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Physics of Clinical MR Taught Through Images [NOOK Book]

Overview

Award Winner, RSNA 2009! This lavishly illustrated book uses high-quality images to present a practical guide to the physics of magnetic resonance. Written by internationally renowned authors, the book places an emphasis on learning visually through images of real cases rather than through mathematical equations and provides the fundamental information needed to achieve the best images in everyday clinical practice. This edition features new images and incorporates information on the latest technical advances in ...
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Physics of Clinical MR Taught Through Images

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Overview

Award Winner, RSNA 2009! This lavishly illustrated book uses high-quality images to present a practical guide to the physics of magnetic resonance. Written by internationally renowned authors, the book places an emphasis on learning visually through images of real cases rather than through mathematical equations and provides the fundamental information needed to achieve the best images in everyday clinical practice. This edition features new images and incorporates information on the latest technical advances in the field, discussing such important topics as 3 T, specific absorption rate (SAR), arterial spin labeling, continuous moving table MR, and time-resolved contrast enhanced MR angiography.Highlights:
  • Concise chapters make difficult concepts easy to digest
  • 400 high-quality images and illustrations demonstrate key concepts
  • This book is a valuable reference for radiologists and an excellent resource for residents preparing for board examinations. It is also ideal for MR technologists and students seeking to fully understand the basic principles underlying this important diagnostic tool.
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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer:Geoffrey David Clarke, Ph.D.(University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio)
Description:The authors provide an update and introduce new topics in this second edition of a handbook on magnetic resonance imaging that won praise for being one of the first to compare clinical images acquired at 3T with 1.5 T images. As before, the authors present each topic as an independent chapter (110 in all) with most chapters consisting of only two pages. Given the format, a great amount of material must be covered in a relatively small space. At the end the authors include a brief list of acronyms and an index, but no bibliography.
Purpose:The underlying premise is that many physical concepts of MRI can be successfully communicated through images. This is one of a number of books on MRI physics that attempt to explain the concepts without using mathematical equations, but the others typically cover just the basics. This book includes the complex mechanisms underlying the processes that produce the images, modulate the contrast relationships among tissues, and create disturbing artifacts. Readers should not assume that sets of relevant images can convey sufficient primary information to develop an understanding of MRI physics. However, there is no question that some of the clever image sets presented in this work reveal important insights underlying the MRI process.
Audience:This is not a book for beginners. Along with the images, the authors display pulse sequence diagrams and use MRI jargon from almost the first chapter. Those most likely to find this book useful are people who have had some formal basic instruction in MRIphysics and a year or two of experience reading MR images and/or using MRI systems so that they have some familiarity with the vocabulary. With this background, readers will benefit from the authors' clear, concise descriptions of each topic, which complement the images.
Features:The scope of the contents is impressive. The authors cover basic NMR physics, MRI technology, basic and advanced pulse sequences, physiological MR imaging, MRI artifacts, and image processing methods. Not all topics lend themselves well to this pedagogical approach. Nevertheless, this book is full of useful demonstrations of how inherent properties of tissues being imaged, instrumental variations, and timing of the pulse sequences can substantially change MR images. The biggest disappointment is the lack of a bibliography.
Assessment:This is more concise and much easier to understand than many books that offer so many comparison images such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Theory and Practice, 3rd edition, Vlaardingerbroek and den Boer (Springer, 2002). Its primary utility is as a handbook and, as such, continues to be a useful reference for those in the field of MRI. Because the book jumps from topic to topic, the index, while adequate, needs to be more comprehensive. The updates will certainly benefit most readers.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781604061628
  • Publisher: Thieme
  • Publication date: 1/1/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 256
  • File size: 12 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

John Sealy Distinguished Chair in Radiology; Professor and Chair; Department of Radiology; The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB); Galveston, TX, USA
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Table of Contents

