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Overview

This Sixth Edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Designed for students and teachers who are partners in a one-year course in physics that uses algebra and trigonometry, this text is intended to help students develop conceptual understanding and use it in solving problems. Subject areas include mech anics, thermal physics, wave motion, electricity and magnetism, light and optics, and such modern fields as special relativity and nuclear physics. A CD-ROM contains interactive problem-solving software and numerous simulations of physical phenomena. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
New edition of a two-volume text that helps students develop a conceptual understanding of physics principles. Cutnell and Johnson (Southern Illinois U. at Carbondale) present 32 chapters that cover mechanics, thermal physics, wave motion, electricity and magnetism, light and optics, and modern physics. In the margins, they highlight direct applications of physics principles, problem solving insights, concepts at a glance, and illustrative figures and color photographs. Each volume has a separate ISBN. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470879528
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/3/2012
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 1080
  • Sales rank: 77,983
  • Product dimensions: 9.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

John Cutnell, Southern Illinois Univ-Carbondale
Ken Johnson, Southern Illinois Univ-Carbondale
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts 1

1.1 The Nature of Physics 1

1.2 Units 1

1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving 3

1.4 Trigonometry 6

1.5 Scalars and Vectors 8

1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction 10

1.7 The Components of a Vector 12

1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components 15

1.9 Concepts & Calculations 18

CONCEPT SUMMARY 20

2 Kinematics in one Dimension 27

2.1 Displacement 27

2.2 Speed and Velocity 28

2.3 Acceleration 30

2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration 34

2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics 38

2.6 Freely Falling Bodies 43

2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration 47

2.8 Concepts & Calculations 49

CONCEPT SUMMARY 51

3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 57

3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 57

3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 58

3.3 Projectile Motion 62

3.4 Relative Velocity 72

3.5 Concepts & Calculations 76

CONCEPT SUMMARY 78

4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 85

4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass 85

4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 86

4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 87

4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion 90

4.5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 91

4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview 92

4.7 The Gravitational Force 93

4.8 The Normal Force 97

4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces 100

4.10 The Tension Force 106

4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 107

4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 111

4.13 Concepts & Calculations 118

CONCEPT SUMMARY 120

5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 130

5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 130

5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 131

5.3 Centripetal Force 134

5.4 Banked Curves 138

5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 139

5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity 142

5.7 Vertical Circular Motion 146

5.8 Concepts & Calculations 147

CONCEPT SUMMARY 149

6 Work and Energy 155

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 155

6.2 The Work–Energy Theorem

and Kinetic Energy 158

6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 165

6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces 167

6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 169

6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem 172

6.7 Power 174

6.8 Other Forms of Energy and

the Conservation of Energy 176 6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force 177

