Physics of Multiantenna Systems and Broadband Processing / Edition 1

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Overview

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology is one of the current hot topics in emerging wireless technologies. This book fills the important need for an authoritative reference on the merits of MIMO systems based on physics and provides a sound theoretical basis for its practical implementation. The book also addresses the important issues related to broadband adaptive processing.

Written by three internationally known researchers, Physics of Multiantenna Systems and Broadband Processing: Provides a thorough discussion of the physical and mathematical principles involved in MIMO and adaptive systems, Examines the electromagnetic framework of wireless communications systems, Uses Maxwell's theory to provide a system-based framework for the abstract concept of channel capacity, Performs various numerical simulations to observe how a typical system will behave in practice, Provides a mathematical formulation for broadband adaptive processing and direction-of-arrival estimation using real antenna arrays, Integrates signal processing and electromagnetics to address the performance of realistic multiantenna systems.

With Physics of Multiantenna Systems and Broadband Processing, communication systems engineers, graduate students, researchers, and developers will gain a thorough, scientific understanding of this important new technology.

About the Author:
Tapan K. Sarkar, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Syracuse University, New York. His current research interests deal with numerical solutions of operator equations arising in electromagnetics and signal processing with application to system design. He is the author orcoauthor of several books, including Smart Antennas and History of Wireless, both published by Wiley

About the Author:
Magdalena Salazar-Palma, PhD, is a Professor in the Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain)

About the Author:
Eric L. Mokole, PhD, is the Acting Superintendent of the Radar Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, D.C.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Tapan K. Sarkar, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Syracuse University, New York. His current research interests deal with numerical solutions of operator equations arising in electromagnetics and signal processing with application to system design. He is the author or coauthor of several books, including Smart Antennas and History of Wireless, both published by Wiley.

Magdalena Salazar-Palma, PhD, is a Professor in the Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). She has authored several books, including Smart Antennas and History of Wireless, and more than 280 publications in books, scientific journals, and symposium proceedings.

Eric L. Mokole, PhD, is the Acting Superintendent of the Radar Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, D.C. He has published more than sixty conference publications, journal articles, book chapters, and reports and is the lead editor of Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 6 and coeditor of Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7.