Foreword William G. Bradley, Jr. xiii

Preface xv

Editors xvii

Contributors xix

1 Components of an MR Scanner 2

2 MR Safety: Static Magnetic Field 4

3 MR Safety: Gradient Magnetic and Radiofrequency Fields 6

4 Radiofrequency (RF) Coils 8

5 Multichannel Coil Technology: Introduction 10

6 Multichannel Coil Technology: Body Imaging 14

7 Imaging Basics: k Space, Raw Data, Image Data 16

8 Motion Reduction: Triggering, Gating, Navigator Echoes 20

9 Image Resolution: Pixel and Voxel Size 24

10 Imaging Basics: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 26

11 Imaging Basics: Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) 28

12 SNR Versus CNR 29

13 T1, T2, and Proton Density 30

14 Spin Echo Imaging 32

15 Fast Spin Echo Imaging 34

16 Fast Spin Echo: Reduced Refocusing Angle 36

17 Driven-Equilibrium Fourier Transformation (DEFT) 37

18 Reordering: Phase Encoding 38

19 Half Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) 40

20 Inversion Recovery: Part 1 42

21 Inversion Recovery: Part 2 44

22 Fluid-Attenuated IR with Fat Saturation (FLAIR FS) 46

23 Spoiled Gradient Echo 48

24 Refocused (Steady State) Gradient Echo 50

25 Dual-Echo Steady State (DESS) 52

26 Balanced Gradient Echo 54

27 Balanced Steady-State Free Precession (b-SSFP) 56

28 PSIF: The Backward-Running FISP 58

29 Constructive Interference in a Steady State (CISS) 60

30 TurboFLASH, FSPGR, TFE 62

31 BLADE (PROPELLER) 64

32 Faster and Stronger Gradients: Part 1 66

33 Faster and Stronger Gradients: Part 2 68

34 Multislice Imaging and Concatenations 70

35 3D Imaging: Basic Principles 72

36 3D Imaging: MP-RAGE 74

37 3D Imaging:SPACE 76

38 Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging 78

39 Echo Planar Imaging 80

40 Flow Effects: Fast and Slow Flow 82

41 Phase Imaging: Flow 84

42 2D Time-of-Flight MRA 86

43 3D Time-of-Flight MRA 88

44 Flip Angle, TR, MT, and Field Strength (in 3D TOF MRA) 90

45 Phase-Contrast MRA 92

46 Contrast-Enhanced MRA: Basics; Renal, Abdomen 94

47 Contrast-Enhanced MRA: Carotid Arteries 96

48 Contrast-Enhanced MRA: Peripheral Circulation 98

49 Dynamic MRA (TWIST/TREAT) 100

50 Image Composing 102

51 Continuous Moving-Table Imaging 104

52 Abdomen: Motion Correction 106

53 Volume-Interpolated Breath-Hold Examination (VIBE) 108

54 Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) 110

55 Fat Suppression: Spectral Saturation 112

56 Water Excitation, Fat Excitation 114

57 Fat Suppression: Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) 116

58 Fat Suppression: Phase Cycling 118

59 Magnetization Transfer 120

60 Calculating T1 and T2 Relaxation Times (Calculated Images) 122

61 Perfusion Imaging 124

62 Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) 126

63 Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 128

64 Diffusion Tensor Imaging 130

65 Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) Imaging: Theory 134

66 Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) Imaging: Applications 136

67 Proton Spectroscopy (Theory) 138

68 Proton Spectroscopy (Chemical-Shift Imaging) 140

69 Number of Averages 142

70 Slice Thickness 144

71 Slice Profile 146

72 Slice Excitation Order (in Fast Spin Echo Imaging) 148

73 Slice Orientation 150

74 Field of View (FOV) 152

75 Field of View: Rectangular 154

76 Matrix Size: Readout 156

77 Matrix Size: Phase Encoding 158

78 Partial Fourier 160

79 Image Interpolation (Zero Filling) 162

80 Parallel Imaging: Part 1 164

81 Parallel Imaging: Part 2 168

82 Filtering Images (to Reduce Artifacts) 170

83 Filtering Images (to Improve SNR) 172

84 Geometric Distortion 174

85 3D Evaluation: Image Postprocessing 176

86 Contrast Media: Gd Chelates with Extracellular Distribution 178

87 Contrast Media: Gd Chelates with Protein Binding 180

88 Contrast Media: Other Agents (Non-gadolinium) 182

89 Cardiac Morphology 184

90 Cardiac Function 186

91 Cardiac Imaging: Myocardial Perfusion 188

92 Cardiac Imaging: Myocardial Viability 190

93 MR Mammography: Dynamic Imaging 192

94 MR Mammography: Silicone 194

95 Artifacts: Magnetic Susceptibility 196

96 Maximizing Magnetic Susceptibility 198

97 Artifacts: Metal 200

98 Chemical Shift: Sampling Bandwidth 202

99 Motion: Ghosting and Smearing 204

100 Gradient Moment Nulling 206

101 Spatial Saturation 208

102 Flow Artifacts 210

103 Aliasing 212

104 Truncation Artifacts 214

105 New Open MR Systems 216

106 Magnetic Field Effects at 3 T 218

107 SNR at 3 T 220

108 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) 222

109 Advanced Receiver Coil Design 224

110 Acronyms 226

Index 229

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