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Overview
Key Message: This book aims to explain physics in a readable and interesting manner that is accessible and clear, and to teach readers by anticipating their needs and difficulties without oversimplifying. Physics is a description of reality, and thus each topic begins with concrete observations and experiences that readers can directly relate to. We then move on to the generalizations and more formal treatment of the topic. Not only does this make the material more interesting and easier to understand, but it is closer to the way physics is actually practiced.
Key Topics:
INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING, DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION, KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS, DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION , USING NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES , GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS , WORK AND ENERGY , CONSERVATION OF ENERGY , LINEAR MOMENTUM , ROTATIONAL MOTION , ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION , STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE , FLUIDS , OSCILLATIONS , WAVE MOTION, SOUND , TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES , HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS , SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD, GAUSS’S LAW , ELECTRIC POTENTIAL , CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE , ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE , DC CIRCUITS, MAGNETISM, SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD, ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW, INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS, THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE, DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION, SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM
Market Description: This book is written for readers interested in learning the basics of physics.
Product Details
Related Subjects
Table of Contents
CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1
APPLICATIONS LIST xii
PREFACE xiv
AVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxii
NOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxiv
COLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv
CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING
1—1 The Nature of Science
1—2 Models, Theories, and Laws
1—3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures
1—4 Units, Standards, and the SI System
1—5 Converting Units
1—6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating
*1—7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION
2—1 Reference Frames and Displacement
2—2 Average Velocity
2—3 Instantaneous Velocity
2—4 Acceleration
2—5 Motion at Constant Acceleration
2—6 Solving Problems
2—7 Freely Falling Objects
*2—8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus
*2—9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical Integration
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 3: KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS
3—1 Vectors and Scalars
3—2 Addition of Vectors–Graphical Methods
3—3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
3—4 Adding Vectors by Components
3—5 Unit Vectors
3—6 Vector Kinematics
3—7 Projectile Motion
3—8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion
3—9 Relative Velocity
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 4: DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
4—1 Force
4—2 Newton’s First Law of Motion
4—3 Mass
4—4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
4—5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
4—6 Weight–the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force
4—7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: FreeBody Diagrams
4—8 Problem Solving–A General Approach
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 5: USING NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES
5—1 Applications of Newton’s Laws Involving Friction
5—2 Uniform Circular Motion–Kinematics
5—3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
5—4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked
*5—5 Nonuniform Circular Motion
*5—6 VelocityDependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 6: GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS
6—1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
6—2 Vector Form of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
6—3 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface; Geophysical Applications
6—4 Satellites and “Weightlessness”
6—5 Kepler’s Laws and Newton’s Synthesis
*6—6 Gravitational Field
6—7 Types of Forces in Nature
*6—8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 7: WORK AND ENERGY
7—1 Work Done by a Constant Force
7—2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors
7—3 Work Done by a Varying Force
7—4 Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Principle
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 8: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
8—1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
8—2 Potential Energy
8—3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation
8—4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy
8—5 The Law of Conservation of Energy
8—6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems
8—7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity
8—8 Power
*8—9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 9: LINEAR MOMENTUM
9—1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force
9—2 Conservation of Momentum
9—3 Collisions and Impulse
9—4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions
9—5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
9—6 Inelastic Collisions
9—7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions
9—8 Center of Mass (CM)
9—9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion
*9—10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 10: ROTATIONAL MOTION
10—1 Angular Quantities
10—2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
10—3 Constant Angular Acceleration
10—4 Torque
10—5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia
10—6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics
10—7 Determining Moments of Inertia
10—8 Rotational Kinetic Energy
10—9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling
*10—10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down?
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 11: ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION
11—1 Angular Momentum–Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis
11—2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector
11—3 Angular Momentum of a Particle
11—4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion
11—5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object
11—6 Conservation of Angular Momentum
*11—7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope
*11—8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces
*11—9 The Coriolis Effect
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE
12—1 The Conditions for Equilibrium
12—2 Solving Statics Problems
12—3 Stability and Balance
12—4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain
12—5 Fracture
*12—6 Trusses and Bridges
*12—7 Arches and Domes
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 13: FLUIDS
13—1 Phases of Matter
13—2 Density and Specific Gravity
13—3 Pressure in Fluids
13—4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
13—5 Pascal’s Principle
13—6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
13—7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle
13—8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
13—9 Bernoulli’s Equation
13—10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA
*13—11 Viscosity
*13—12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow
*13—13 Surface Tension and Capillarity
*13—14 Pumps, and the Heart
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS
14—1 Oscillations of a Spring
14—2 Simple Harmonic Motion
14—3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
14—4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion
14—5 The Simple Pendulum
*14—6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum
14—7 Damped Harmonic Motion
14—8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 15: WAVE MOTION
15—1 Characteristics of Wave Motion
15—2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal
15—3 Energy Transported by Waves
15—4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave
*15—5 The Wave Equation
15—6 The Principle of Superposition
15—7 Reflection and Transmission
15—8 Interference
15—9 Standing Waves; Resonance
*15—10 Refraction
*15—11 Diffraction
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 16: SOUND
16—1 Characteristics of Sound
16—2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves
16—3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels
16—4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
*16—5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition
16—6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
16—7 Doppler Effect
*16—8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
*16—9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17: TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW
