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Physics in Biology and Medicine / Edition 3

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0123694116 BRAND NEW! [ 3rd U.S. Edition, Paperback | ISBN: 9780123694119 | Same as picture shown ] SUPERFAST Delivery-sent out same day with notification of tracking number. Same ... book as sold by your college bookstore. Order Now! Read more Show Less

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Overview

At one time scientists believed that a "vital force" governed the structure and organization of biological molecules. Today, most scientists realize that organisms are governed by the laws of physics on all levels.

While almost two centuries of research have found that physical laws fully apply to biology, work is far from complete. Basic questions at the atomic, molecular, and organismal levels remain unanswered. Even when typically complex molecular structure is known, function is not yet predictable. Nourishment, growth, reproduction, and communication distinguish biological matter from inorganic matter, yet these mechanisms are understood only qualitatively.

This book furthers our understanding by relating important concepts in physics to living systems. Applications of physics in biology and medicine are emphasized, with no previous knowledge of biology required. The analysis is largely quantitative, but only high-school physics and mathematics are assumed. Underlying basic physics appears in appendices. Biological systems are described in only enough detail for physical analysis.

The organization is similar to basic physics texts: solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, sound, electricity, optics, and atomic and nuclear physics. A bibliography gives important sources for further reading.

Audience: Suitable for doctors, nurses, physiologists, or other applied health workers. Also appropriate for the layperson (with only high school math as a base) who wishes to understand the nature of the mechanics of our bodies.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Reviews from the second edition:

"This is a book you should consider if you are teaching the one-semester premed course. This text could be used in two ways: 1) as a text for a one-term course in the physics of the body (without calculus) for non-physics majors in premed or allied health programs, or 2) as a supplementary text for the introductory physics course, particularly for premed students."
—Russell Hobbie, University of Minnesota

