Physical, chemical processes in gases at high temperatures are focus of outstanding text by two distinguished physicists. Combines material from gas dynamics, shock-wave theory, thermodynamics and statistical physics, molecular physics, spectroscopy, radiation theory, other fields for comprehensive treatment. 284 black-and-white illustrations. 1966–1967 edition, originally published in two volumes.
Physical, chemical processes in gases at high temperatures are focus of outstanding text by two distinguished physicists. Combines material from gas dynamics, shock-wave theory, thermodynamics and statistical physics, molecular physics, spectroscopy, radiation theory, other fields for comprehensive treatment.
284 black-and-white illustrations. 1966–1967 edition, originally published in two volumes.
Preface to the Dover Edition
Editors' Foreword
Preface to the English Edition
Preface to the First Russian Edition
Preface to the Second Russian Edition
I. Elements of gasdynamics and the classical theory of shock waves
1. Continuous flow of an inviscid nonconducting gas
1. The equations of gasdynamics
2. Lagrangian coordinates
3. Sound waves
4. Spherical sound waves
5. Characteristics
6. Plane isentropic flow. Riemann Invariants
7. Plane isentropic gas flow in a bounded region
8. Simple waves
9. Distortion of the wave form in a traveling wave of finite amplitude. Some properties of simple waves
10. The rarefaction wave
11. The centered rarefaction wave as an example of self-similar gas motion
12. On the impossibility of the existence of a centered compression wave
2. Shock waves
13. Introduction to the gasdynamics of shock waves
14. Hugoniot curves
15. Shock waves in a perfect gas with constant specific heats
16. Geometric interpretation of the laws governing compression shocks
17. Impossibility of rarefaction shock waves in a fluid with normal thermodynamic properties
18. Weak shock waves
19. Shock waves in a fluid with anomalous thermodynamic properties
3. Viscosity and heat conduction in gasdynamics
20. Equations of one-dimensional gas flow
21. Remarks on the second viscosity coefficient
22. Remarks on the absorption of sound
23. The structure and thickness of a weak shock front
4. Various problems
24. Propagation of an arbitrary discontinuity
25. Strong explosion in a homogeneous atmosphere
26. Approximate treatment of a strong explosion
27. Remarks on the point explosion with counterpressure
28. Sudden isentropic expansion of a spherical gas cloud into vacuum
29. Conditions for the self-similar sudden expansion of a gas cloud into vacuum
II. Thermal radiation and radiant heat exchange in a medium
1. Introduction and basic concepts
2. Mechanisms of emission, absorption, and scattering of light in gases
3. Equilibrium radiation and the concept of a perfect black body
4. Induced emission
4a. Induced emission of radiation in the classical and quantum theories and the laser effect
5. The radiative transfer equation
6. Integral expressions for the radiation intensity
7. Radiation fromm a plane layer
8. The brightness temperature of the surface of a nonuniformly heated body
9. Motion of a fluid taking into account radiant heat exchange
10. The diffusion approximation
11. The "forward-reverse" approximation
12. Local equilibrium and the approximation of radiation heat conduction
13. Relationship between the diffusion approximation and the radiation heat conduction approximation
14. Radiative equilibrium in stellar photospheres
15. Solution to the plane photosphere problem
16. Radiation energy losses of a heated body
17. Hydrodynamic equations accounting for radiation energy and pressure and radiant heat exchange
18. The number of photons as an invariant of the classical electromagnetic field
III. Thermodynamic properties of gases at high temperatures
1. Gas of noninteracting particles
1. Perfect gas with constant specific heats and invariant number of particles
2. Calculation of thermodynamic functions using partition functions
3. Dissociation of diatomic molecules
4. Chemical reactions
5. Ionization and electronic excitation
6. The electronic partition function and the role of the excitation energy of atoms
7. Approximate methods of calculation in the region of multiple ionization
8. Interpolation formulas and the effective adiabatic exponent
9. The Hugoniot curve with dissociation and ionization
10. The Hugoniot relations with equilibrium radiation
2. Gases with Coulomb interactions
11. Rarefied ionized gases
12. Dense gases. Elements of Fermi-Dirac statistics for an electron gas
13. The Thomas-Fermi model of an atom and highly compressed cold materials
14. Calculation of thermodynamic functions of a hot dense gas by the Thomas-Fermi method
IV. Shock tubes
1. The use of shock tubes for studying kinetics in chemical physics
2. Principle of operation
3. Elementary shock tube theory
4. Electromagnetic shock tubes
5. Methods of measurement for various quantities
V. Absorption and emission of radiation in gases at high temperatures
1. Introduction. Types of electronic transitions
1. Continuous spectra
2. Bremsstrahlung emission from an electron in the Coulomb field of an ion
2a. Bremsstrahlung emission from an electron scattered by a neutral atom
3. Free-free transitions in a high-temperature ionized gas
4. Cross section for the capture of an electron by an ion with the emission of a photon
5. Cross section for the bound-free absorption of light by atoms and ions
6. Continuous absorption coeficient in a gas of hydrogen-like atoms
7. Continuous absorption of light in a monatomic gas in the singly ionized region
8. Radiation mean free paths for multiply ionized gas atoms
VI. Rates of Relaxation Processes in Gases
VII. Shock Wave Structure in Gases
VIII. Physical and chemical kinetics in hydrodynamic processes
1. Dynamics of a nonequilibrium gas
1. The gasdynamic equations in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium
2. Entropy increase
3. Anomalous dispersion and absorption of ultrasound
4. The dispersion law and the absorption coefficient for ultrasound
2. Chemical reactions
5. Oxidation of nitrogen in strong explosions in air
3. Disturbance of thermodynamic equilibrium in the sudden expansion of a gas into vacuum
