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More About This Textbook
Overview
Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the reader into the physics. The new edition features an unrivaled suite of media and online resources that enhance the understanding of physics. Many new topics have been incorporated such as: the Otto cycle, lens combinations, threephase alternating current, and many more. New developments and discoveries in physics have been added including the Hubble space telescope, age and inflation of the universe, and distant planets. Modern physics topics are often discussed within the framework of classical physics where appropriate. For scientists and engineers who are interested in learning physics.
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Table of Contents
Preface
PREFACE
A Brand New Third Edition
It has been more than ten years since the second edition of this calculusbased introductory physics textbook was published. A lot has changed since then, not only in physics itself, but also in how physics is presented. Research in how students learn has provided textbook authors new opportunities to help students learn physics and learn it well.
This third edition comes in two versions. The standard version covers all of classical physics plus a chapter on special relativity and one on the early quantum theory. The extended version, with modern physics, contains a total of nine detailed chapters on modern physics, ending with astrophysics and cosmology. This book retains the original approach: indepth physics, concrete and nondogmatic, readable.
This new third edition has many improvements in the physics and its applications. Before discussing those changes in detail, here is a list of some of the overall changes that will catch the eye immediately.
Full color throughout is not just cosmetic, although fine color photographs do help to attract the student readers. More important, full color diagrams allow the physics to be displayed with much greater clarity. We have not stopped at a 4color process; this book has actually been printed in 5 pure colors (5 passes through the presses) to provide better variety and definition for illustrating vectors and other physics concepts such as rays and fields. I want to emphasize that color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics. For example, different types of vectors are given different colorsâ€”see the chart on page xxxi.
Many more diagrams, almost double the number in the previous edition, have all been done or redone carefully using full color; there are many more graphs and many more photographs throughout. See for example in optics where new photographs show lenses and the images they make.
Marginal notes have been added as an aid to students to (i) point out what is truly important, (ii) serve as a sort of outline, and (iii) help students find details about something referred to later that they may not remember so well. Besides such "normal" marginal notes, there are also marginal notes that point out brief problem solving hints, and others that point out interesting applications.
The great laws of physics are emphasized by giving them a marginal note all in capital letters and enclosed in a rectangle. The most important equations, especially those expressing the great laws, are further emphasized by a tancolored screen behind them.
Chapter opening photographs have been chosen to illustrate aspects of each chapter. Each was chosen with an eye to writing a caption which could serve as a kind of summary of what is in that chapter, and sometimes offer a challenge. Some chapteropening photos have vectors or other analysis superimposed on them.
Page layout: complete derivations. Serious attention has been paid to how each page was formatted, especially for page turns. Great effort has been made to keep important derivations and arguments on facing pages. Students then don't have to turn back to check. More important, readers repeatedly see before them, on two facing pages, an important slice of physics.
Two kinds of Examples: Conceptual Examples and Estimates.
New Physics
The whole idea of a new edition is to improve, to bring in new material, and to delete material that is verbose and only makes the book longer or is perhaps too advanced and not so useful. Here is a brief summary of a few of the changes involving the physics itself. These lists are selections, not complete lists.
New discoveries:
New physics topics added:
Modern physics. A number of modern physics topics are discussed in the framework of classical physics. Here are some highlights:
Many other examples of modern physics are found as Problems, even in early chapters. Chapters 37 and 38 contain the modern physics topics of Special Relativity, and an introduction to Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom. The longer version of this text, "with Modern Physics," contains an additional seven chapters (for a total of nine) which present a detailed and extremely uptodate treatment of modern physics: Quantum Mechanics of Atoms (Chapters 38 to 40); Molecules and Condensed Matter (Chapter 41); Nuclear Physics (Chapter 42 and 43); Elementary Particles (Chapter 44); and finally Astrophysics, General Relativity, and Cosmology (Chapter 45).