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Table of Contents


Preface     xv
Acknowledgments     xxi
What Is an Antenna and How Does It Work?     1
Summary     1
Historical Overview of Maxwell's Equations     2
Review of Maxwell-Heaviside-Hertz Equations     4
Faraday's Law     4
Generalized Ampere's Law     7
Generalized Gauss's Law of Electrostatics     8
Generalized Gauss's Law of Magnetostatics     9
Equation of Continuity     10
Solution of Maxwell's Equations     10
Radiation and Reception Properties of a Point Source Antenna in Frequency and in Time Domain     15
Radiation of Fields from Point Sources     15
Reception Properties of a Point Receiver     18
Radiation and Reception Properties of Finite-Sized Dipole-Like Structures in Frequency and in Time     20
Radiation Fields from Wire-like Structures in th Frequency Domain     20
Radiation Fields from Wire-like Structures in the Time Domain     21
Induced Voltage on a Finite-Sized Receive Wire-like Structure Due to a Transient Incident Field     21
Conclusion     22
References     23
Fundamentals of Antenna Theory in the Frequency Domain     25
Summary     25
Field Produced by a Hertzian Dipole     25
Concept of Near and Far Fields     28
Field Radiated by a Small Circular Loop     30
Field Produced by a Finite-Sized Dipole     32
Radiation Field from a Linear Antenna     34
Near- and Far-Field Properties of Antennas     36
What Is Beamforming Using Antennas     36
Use of Spatial Antenna Diversity     43
The Mathematics and Physics of an Antenna Array     46
Propagation Modeling in the Frequency Domain     49
Conclusion     57
References     57
Fundamentals of an Antenna in the Time Domain     59
Summary     59
Introduction     59
UWB Input Pulse     61
Travelling-Wave Antenna     62
Reciprocity Relation Between Antennas     63
Antenna Simulations     65
Loaded Antennas     65
Dipole     65
Bicones     71
TEM Horn     74
Log-Periodic     78
Spiral     80
Conventional Wideband Antennas     83
Volcano Smoke     83
Diamond Dipole     85
Monofilar Helix      86
Conical Spiral     88
Monoloop     90
Quad-Ridged Circular Horn     91
Bi-Blade with Century Bandwidth     93
Cone-Blade     94
Vivaldi     96
Impulse Radiating Antenna (IRA)     97
Circular Disc Dipole     99
Bow-Tie     100
Planar Slot     101
Experimental Verification of the Wideband Responses from Antennas     102
Conclusion     108
References     109
A Look at the Concept of Channel Capacity from a Maxwellian Viewpoint     113
Summary     113
Introduction     114
History of Entropy and Its Evolution     117
Different Formulations for the Channel Capacity     118
Information Content of a Waveform     124
Numerical Examples Illustrating the Relevance of the Maxwellian Physics in Characterizing the Channel Capacity     130
Matched Versus Unmatched Receiving Dipole Antenna with a Matched Transmitting Antenna Operating in Free Space     131
Use of Directive Versus Nondirective Matched Transmitting Antennas Located at Different Heights above the Earth for a Fixed Matched Receiver Height above Ground     133
Conclusion     146
Appendix: History of Entropy and Its Evolution     148
References     164
Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) Antenna Systems     167
Summary     167
Introduction     168
Diversity in Wireless Communications     168
Time Diversity     169
Frequency Diversity     170
Space Diversity     170
Multiantenna Systems     172
Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) Systems     173
Channel Capacity of the MIMO Antenna Systems     176
Channel Known at the Transmitter     178
Water-filling Algorithm     179
Channel Unknown at the Transmitter     180
Alamouti Scheme     180
Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff     182
MIMO Under a Vector Electromagnetic Methodology     183
MIMO Versus SISO     184
More Appealing Results for a MIMO system     189
Case Study: 1     189
Case Study: 2     190
Case Study: 3     191
Case Study: 4     194
Case Study: 5     197
Physics of MIMO in a Nutshell     199
Line-of-Sight (LOS) MIMO Systems with Parallel Antenna Elements Oriented Along the Broadside Direction      200
Line-of-Sight MIMO Systems with Parallel Antenna Elements Oriented Along the Broadside Direction     202
Non-line-of-Sight MIMO Systems with Parallel Antenna Elements Oriented Along the Broadside Direction     204
Conclusion     206
References     207
Use of the Output Energy Filter in Multiantenna Systems for Adaptive Estimation     209
Summary     209
Various Forms of the Optimum Filters     210
Matched Filter (Cross-correlation filter)     211
A Wiener Filter     212
An Output Energy Filter (Minimum Variance Filter)     213
Example of the Filters     214
Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approaches to Adaptive Processing Based on a Single Snapshot of Data     215
Eigenvalue Method     218
Forward Method     220
Backward Method     221
Forward-Backward Method     222
Real Time Implementation of the Adaptive Procedure     224
Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach to Space-Time Adaptive Processing     226
Two-Dimensional Generalized Eigenvalue Processor     230
Least Squares Forward Processor     232
Least Squares Backward Processor     236
Least Squares Forward-Backward Processor      237
Application of the Direct Data Domain Least Squares Techniques to Airborne Radar for Space-Time Adaptive Processing     238
Conclusion     246
References     247
Minimum Norm Property for the Sum of the Adaptive Weights in Adaptive or in Space-Time Processing     249
Summary     249
Introduction     250
Review of the Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach     251
Review of Space-Time Adaptive Processing Based on the D3LS Method     253
Minimum Norm Property of the Adaptive Weights at the DOA of the SOI for the 1-D Case and at Doppler Frequency and DOA for STAP     255
Numerical Examples     258
Conclusion     273
References     274
Using Real Weights in Adaptive and Space-Time Processing     275
Summary     275
Introduction     275
Formulation of a Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach Using Real Weights     277
Forward Method     277
Backward Method     281
Forward-Backward Method     282
Simulation Results for Adaptive Processing     283
Formulation of an Amplitude-only Direct Data Domain Least Squares Space-Time Adaptive Processing     289
Forward Method     289
Backward Method     291
Forward-Backward Method     292