6. Sudden expansion of a gas cloud
7. Freezing effect
8. Disturbance of ionization equilibrium
9. The kinetics of recombination and cooling of the gas following the disturbance of ionization equilibrium
4. Vapor condensation in an isentropic expansion
10. Saturated vapor and the origin of condensation centers
11. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the condensation process
12. Condensation in a cloud of evaporated fluid suddenly expanding into vacuum
13. On the problem of the mechanism of formation of cosmic dust. Remarks on laboratory investigations of condensation
IX. Radiative phenomena in shock waves and in strong explosions in air
1. Luminosity of strong shock fronts in gases
1. Qualitative dependence of the brightness temperature on the true temperature behind the front
2. Photon absorption in cold air
3. Maximum brightness temperature for air
4. Limiting luminosity of very strong waves in air
2. Optical phenomena observed in strong explosions and the cooling of the air by radiation
5. Gen
12. The spark discharge in air
3. Structure of cooling wave fronts
13. Statement of the problem
14. Radiation flux from the surface of the wave front
15. Temperature distribution in the front of a strong wave
16. Consideration of adiabatic cooling
X. Thermal waves
1. The thermal conductivity of a fluid
2. Nonlinear (radiation) heat conduction
3. Characteristic features of heat propagation by linear and nonlinear heat conduction
4. The law of propagation of thermal waves from an instantaneous plane source
5. Self-similar thermal waves from an instantaneous plane source
6. Propagation of heat from an instantaneous point source
7. Some self-similar plane problems
8. Remarks on the penetration of heat into moving media
9. Self-similar solutions as limiting solutions of nonself-similar problems
10. Heat transfer by nonequilibrium radiation
XI. Shock waves in solids
1. Introduction
1. Thermodynamic properties of solids at high pressures and temperatures
2. Compression of a cold material
3. Thermal motion of atoms
4. Equation of state for a material whose atoms undergo small vibrations
5. Thermal excitation of electrons
6. A three-term equation of state
2. The Hugoniot curve
7. Hugoniot curve for a condensed substance
8. Analytical representation of Hugoniot curves
9. Weak shock waves
10. Shock compression of porous materials
11. Emergence of weak shock waves from the free surface of a solid
12. Experimental methods of determining Hugoniot curves for solids
13. Determination of cold compression curves from the results of shock compression experiments
3. Acoustic waves and splitting of waves
14. Static deformation of a solid
15. Transition of a solid medium into the plastic state
16. Propagation speed of acoustic waves
17. Splitting of compression and unloading waves
18. Measurement of the speed of sound in a material compressed by a shock wave
19. Phase transitions and splitting of shock waves
20. Rarefaction shock waves in a medium undergoing a phase transition
4. Phenomena associated with the emergence of a very strong shock wave at the free surface of a body
21. Limiting cases of the solid and gaseous states of an unloaded material
22. Criterion for complete vaporization of a material on unloading
23. Experimental determination of temperature and entropy behind a very strong shock by investigating the unloaded material in the gas phase
24. Luminosity of metallic vapors in unloading
25. Remarks on the basic possibility of measuring the entropy behind a shock wave from the luminosity during unloading
5. Some other phenomena
26. Electrical conductivity of nonmetals behind shock waves
27. Measuring the index of refraction of a material compressed by a shock wave
XII. Some self-similar processes in gasdynamics
1. Introduction
1. Transformation groups admissible by the gasdynamic equations
2. Self-similar motions
3. Conditions for self-similar motion
4. Two types of self-similar solutions
2. Implosion of a spherical shock wave and the collapse of bubbles in a liquid
5. Statement of the problem of an imploding shock wave
6. Basic equations
7. Analysis of the equations
8. Numerical results for the solutions
9. Collapse of bubbles. The Rayleigh problem
10. Collapse of bubbles. Effect of compressibility and viscosity
3. The emergence of a shock wave at the surface of a star
11. Propagation of a shock wave for a power-law decrease in density
12. On explosions of supernovae and the origin of cosmic rays
4. Motion of a gas under the action of an impulsive load
13. Statement of the problem and general character of the motion
14. Self-similar solutions and the energy and momentum conservation laws
15. Solution of the equations
16. Limitations on the similarity exponent imposed by conservation of momentum and energy
17. Passage of the nonself-similar motion into the limiting regime and the "infinite" energy in the self-similar solution
18. Concentrated impact on the surface of a gas (explosion at the surface)
19. Results from simplified considerations of the self-similar motions for concentrated and line impacts
20. Impact of a very high-speed meteorite on the surface of a planet
21. Strong explosion in an infinite porous medium
5. Propagation of shock waves in an inhomogeneous atmosphere with an exponential density distribution
22. Strong point explosion
23. Self-similar motion of a shock wave in the direction of increasing density
24. Application of the self-similar solution to an explosion
25. Self-similar motion of a shock wave in the direction of decreasing density application to an explosion
Cited References
Appendix: Some often used constants, relations between units, and formulas
Author Index, Subject Index
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Overview
Physical, chemical processes in gases at high temperatures are focus of outstanding text by two distinguished physicists. Combines material from gas dynamics, shock-wave theory, thermodynamics and statistical physics, molecular physics, spectroscopy, radiation theory, other fields for comprehensive treatment.
284 black-and-white illustrations. 1966–1967 edition, originally published in two volumes.