Revised physics and reorganizations. First of all, a major effort has been made to not throw everything at the students in the first few chapters. The basics have to be learned first; many aspects can come later, when the students are more prepared. Secondly, a great part of this book has been rewritten to make it clearer and more understandable to students. Clearer does not always mean simpler or easier. Sometimes making it "easier" actually makes it harder to understand. Often a little more detail, without being verbose, can make an explanation clearer. Here are a few of the changes, big and small:
New Pedagogy
All of the above mentioned revisions, rewritings, and reorganizations are intended to help students learn physics better. They were done in response to contemporary research in how students learn, as well as to kind and generous input from professors who have read, reviewed, or used the previous editions. This new edition also contains some new elements, especially an increased emphasis on conceptual development:
Conceptual Examples, typically 1 or 2 per chapter, sometimes more, are each a sort of brief Socratic question and answer. It is intended that students will be stimulated by the question to think, or reflect, and come up with a responseâ€”before reading the Response given. Here are a few:
Estimating Examples, roughly 10% of all Examples, also a new feature of this edition, are intended to develop the skills for making orderofmagnitude estimates, even when the data are scarce, and even when you might never have guessed that any result was possible at all. See, for example, Section 16, Examples 15 to 18.
Problem Solving, with New and Improved Approaches
Learning how to approach and solve problems is a basic part of any physics course. It is a highly useful skill in itself, but is also important because the process helps bring under standing of the physics. Problem solving in this new edition has a significantly increased emphasis, including some new features.
Problemsolving boxes, about 20 of them, are new to this edition. They are more concentrated in the early chapters, but are found throughout the book. They each outline a stepbystep approach to solving problems in general, and/or specifically for the material being covered. The best students may find these separate "boxes" unnecessary (they can skip them), but many students will find it helpful to be reminded of the general approach and of steps they can take to get started; and, I think, they help to build confidence. The general problem solving box in Section 48 is placed there, after students have had some experience wrestling with problems, and so may be strongly motivated to read it with close attention. Section 48 can, of course, be covered earlier if desired.
Problemsolving Sections occur in many chapters, and are intended to provide extra drill in areas where solving problems is especially important or detailed.
Examples. This new edition has many more workedout Examples, and they all now have titles for interest and for easy reference. There are even two new categories of Example: Conceptual, and Estimates, as described above. Regular Examples serve as "practice problems". Many new ones have been added, some of the old ones have been dropped, and many have been reworked to provide greater clarity and detail: more steps are spelled out, more of "why we do it this way", and more discussion of the reasoning and approach. In sum, the idea is "to think aloud with the students", leading them to develop insight. The total number of workedout Examples is about 30% greater than in the previous edition, for an average of 12 to 15 per chapter. There is a significantly higher concentration of Examples in the early chapters, where drill is especially important for developing skills and a variety of approaches. The level of the workedout Examples for most topics increases gradually, with the more complicated ones being on a par with the most difficult Problems at the end of each chapter, so that students can see how to approach complex problems. Many of the new Examples, and improvements to old ones, provide relevant applications to engineering, other related fields, and to everyday life.
Problems at the end of each chapter have been greatly increased in quality and quantity. There are over 30% more Problems than in the second edition. Many of the old ones have been replaced, or rewritten to make them clearer, and/or have had their numerical values changed. Each chapter contains a large group of Problems arranged by Section and graded according to difficulty: level I Problems are simple, designed to give students confidence; level II are "normal" Problems, providing more of a challenge and often the combination of two different concepts; level III are the most complex, typically combining different issues, and will challenge even superior students. The arrangement by Section number means only that those Problems depend on material up to and including that Section: earlier material may also be relied upon. The ranking of Problems by difficulty (I, II, III) is intended only as a guide.
General Problems. About 70% of Problems are ranked by level of difficulty (I, II, III) and arranged by Section. New to this edition are General Problems that are unranked and grouped together at the end of each chapter, and account for about 30% of all problems. The average total number of Problems per chapter is about 90. Answers to oddnumbered Problems are given at the back of the book.
Complete Physics Coverage, with Options
This book is intended to give students the opportunity to obtain a thorough background in all areas of basic physics. There is great flexibility in choice of topics so that instructors can choose which topics they cover and which they omit. Sections marked with an asterisk care be considered optional, as discussed more fully on p. xxv. Here I want to emphasize that topics not covered in class can still be read by serious students for their own enrichment, either immediately or later. Here is a partial list of physics topics, not the standard ones, but topic that might not usually be covered, and that represent how thorough this book is in its coverage of basic physics. Section numbers are given in parentheses.