Simulation Results     292
Conclusion     299
References     300
Phase-Only Adaptive and Space-Time Processing     303
Summary     303
Introduction     303
Formulation of the Direct Data Domain Least Squares Solution for a Phase-Only Adaptive System     304
Forward Method     304
Backward Method     310
Forward-Backward Method     310
Simulation Results     311
Formulation of a Phase-Only Direct Data Domain Least Squares Space-Time Adaptive Processing     318
Forward Method     318
Backward Method     318
Forward-Backward Method     318
Simulation Results     319
Conclusion     322
References     322
Simultaneous Multiple Adaptive Beamforming     323
Summary     323
Introduction     323
Formulation of a Direct Data Domain Approach for Multiple Beamforming     324
Forward Method     324
Backward Method     327
Forward-Backward Method     328
Simulation Results     328
Formulation of a Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach for Multiple Beamforming in Space-Time Adaptive Processing     332
Forward Method     332
Backward Method     336
Forward-Backward Method     337
Simulation Results     338
Conclusion     345
References     345
Performance Comparison Between Statistical-Based and Direct Data Domain Least Squares Space-Time Adaptive Processing Algorithms     347
Summary     347
Introduction     347
Description of the Various Signals of Interest     348
Modeling of the Signal-of-Interest     349
Modeling of the Clutter     349
Modeling of the Jammer     350
Modeling of the Discrete Interferers     350
Statistical-Based STAP Algorithms     351
Full-Rank Optimum STAP     351
Reduced-Rank STAP (Relative Importance of the Eigenbeam Method)     352
Reduced-Rank STAP (Based on the Generalized Sidelobe Canceller)     353
Direct Data Domain Least Squares STAP Algorithms     356
Channel Mismatch     356
Simulation Results     357
Conclusion     368
References     368
Approximate Compensation for Mutual Coupling Using the In Situ Antenna Element Patterns     371
Summary     371
Introduction     371
Formulation of the New Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach Approximately Compensating for the Effects of Mutual Coupling Using the In Situ Element Patterns     373
Forward Method     373
Backward Method     376
Forward-Backward Method     377
Simulation Results     378
Reason for a Decline in the Performance of the Algorithm When the Intensity of the Jammer Is Increased     386
Conclusion     386
References     386
Signal Enhancement Through Polarization Adaptivity on Transmit in a Near-Field MIMO Environment     389
Summary     389
Introduction     389
Signal Enhancement Methodology Through Adaptivity on Transmit     391
Exploitation of the Polarization Properties in the Proposed Methodology     395
Numerical Simulations     395
Example 1     396
Example 2     402
Example 3     406
Conclusion     410
References     411
Direction of Arrival Estimation by Exploiting Unitary Transform in the Matrix Pencil Method and Its Comparison with ESPRIT     413
Summary      413
Introduction     413
The Unitary Transform     415
1-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method Revisited     416
Summary of the 1-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method     419
The 2-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method     419
Pole Pairing for the 2-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method     425
Computational Complexity     426
Summary of the 2-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method     426
Simulation Results Related to the 2-D Unitary Matrix Pencil Method     427
The ESPRIT Method     430
Multiple Snapshot-Based Matrix Pencil Method     432
Comparison of Accuracy and Efficiency Between ESPRIT and the Matrix Pencil Method     432
Conclusion     435
References     436
DOA Estimation Using Electrically Small Matched Dipole Antennas and the Associated Cramer-Rao Bound     439
Summary     439
Introduction     440
DOA Estimation Using a Realistic Antenna Array     441
Transformation Matrix Technique     441
Cramer-Rao Bound for DOA Estimation     444
DOA Estimation Using 0.1 [gamma] Long Antennas     445
DOA Estimation Using Different Antenna Array Configurations     448
Conclusion      461
References     462
Non-Conventional Least Squares Optimization for DOA Estimation Using Arbitrary-Shaped Antenna Arrays     463
Summary     463
Introduction     463
Signal Modeling     464
DFT-Based DOA Estimation     465
Non-conventional Least Squares Optimization     466
Simulation Results     467
An Array of Linear Uniformly Spaced Dipoles     468
An Array of Linear Non-uniformly Spaced Dipoles     470
An Array Consisting of Mixed Antenna Elements     471
An Antenna Array Operating in the Presence of Near-Field Scatterers     472
Sensitivity of the Procedure Due to a Small Change in the Operating Environment     473
Sensitivity of the Procedure Due to a Large Change in the Operating Environment     474
An Array of Monopoles Mounted Underneath an Aircraft     476
A Non-uniformly Spaced Nonplanar Array of Monopoles Mounted Under an Aircraft     477
Conclusion     479
References     479
Broadband Direction of Arrival Estimations Using the Matrix Pencil Method     481
Summary     481
Introduction     481
Brief Overview of the Matrix Pencil Method     482
Problem Formulation for Simultaneous Estimation of DOA and the Frequency of the Signal     488
Cramer-Rao Bound for the Direction of Arrival and Frequency of the Signal     494
Example Using Isotropic Point Sources     505
Example Using Realistic Antenna Elements     512
Conclusion     521
References     521
Adaptive Processing of Broadband Signals     523
Summary     523
Introduction     523
Formulation of a Direct Data Domain Least Squares Method for Adaptive Processing of Finite Bandwidth Signals Having Different Frequencies     524
Forward Method for Adaptive Processing of Broadband Signals     524
Backward Method     529
Forward-Backward Method     529
Numerical Simulation Results     530
Conclusion     535
References     535
Effect of Random Antenna Position Errors on a Direct Data Domain Least Squares Approach for Space-Time Adaptive Processing     537
Summary     537
Introduction     537
EIRP Degradation of Array Antennas Due to Random Position Errors     540
Example of EIRP Degradation in Antenna Arrays     544
Simulation Results     547
Conclusion     551
References      551
Index     553
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