work     72
Power     75
Energy     76
Kinetic Energy     76
Potential Energy     79
Energy Transformations     81
Conservation of Energy     83
The Nature of Heat     83
Momentum     84
Linear Momentum     85
Rockets     88
Angular Momentum     88
Relativity     90
Special Relativity     91
Rest Energy     92
General Relativity     95
Energy and Civilization     97
The Energy Problem     97
The Future     100
Important Terms and Ideas     104
Important Formulas     104
Multiple Choice     105
Exercises     107
Matter and Heat     111
Temperature and Heat     112
Temperature     112
Heat     115
Metabolic Energy     117
Fluids     119
Density     119
Pressure     120
Buoyancy     123
The Gas Laws     126
Kinetic Theory of Matter     130
Kinetic Theory of Gases     131
Molecular Motion and Temperature     132
Changes of State     134
Liquids and Solids     134
Evaporation and Boiling     135
Melting     137
Energy Transformations     140
Heat Engines     140
Thermodynamics     142
Fate of The Universe     145
Entropy     145
Important Terms and Ideas     147
Important Formulas     148
Multiple Choice     148
Exercises     151
Electricity and Magnetism     157
Electric Charge     158
Positive and Negative Charge     158
What Is Charge?      160
Coulomb's Law     162
Force on an Uncharged Object     164
Electricity and Matter     165
Matter in Bulk     165
Conductors and Insulators     166
Superconductivity     168
Electric Current     169
The Ampere     169
Potential Difference     171
Ohm's Law     174
Electric Power     175
Magnetism     178
Magnets     179
Magnetic Field     180
Oersted's Experiment     181
Electromagnets     184
Using Magnetism     185
Magnetic Force on a Current     185
Electric Motors     187
Electromagnetic Induction     188
Transformers     191
Important Terms and Ideas     193
Important Formulas     194
Multiple Choice     194
Exercises     197
Wave     201
Wave Motion     202
Water Waves     202
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves     203
Describing Waves     204
Standing Waves     207
Sound Waves     208
Sound      208
Doppler Effect     210
Musical Sounds     211
Electromagnetic Waves     214
Electromagnetic Waves     214
Types of EM Waves     216
Light "Rays"     219
Wave Behavior     219
Reflection     219
Refraction     220
Lenses     224
The Eye     228
Color     231
Interference     234
Diffraction     237
Important Terms and Ideas     239
Important Formulas     240
Multiple Choice     240
Exercises     243
The Nucleus     247
Atom and Nucleus     248
Rutherford Model of the Atom     248
Nuclear Structure     250
Radioactivity     252
Radioactive Decay     253
Half-Life     256
Radiation Hazards     257
Nuclear Energy     259
Units of Mass and Energy     259
Binding Energy     260
Binding Energy per Nucleon     262
Fission and Fusion     263
Nuclear Fission     263
How a Reactor Works      266
Plutonium     267
A Nuclear World?     267
Nuclear Fusion     271
Elementary Particles     274
Antiparticles     274
Fundamental Interactions     276
Leptons and Hadrons     279
A Physicist at Work   Timothy C. Miller     280
Important Terms and Ideas     282
Multiple Choice     282
Exercises     284
The Atom     287
Quantum Theory of Light     288
Photoelectric Effect     288
Photons     289
What Is Light?     292
X-Rays     293
Matter Waves     295
De Broglie Waves     295
Waves of What?     297
Uncertainty Principle     298
The Hydrogen Atom     300
Atomic Spectra     300
The Bohr Model     302
Electron Waves and Orbits     305
The Laser     306
Quantum Theory of the Atom     310
Quantum Mechanics     310
Quantum Numbers     311
Exclusion Principle     313
Important Terms and Ideas     314
Important Formulas      314
Multiple Choice     315
Exercises     317
The Periodic Law     321
Elements and Compounds     322
Chemical Change     322
Three Classes of Matter     323
The Atomic Theory     326
The Periodic Law     328
Metals and Nonmetals     328
Chemical Activity     329
Families of Elements     330
The Periodic Table     332
Groups and Periods     335
Atomic Structure     337
Shells and Subshells     337
Explaining the Periodic Table     338
Chemical Bonds     341
Types of Bond     341
Covalent Bonding     342
Ionic Bonding     344
Ionic Compounds     345
Atom Groups     346
Naming Compounds     347
Chemical Equations     348
Important Terms and Ideas     350
Multiple Choice     351
Exercises     353
Crystals, Ions, and Solutions     357
Solids     358
Ionic and Covalent Crystals     359
The Metallic Bond     361
Molecular Crystals     363
Solutions     366
Solubility     366
Polar and Nonpolar Liquids     369
Ions in Solution     371
Evidence for Dissociation     373
Water     374
Water Pollution     378
Acids and Bases     381
Acids     381
Strong and Weak Acids     382
Bases     383
The pH Scale     384
Salts     385
Important Terms and Ideas     387
Multiple Choice     387
Exercises     390
Chemical Reactions     393
Quantitative Chemistry     394
Phlogiston     394
Oxygen     397
The Mole     399
Formula Units     400