New Applications
Relevant applications to everyday life, to engineering, and to other fields such as geology and medicine, provide students with motivation and offer the instructor the opportunity to show the relevance of physics. Applications are a good response to students who ask "Why study physics?" Many new applications have been added in this edition. Here are some highlights:
Some old favorites retained (and improved):
Deletions
Something had to go, or the book would have been too long. Lots of subjects were shortenedâ€”the detail simply isn't necessary at this level. Some topics were dropped entirely: polar coordinates; centerofmomentum reference frame; Reynolds number (now a Problem); object moving in a fluid and sedimentation; derivation of Poiseuille's equation; Stokes equation; waveguide and transmission line analysis; electric polarization and electric displacement vectors; potentiometer (now a Problem); negative pressure; combinations of two harmonic motions; adiabatic character of sound waves; central forces.
Many topics have been shortened, often a lot, such as: velocitydependent forces; variable acceleration; instantaneous axis; surface tension and capillarity; optics topics such as some aspects of light polarizarion. Many of the brief historical and philosophical issues have been shortened as well.
General Approach
This book offers an indepth presentation of physics, and retains the basic approach of the earlier editions. Rather than using the common, dry, dogmatic approach of treating topics formally and abstractly first, and only later relating the material to the students' own experience, my approach is to recognize that physics is a description of reality and thus to start each topic with concrete observations and experiences that students can directly relate to. Then we move on to the generalizations and more formal treatment of the topic. Not only does this make the material more interesting and easier to understand, but it is closer to the way physics is actually practiced.
This new edition, even more than previous editions, aims to explain the physics in a readable and interesting manner that is accessible and clear. It aims to teach students by anticipating their needs and difficulties, but without oversimplifying. Physics is all about us. Indeed, it is the goal of this book to help students "see the world through eyes that know physics."
As mentioned above, this book includes of a wide range of Examples and applications from technology, engineering, architecture, earth sciences, the environment, biology, medicine, and daily life. Some applications serve only as examples of physical principles. Others are treated in depth. But applications do not dominate the textâ€”this is, after all, a physics book. They have been carefully chosen and integrated into the text so as not to interfere with the development of the physics but rather to illuminate it. You won't find essay sidebars here. The applications are integrated right into the physics. To make it easy to spot the applications, a new Physics Applied marginal note is placed in the margin (except where diagrams in the margin prevent it).
It is assumed that students have started calculus or are taking it concurrently. Calculus is treated gently at first, usually in an optional Section so as not to burden students taking calculus concurrently. For example, using the integral in kinematics, Chapter 2, is an optional Section. But in Chapter 7, on work, the integral is discussed fully for all readers.
Throughout the text, SystĂ¨me International (SI) units are used. Other metric and British units are defined for informational purposes. Careful attention is paid to significant figures. When a certain value is given as, say, 3, with its units, it is meant to be 3, not assumed to be 3.0 or 3.00. When we mean 3.00 we write 3.00. It is important for students to be aware of the uncertainty in any measured value, and not to overestimate the precision of a numerical result.
Rather than start this physics book with a chapter on mathematics, I have instead incorporated many mathematical tools, such as vector addition and multiplication, directly in the text where first needed. In addition, the Appendices contain a review of many mathematical topics such as trigonometric identities, integrals, and the binomial (and other) expansions. One advanced topic is also given an Appendix: integrating to get the gravitational force due to a spherical mass distribution.
It is necessary, I feel, to pay careful attention to detail, especially when deriving an important result. I have aimed at including all steps in a derivation, and have tried to make clear which equations are general, and which are not, by explicitly stating the limitations of important equations in brackets next to the equation, such as
x = x_{O} + v_{O} t + Â˝at^{2}. constant acceleration
The more detailed introduction to Newton's laws and their use is of crucial pedagogic importance. The many new workedout Examples include initially fairly simple ones that provide careful stepbystep analysis of how to proceed in solving dynamics problems. Each succeeding Example adds a new element or a new twist that introduces greater complexity. It is hoped that this strategy will enable even lesswellprepared students to acquire the tools for using Newton's laws correctly. If students don't surmount this crucial hurdle, the rest of physics may remain forever beyond their grasp.