17—1 Atomic Theory of Matter
17—2 Temperature and Thermometers
17—3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
17—4 Thermal Expansion
*17—5 Thermal Stresses
17—6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
17—7 The Ideal Gas Law
17—8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
17—9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number
*17—10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale–a Standard
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 18: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
18—1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
18—2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
18—3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase
18—4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity
*18—5 Van der Waals Equation of State
*18—6 Mean Free Path
*18—7 Diffusion
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 19: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
19—1 Heat as Energy Transfer
19—2 Internal Energy
19—3 Specific Heat
19—4 Calorimetry–Solving Problems
19—5 Latent Heat
19—6 The First Law of Thermodynamics
19—7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work
19—8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy
19—9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas
19—10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 20: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
20—1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics–Introduction
20—2 Heat Engines
20—3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine
20—4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
20—5 Entropy
20—6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
20—7 Order to Disorder
20—8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death
*20—9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
*20—10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
*20—11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD
21—1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
21—2 Electric Charge in the Atom
21—3 Insulators and Conductors
21—4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope
21—5 Coulomb’s Law
21—6 The Electric Field
21—7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions
21—8 Field Lines
21—9 Electric Fields and Conductors
21—10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field
21—11 Electric Dipoles
*21—12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA
*21—13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 22: GAUSS’S LAW
22—1 Electric Flux
22—2 Gauss’s Law
22—3 Applications of Gauss’s Law
*22—4 Experimental Basis of Gauss’s and Coulomb’s Law
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
23—1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
23—2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field
23—3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
23—4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution
23—5 Equipotential Surfaces
23—6 Electric Dipole Potential
23—7 E Determined from V
23—8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt
23—9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE
24—1 Capacitors
24—2 Determination of Capacitance
24—3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
24—4 Electric Energy Storage
24—5 Dielectrics
*24—6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE
25—1 The Electric Battery
25—2 Electric Current
25—3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors
25—4 Resistivity
25—5 Electric Power
25—6 Power in Household Circuits
25—7 Alternating Current
25—8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity
*25—9 Superconductivity
*25—10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS
261 EMF and Terminal Voltage
262 Resistors in Series and in Parallel
263 Kirchoff’s Rules
264 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery
265 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits)
266 Electric Hazards
*267 Ammeters and Voltmeters
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM
271 Magnets and Magnetic Fields
272 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields
273 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of
274 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
275 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment
*276 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers
277 Discover and Properties of the Electron
*278 The Hall Effect
*279 Mass Spectrometer
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD
281 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire
282 Force between Two Parallel Wires
283 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb
284 Ampere’s Law
285 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid
286 BiotSavart Law
*287 Magnetic materials–Ferromagnetism
*288 Electromagnets and Solenoids—Applications
*289 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis
*2810 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW
291 Induced EMF
292 Faraday’s Law of Induction; Lenz’s Law
293 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
294 Electric Generators
*295 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents
296 Transformers and Transmission of Power
297 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
*298 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCI
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS
301 Mutual Inductance
302 SelfInductance
303 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
304 LR Circuits
305 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations
306 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)
307 AC Circuits with AC Source
308 LRC Series AC Circuit
309 Resonance in AC Circuits
*3010 Impedance Matching
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
311 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere’s Law and Displacement Current
312 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism
313 Maxwell’s Equations
314 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
*315 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell’s Equations
316 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
317 Measuring the Speed of Light
318 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector
*319 Radiation Pressure
*3110 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
321 The Ray Model of Light
322 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction
323 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
324 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
325 Refraction: Snell’s Law
326 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
327 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
*328 Refraction at a Spherical Surface
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
331 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
332 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification
333 Combinations of Lenses
334 Lensmaker’s Equation
335 Cameras, Film and Digital
336 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
337 Magnifying Glass
338 Telescopes
*339 Compound Microscope
*3310 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE
341 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction
342 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction
343 Interference–Young’s DoubleSlit Experiment
344 Intensity in the DoubleSlit Interference Pattern
345 Interference in Thin Films
*346 Michelson Interferometer
*347 Luminous Intensity
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION
351 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
352 Intensity in SingleSlit Diffraction Pattern
353 Diffraction in the DoubleSlit Experiment
354 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
355 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
*356 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
357 Diffraction Grating
*358 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
*359 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating
*3510 XRays and XRay Diffraction
3511 Polarization
*3512 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
*3513 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 36: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
361 Galilean—Newtonian Relativity
*362 The MichelsonMorley Experiment
363 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
364 Simultaneity
365 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
366 Length Contraction
367 FourDimensional SpaceTime
368 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations
369 Relativistic Momentum and Mass
3610 The Ultimate Speed
3611 Energy and Mass; E=mc ^{2}
3612 Doppler Shift for Light
3613 The Impact of Special Relativity
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 37: EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM
371 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
372 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect
373 Photons and the Compton Effect
374 Photon Interactions; Pair Production
375 WaveParticle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity
376 Wave Nature of Matter
*377 Electron Microscopes
378 Early Models of the Atom
379 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom
3710 The Bohr Model
3711 DeBroglie’s Hypothesis Applied to Atoms
SUMMARY
QUESTIONS
PROBLEMS
GENERAL PROBLEMS