Chemical Energy     402
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions     403
Chemical Energy and Stability     405
Activation Energy     406
Fuels     407
Liquid Fuels     407
Gas Fuels     410
Solid Fuels     413
Reaction Rates     416
Temperature and Reaction Rates     416
Other Factors      417
A Chemist at Work   Judith M. Iriarte-Gross     418
Chemical Equilibrium     420
Altering an Equilibrium     421
Oxidation and Reduction     422
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions     422
Electrochemical Cells     425
Important Terms and Ideas     428
Multiple Choice     428
Exercises     431
Organic Chemistry     435
Carbon Compounds     436
Carbon Bonds     436
Alkanes     437
Petroleum Products     438
Structures of Organic Molecules     442
Structural Formulas     442
Isomers     443
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons     444
Benzene     446
Organic Compounds     447
Hydrocarbon Groups     447
Functional Groups     448
Polymers     452
Chemistry of Life     457
Carbohydrates     457
Photosynthesis     460
Lipids     461
Proteins     462
Soil Nitrogen     463
Nucleic Acids     466
Origin of Life     468
Important Terms and Ideas     470
Multiple Choice     471
Exercises     473
Atmosphere and Hydrosphere     475
The Atmosphere     476
Regions of the Atmosphere     476
Atmospheric Moisture     480
Clouds     481
Weather     484
Atmospheric Energy     485
The Seasons     488
Winds     489
General Circulation of the Atmosphere     491
Middle-Latitude Weather Systems     494
Climate     500
Tropical Climates     500
Middle-Latitude Climates     502
Climate Change     503
Origins of Climate Change     506
The Hydrosphere     510
Ocean Basins     510
Ocean Currents     513
Important Terms and Ideas     515
Multiple Choice     516
Exercises     518
The Rock Cycle     521
Rocks     522
Composition of the Crust     522
Minerals     524
Igneous Rocks     526
Sedimentary Rocks     528
Metamorphic Rocks     530
Within the Earth      531
Earthquakes     532
A Geophysicist at Work   Andrea Donnellan     535
Structure of the Earth     536
The Earth's Interior     540
Geomagnetism     541
Erosion     542
Weathering     543
Stream Erosion     545
Glaciers     546
Groundwater     549
Sedimentation     550
Vulcanism     554
Volcanoes     554
Intrusive Rocks     558
The Rock Cycle     560
Important Terms and Ideas     561
Multiple Choice     561
Exercises     564
The Evolving Earth     567
Tectonic Movement     568
Types of Deformation     568
Mountain Building     570
Continental Drift     571
Plate Tectonics     575
Lithosphere and Asthenosphere     575
The Ocean Floors     576
Ocean-Floor Spreading     577
Plate Tectonics     579
Methods of Historical Geology     588
Principle of Uniform Change     588
Rock Formations     591
Radiometric Dating      592
Fossils     594
Geologic Time     596
Earth History     597
Precambrian Time     599
The Paleozoic Era     600
Coal and Petroleum     602
The Mesozoic Era     604
The Cenozoic Era     608
Human History     610
Important Terms and Ideas     613
Multiple Choice     614
Exercises     616
The Family of the Sun     620
The Solar System     621
Comets     622
Meteors     626
The Inner Planets     629
Mercury     629
Venus     630
Mars     633
Is There Life on Mars?     637
Asteroids     639
The Outer Planets     643
Jupiter     643
Saturn     646
Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and More     649
The Moon     653
Phases of the Moon     653
Eclipses     655
The Lunar Surface     657
Evolution of the Lunar Landscape     660
Origin of the Moon     661
Important Terms and Ideas      662
Multiple Choice     663
Exercises     665
The Stars     667
Tools of Astronomy     668
The Telescope     668
The Spectrometer     670
Spectrum Analysis     671
The Sun     673
Properties of the Sun     673
The Aurora     675
Sunspots     677
Solar Energy     679
The Stars     682
Stellar Distances     682
Variable Stars     683
Stellar Motions     685
Stellar Properties     685
Life Histories of the Stars     686
H-R Diagram     687
Stellar Evolution     689
Supernovas     692
Pulsars     693
Black Holes     694
Important Terms and Ideas     696
Multiple Choice     697
Exercises     699
The Universe     701
Galaxies     702
The Milky Way     702
Stellar Populations     705
Radio Astronomy     706
Galaxies     708
Cosmic Rays     711
The Expanding Universe      712
Red Shifts     712
Quasars     715
Evolution of the Universe     716
Dating the Universe     716
An Astronomer at Work   Wendy Freedman     718
After the Big Bang     719
Origin of the Solar System     723
Extraterrestrial Life     725
Extrasolar Planets     725
Interstellar Travel     727
Interstellar Communication     728
Important Terms and Ideas     730
Multiple Choice     730
Exercises     733
Math Refresher     A-1
The Elements     A-12
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises     A-13
Glossary     A-31
Photo Credits     C-1
Index     I-1
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