Rotational motion is difficult for most students. As an example of attention to detail (although this is not really a "detail"), I have carefully distinguished the position vector (r) of a point and the perpendicular distance of that point from an axis, which is called R in this book (see Fig. 102). This distinction, which enters particularly in connection with torque, moment of inertia, and angular momentum, is often not made clearâ€”it is a disservice to students to use r or r for both without distinguishing. Also, I have made clear that it is not always true that ÎŁÎ¤ = I_{CM}Î±_{CM}. It depends on the axis chosen (valid if axis is fixed in an inertial reference frame, or through the cm). To not tell this to students can get them into serious trouble. (See pp. 250, 283, 284.) I have treated rotational motion by starting with the simple instance of rotation about an axis (Chapter 10), including the concepts of angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy. Only in Chapter 11 is the more general case of rotation about a point dealt with, and this slightly more advanced material can be omitted if desired (except for Sections 111 and 112 on the vector product and the torque vector). The end of Chapter 10 has an optional subsection containing three slightly more advanced Examples, using ÎŁÎ¤ _{CM} = I_{CM}Î±_{CM}: car braking distribution, a falling yoyo, and a sphere rolling with and without slipping.
Among other special treatments is Chapter 28, Sources of Magnetic Field: here, in one chapter, are discussed the magnetic field due to currents (including AmpĂ¨re's law and the law of BiotSavart) as well as magnetic materials, ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism. This presentation is clearer, briefer, and more of a whole, and all the content is there.
Organization
The general outline of this new edition retains a traditional order of topics: mechanics (Chapters 1 to 12); fluids, vibrations, waves, and sound (Chapter 13 to 16); kinetic theory and thermodynamics (Chapters 17 to 20). In the twovolume version of this text, volume I ends here, after Chapter 20. The text continues with electricity and magnetism (Chapters 21 to 32), light (Chapters 33 to 36), and modern physics (Chapters 37 and 38 in the short version, Chapters 37 to 45 in the extended version "with Modern Physics"). Nearly all topics customarily taught in introductory physics courses are included. A number of topics from modern physics are included with the classical physics chapters as discussed earlier.
The tradition of beginning with mechanics is sensible, I believe, because it was developed first, historically, and because so much else in physics depends on it. Within mechanics, there are various ways to order topics, and this book allows for considerable flexibility. I prefer, for example, to cover statics after dynamics, partly because many students have trouble working with forces without motion. Besides, statics is a special case of dynamicsâ€”we study statics so that we can prevent structures from becoming dynamic (falling down)â€”and that sense of being at the limit of dynamics is intuitively helpful. Nonetheless statics (Chapter 12) can be covered earlier, if desired, before dynamics, after a brief introduction to vector addition. Another option is light, which I have placed after electricity and magnetism and EM waves. But light could be treated immediately after the chapters on waves (Chapters 15 and 16). Special relativity is Chapter 37, but could instead be treated along with mechanicsâ€”say, after Chapter 9.
Not every chapter need be given equal weight. Whereas Chapter 4 might require 1Â˝ to 2 weeks of coverage, Chapter 16 or 22 may need only Â˝ week.
Some instructors may find that this book contains more material than can be covered completely in their courses. But the text offers great flexibility in choice of topics. Sections marked with a star (asterisk) are considered optional. These Sections contain slightly more advanced physics material, or material not usually covered in typical courses, and/or interesting applications. They contain no material needed in later chapters (except perhaps in later optional Sections). This does not imply that all nonstarred Sections must be covered: there still remains considerable flexibility in the choice of material. For a brief course, all optional material could be dropped as well as major parts of Chapters 11,13, 16, 26, 30, 31, and 36 as well as selected parts of Chapters 9, 12, 19, 20, 32, 34, and the modern physics chapters. Topics not covered in class can be a valuable resource for later study; indeed, this text can serve as a useful reference for students for years because of its wide range of coverage.