"There is certainly a viable market (for this book), if not as a stand-alone physics text, as a collection of problems, examples, and discussions at the boundary between physics and biology/medicine. It is very well written; it is certainly accurate; and it is pretty complete."
—David Cinabro, Wayne State University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780123694119
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 9/14/2007
  • Series: Complementary Science Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Paul Davidovits, Professor of Chemistry at Boston College, was co-awarded the prestigious R.W. Wood prize from the Optical Society of America for his seminal work in optics. His contribution was foundational in the field of confocal microscopy, which allows engineers and biologists to produce optical sections through 3D objects such as semiconductor circuits, living tissues, or a single cell. Dr. Davidovits earned his doctorate, masters, and undergraduate degrees from Columbia University. Prior to his appointment at Boston College, he was a faculty member at Yale University. He has published more than 150 papers in physical chemistry and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Association for Advancement of Science. The second edition of Physics in Biology and Medicine received the Alpha Sigma Nu Book Award in the Discipline of the Natural Sciences.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Static Forces 1
1.1 Equilibrium and Stability 2
1.2 Equilibrium Considerations for the Human Body 3
1.3 Stability of the Human Body under the Action of an External Force 4
1.4 Skeletal Muscles 7
1.5 Levers 10
1.6 The Elbow 11
1.7 The Hip 15
1.7.1 Limping 17
1.8 The Back 17
1.9 Standing Tip-Toe on One Foot 19
1.10 Dynamic Aspects of Posture 19
Exercises 21
2 Friction 23
2.1 Standing at an Incline 25
2.2 Friction at the Hip Joint 26
2.3 Spine Fin of a Catfish 27
Exercises 28
3 Translational Motion 30
3.1 Vertical Jump 31
3.2 Effect of Gravity on the Vertical Jump 34
3.3 Running High Jump 35
3.4 Range of a Projectile 36
3.5 Standing Broad Jump 37
3.6 Running Broad Jump 38
3.7 Motion through Air 39
3.8 Energy Consumed in Physical Activity 41
Exercises 42
4 Angular Motion 44
4.1 Forces on a Curved Path 44
4.2 A Runner on a Curved Track 46
4.3 Pendulum 47
4.4 Walking 48
4.5 Physical Pendulum 49
4.6 Speed of Walking and Running 50
4.7 Energy Expended in Running 52
Exercises 54
5 Elasticity and Strength of Materials 56
5.1 Longitudinal Stretch and Compression 56
5.2 A Spring 57
5.3 Bone Fracture: Energy Considerations 59
5.4 Impulsive Forces 61
5.5 Fracture Due to a Fall: Impulsive Force Considerations 62
5.6 Airbags: Inflating Collision Protection Devices 63
5.7 Whiplash Injury 64
5.8 Falling from Great Height 65
Exercises 65
6 Insect Flight 67
6.1 Hovering Flight 67
6.2 Insect Wing Muscles 69
6.3 Power Required for Hovering 70
6.4 Kinetic Energy of Wings in Flight 72
6.5 Elasticity of Wings 73
Exercises 74
7 Fluids 76
7.1 Force and Pressure in a Fluid 76
7.2 Pascal's Principle 77
7.3 Hydrostatic Skeleton 78
7.4 Archimedes' Principle 81
7.5 Power Required to Remain Afloat 81
7.6 Buoyancy of Fish 82
7.7 Surface Tension 83
7.8 Soil Water 86
7.9 Insect Locomotion on Water 87
7.10 Contraction of Muscles 89
Exercises 90
8 The Motion of Fluids 92
8.1 Bernoulli's Equation 92
8.2 Viscosity and Poiseuille's Law 94
8.3 Turbulent Flow 95
8.4 Circulation of the Blood 96
8.5 Blood Pressure 98
8.6 Control of Blood Flow 100
8.7 Energetics of Blood Flow 100
8.8 Turbulence in the Blood 101
8.9 Arteriosclerosis and Blood Flow 101
8.10 Power Produced by the Heart 103
8.11 Measurement of Blood Pressure 103
Exercises 104
9 Heat and Kinetic Theory 106
9.1 Heat and Hotness 106
9.2 Kinetic Theory of Matter 106
9.3 Definitions 109
9.3.1 Unit of Heat 109
9.3.2 Specific Heat 109
9.3.3 Latent Heats 110
9.4 Transfer of Heat 110
9.4.1 Conduction 110
9.4.2 Convection 111
9.4.3 Radiation 112
9.4.4 Diffusion 113
9.5 Transport of Molecules by Diffusion 116
9.6 Diffusion through Membranes 118
9.7 The Respiratory System 119
9.8 Diffusion and Contact Lenses 122
Exercises 122
10 Thermodynamics 124
10.1 First Law of Thermodynamics 124
10.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics 126
10.3 Difference between Heat and Other Forms of Energy 127
10.4 Thermodynamics of Living Systems 129
10.5 Information and the Second Law 132
Exercises 133
11 Heat and Life 134
11.1 Energy Requirements of People 135
11.2 Energy from Food 136
11.3 Regulation of Body Temperature 138
11.4 Control of Skin Temperature 140
11.5 Convection 140
11.6 Radiation 142
11.7 Radiative Heating by the Sun 142
11.8 Evaporation 144
11.9 Resistance to Cold 145
11.10 Heat and Soil 147
Exercises 148
12 Waves and Sound 151
12.1 Properties of Sound 151
12.2 Some Properties of Waves 154
12.2.1 Reflection and Refraction 154
12.2.2 Interference 155
12.2.3 Diffraction 157
12.3 Hearing and the Ear 157
12.3.1 The Performance of the Ear 160
12.3.2 Frequency and Pitch 161
12.3.3 Intensity and Loudness 162
12.4 Bats and Echoes 164
12.5 Sounds Produced by Animals 165
12.6 Clinical Uses of Sound 165
12.7 Ultrasonic Waves 166
Exercises 167
13 Electricity 168
13.1 The Nervous System 168
13.1.1 The Neuron 169
13.1.2 Electrical Potentials in the Axon 171
13.1.3 The Action Potential 172
13.1.4 The Axon as an Electric Cable 174
13.1.5 Propagation of the Action Potential 175
13.1.6 An Analysis of the Axon Circuit 178
13.1.7 Synaptic Transmission 181
13.1.8 Action Potentials in Muscles 182
13.1.9 Surface Potentials 182
13.2 Electricity in Plants 183
13.3 Electricity in the Bone 184
13.4 Electric Fish 185
Exercises 186
14 Electrical Technology 188
14.1 Electrical Technology in Biological Research 188
14.2 Diagnostic Equipment 190
14.2.1 The Electrocardiograph 190
14.2.2 The Electroencephalograph 191
14.3 Physiological Effects of Electricity 192
14.4 Control Systems 194
14.5 Feedback 196
Exercises 198
15 Optics 200
15.1 Vision 200
15.2 Nature of Light 201
15.3 Structure of the Eye 201
15.4 Accommodation 202
15.5 Eye and the Camera 203
15.5.1 Aperture and Depth of Field 204
15.6 Lens System of the Eye 205
15.7 Reduced Eye 206
15.8 Retina 208
15.9 Resolving Power of the Eye 209
15.10 Threshold of Vision 211
15.11 Vision and the Nervous System 212
15.12 Defects in Vision 212
15.13 Lens for Myopia 213
15.14 Lens for Presbyopia and Hyperopia 214
15.15 Extension of Vision 215
15.15.1 Telescope 215
15.15.2 Microscope 216
15.15.3 Confocal Microscopy 217
15.15.4 Fiber Optics 220
Exercises 222
16 Atomic and Nuclear Physics 224
16.1 The Atom 224
16.2 Spectroscopy 229
16.3 Quantum Mechanics 231
16.4 Electron Microscope 232
16.5 X-Rays 234
16.6 X-Ray Computerized Tomography 235
16.7 The Nucleus 237
16.8 Radiation Therapy 238
16.9 Food Preservation by Radiation 239
16.10 Isotopic Tracers 240
16.11 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 241
16.11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 242
16.11.2 Imaging with NMR 246
16.12 Atomic Theory and Life 248
Exercises 251
Appendix A Basic Concepts in Mechanics 252
Appendix B Review of Electricity 266
Appendix C Review of Optics 272
Appendix D Bibliography 281
Appendix E Answers to Numerical Exercises 289
Index 293
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