Physics of Radiology / Edition 2

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Intended for radiology residents, this textbook for a course in medical physics describes the essential physical processes involving radiation and matter that take place during x-ray, nuclear medicine, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Wolbarst (Georgetown University School of Medicine) also discusses techniques for capturing analog and digital image information. Originally published in 1993, the second edition adds chapters on PET and SPECT, helical and multi-slice CT, PACS, planning radiation therapy treatments, and responding to a radiological emergency Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781930524224
  • Publisher: Medical Physics Publishing
  • Publication date: 1/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 660
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
Chapter Coauthors xiii
I Introduction
1 Introduction to Medical Imaging 1
2 Sketches of the Imaging Modalities 9
3 X-Ray Imaging I: Overview of Film Radiography 21
Appendix The Role of Medical Physics in an Imaging Department 38
II Scientific and Technical Basis
Radiation and Matter
4 Mass, Motion, and Force 45
Appendix Functions 53
5 Electric Fields and Accelerating Electrons 56
6 Magnetic Fields and Electromagnetic Waves 63
Appendix Periodic Functions 69
7 The Inviolate Rule of Energy Conservation 73
8 Atoms and Photons 82
9 Matter: Gases and Liquids, Metals, Superconductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors 93
10 Resistors, Transistors, and All That: An Introduction to Electronic Circuits 103
Appendix Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 110
Scientific Foundations for the Various Modalities
11 Ultrasound Imaging I: Reflections of Acoustic Waves in Elastic Tissues 114
12 Magnetic Resonance Imaging I: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Stable Hydrogen Nuclei in the Water Molecules of Tissues 128
13 Gamma Ray Imaging I: Harnessing Radioactive Decay 139
Appendix Derivatives of Functions 148
14 X-Ray Imaging II: Interaction of High-Energy Photons with Atomic Electrons 152
Appendix Probability 171
15 Radiation Dose I: The Detection and Quantification of Ionizing Radiation 174
16 X-Ray Imaging III: Mapping Images on Film 190
17 A Synthesis: Radioactive Decay, X-Ray Beam Attenuation, Nuclear Spin Relaxation, Cell Killing with Radiation, and Other Poisson Processes 197
Analog and Digital Image Information
18 Image Quality: Contrast, Resolution, and Noise-Primary Determinants of the Diagnostic Utility of an Image 204
Appendix Statistics 212
19 Measures of Image Quality and of Imaging System Capabilities: MTF, LSF, DQE, ETC 216
20 The Psychophysics of Optical Images 230
21 Vacuum Tube and Solid-State Optical Cameras and Displays 242
22 Digital Representation of an Image 253
Appendix Computer Basics and a Bit about Bytes 266
23 PACS, IMACS, and the Integrated Digital Department 271
III Analog Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Imaging
X-Ray Imaging IV: Creation of an X-Ray Beam
24 The Nuts and Bolts of Generators 279
25 Design of an X-Ray Tube 286
26 Transforming Electron Kinetic Energy into Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic X-Ray Energy 297
X-Ray Imaging V: Capturing the X-Ray Image on Film
27 Creating the Primary X-Ray Image within the Body 305
28 Scatter Radiation, Grids, Gaps, and Contrast 311
29 Capturing the Primary X-Ray Image with Cassette and Film 320
30 Resolution and Magnification 333
31 Optimal Technique Factors 341
32 Radiographic Quality Assurance 346
33 Screen-Film Mammography 352
34 Some Infrequently Used Screen-Film Techniques 366
X-Ray Imaging VI: Fluoroscopy
35 Following Time-Dependent Processes with Fluoroscopy 371
IV Digital Imaging
X-Ray Imaging VII: Digital X-Ray Imaging
36 Digital Radiography, Computed Radiography, and Flat-Panel X-Ray Technology 385
37 Digital Fluoroscopy and Digital Subtraction Angiography 392
38 Computed Tomography I: Creating a Map of CT Numbers 399
39 Computed Tomography II: Image Reconstruction, Image Quality, and Dose 408
40 Computed Tomography III: Spiral and Multi-Slice Scanning 416
Gamma Ray Imaging
41 Gamma Ray Imaging II: Radiopharmaceuticals 422
Appendix Radioactive Transformations 427
42 Gamma Ray Imaging III: Image Production, Image Quality, and Dose 433
43 Gamma Ray Imaging IV: Nuclear Cardiology, SPECT, and PET 442
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
44 Magnetic Resonance Imaging II: The Classical View of NMR 450
45 Magnetic Resonance Imaging III: Relaxation Times (T1 and T2), Pulse Sequences, and Contrast 460
46 Magnetic Resonance Imaging IV: Image Reconstruction and Image Quality 471
47 Magnetic Resonance Imaging V: Fast, Flow, and Functional Imaging 483
48 Magnetic Resonance Imaging VI: Biological Effects and Safety 488
Ultrasound Imaging
49 Ultrasound Imaging II: Creating the Beam 490
50 Ultrasound Imaging III: Image Production and Image Quality 496
51 Ultrasound Imaging IV: Biological Effects and Safety 508
Experimental and Future Imaging Technologies
52 Evolving and Experimental Technologies in Medical Imaging 511
V Radiation Dose, Biological Effects, Risk, and Radiation Safety
Ionizing Radiation Dose, Biological Effects, and Risk
53 Radiation Dose II: Determining Organ Doses from Exposure Measurements 525
54 Radiation Dose III: The Tissue f-Factor, Tissue-Air Ratios, etc. 531
55 Radiation Dose IV: Radiobiological Processes and Radiogenic Health Effects 538
56 Radiation Dose V: Probabilities of Occurrence of Stochastic Health Effects 550
Appendix On Talking with People about Radiation (and Other) Risks 558
57 Radiation Oncology, and the Role of Imaging in Treatment Planning 560
Radiation Safety and Emergency Response
58 Practical Radiation Safety for Ionizing Radiation 570
59 Rems, Risks, and Regs: The Legal Basis for Radiation Protection Standards 577
60 Response to a Major Radiological Emergency 587
Solutions to the Exercises 603
References 617
Some Symbols and Units 623
Index 625
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