6.10 Concepts & Calculations 178

CONCEPT SUMMARY 181

7 Impulse and Momentum 189

7.1 The Impulse–Momentum Theorem 189

7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 193

7.3 Collisions in One Dimension 198

7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 203

7.5 Center of Mass 205

7.6 Concepts & Calculations 207

CONCEPT SUMMARY 209

8 Rotational Kinematics 216

8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement 216

8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 219

8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics 221

8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables 223

8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration 225

8.6 Rolling Motion 228

8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables 230

8.8 Concepts & Calculations 230

CONCEPT SUMMARY 233

9 Rotational Dynamics 240

9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects 240

9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium 242

9.3 Center of Gravity 247

9.4 Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 252

9.5 Rotational Work and Energy 260

9.6 Angular Momentum 263

9.7 Concepts & Calculations 265

CONCEPT SUMMARY 267

10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity 276

10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion 276

10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and

the Reference Circle 280

10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion 285

10.4 The Pendulum 288

10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion 291

10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance 292

10.7 Elastic Deformation 293

10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law 298

10.9 Concepts & Calculations 299

CONCEPT SUMMARY 301

11 Fluids 310

11.1 Mass Density 310

11.2 Pressure 311

11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid 313

11.4 Pressure Gauges 316

11.5 Pascal’s Principle 317

11.6 Archimedes’ Principle 320

11.7 Fluids in Motion 324

11.8 The Equation of Continuity 326

11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation 328

11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation 330

11.11 Viscous Flow 335

11.12 Concepts & Calculations 337

CONCEPT SUMMARY 340

12 Temperature and Heat 348

12.1 Common Temperature Scales 348

12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 349

12.3 Thermometers 350

12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 352

12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion 358

12.6 Heat and Internal Energy 360

12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 360

12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 365

12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter 369

12.10 Humidity 372

12.11 Concepts & Calculations 374

CONCEPT SUMMARY 376

13 The Transfer of Heat 384

13.1 Convection 384

13.2 Conduction 387

13.3 Radiation 393

13.4 Applications 398

13.5 Concepts & Calculations 399

CONCEPT SUMMARY 401

14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 406

14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number 406

14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 409

14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 414

14.4 Diffusion 419

14.5 Concepts & Calculations 422

CONCEPT SUMMARY 425

15 Thermodynamics 431

15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings 431

15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 431

15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 432

15.4 Thermal Processes 434

15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas 438

15.6 Specific Heat Capacities 441

15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 442

15.8 Heat Engines 443

15.9 Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine 444

15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 447

15.11 Entropy 451

15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 455

15.13 Concepts & Calculations 455

CONCEPT SUMMARY 458

16 Waves and Sound 467

16.1 The Nature of Waves 467

16.2 Periodic Waves 469

16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String 470

16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave 473

16.5 The Nature of Sound 473

16.6 The Speed of Sound 476

16.7 Sound Intensity 480

16.8 Decibels 482

16.9 The Doppler Effect 484

16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine 490

16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear 491

16.12 Concepts & Calculations 492

CONCEPT SUMMARY 494

17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena 503

17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 503

17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves 504

17.3 Diffraction 508

17.4 Beats 510

17.5 Transverse Standing Waves 512

17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves 516

17.7 Complex Sound Waves 520

17.8 Concepts & Calculations 520

CONCEPT SUMMARY 522

18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 529

18.1 The Origin of Electricity 529

18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force 530

18.3 Conductors and Insulators 532

18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction 533

18.5 Coulomb’s Law 534

18.6 The Electric Field 539

18.7 Electric Field Lines 545

18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding 548

18.9 Gauss’ Law 550

18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers 554

18.11 Concepts & Calculations 555

CONCEPT SUMMARY 558

19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential 565

19.1 Potential Energy 565

19.2 The Electric Potential Difference 566

19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges 572

19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field 576

19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 579

19.6 Biomedical Applications

of Electric Potential Differences 584

19.7 Concepts & Calculations 587

CONCEPT SUMMARY 589

20 Electric Circuits 595

20.1 Electromotive Force and Current 595

20.2 Ohm’s Law 597

20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 598

20.4 Electric Power 601

20.5 Alternating Current 603

20.6 Series Wiring 606

20.7 Parallel Wiring 609

20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel 613

20.9 Internal Resistance 614

20.10 Kirchhoff’s Rules 615

20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage 618

20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 620

20.13 RC Circuits 622

20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current 623

20.15 Concepts & Calculations 624

CONCEPT SUMMARY 626

21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 637

21.1 Magnetic Fields 637

21.2 The Force that a Magnetic Field Exerts

on a Moving Charge 639

21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 642

21.4 The Mass Spectrometer 646

21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 647

21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil 649

21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents 651

21.8 Ampère’s Law 660

21.9 Magnetic Materials 661

21.10 Concepts & Calculations 664

CONCEPT SUMMARY 666

22 Electromagnetic Induction 674

22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current 674

22.2 Motional Emf 676

22.3 Magnetic Flux 681

22.4 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 683

22.5 Lenz’s Law 686

22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound 689

22.7 The Electric Generator 690

22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance 695

22.9 Transformers 700

22.10 Concepts & Calculations 702

CONCEPT SUMMARY 705

23 Alternating Current Circuits 713

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 713

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance 715

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 717

23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits 722

23.5 Semiconductor Devices 726

23.6 Concepts & Calculations 731

CONCEPT SUMMARY 734

24 Electromagnetic Waves 739

24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 739

24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 743

24.3 The Speed of Light 745

24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 747

24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves 751

24.6 Polarization 754

24.7 Concepts & Calculations 759

CONCEPT SUMMARY 761

25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors 768

25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 768

25.2 The Reflection of Light 769

25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror 770

25.4 Spherical Mirrors 772

25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 775

25.6 The Mirror Equation and

the Magnification Equation 779

25.7 Concepts & Calculations 784

CONCEPT SUMMARY 785

26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 790

26.1 The Index of Refraction 790

26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light 791

26.3 Total Internal Reflection 796

26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light 802

26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows 802

26.6 Lenses 804

26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses 805

26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and

the Magnification Equation 808

26.9 Lenses in Combination 811

26.10 The Human Eye 813

26.11 Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass 817

26.12 The Compound Microscope 819

26.13 The Telescope 820

26.14 Lens Aberrations 822

26.15 Concepts & Calculations 823

CONCEPT SUMMARY 825

27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light 836

27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 836

27.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 838

27.3 Thin-Film Interference 841

27.4 The Michelson Interferometer 845

27.5 Diffraction 846

27.6 Resolving Power 850

27.7 The Diffraction Grating 855

27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference 857

27.9 X-Ray Diffraction 858

27.10 Concepts & Calculations 859

CONCEPT SUMMARY 862

28 Special Relativity 869

28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames 869

28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity 870

28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation 872

28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction 876

28.5 Relativistic Momentum 878

28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy 880

28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities 885

28.8 Concepts & Calculations 888

CONCEPT SUMMARY 890

29 Particles and Waves 895

29.1 The Wave–Particle Duality 895

29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant 896

29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 897

29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect 903

29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter 906

29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 908

29.7 Concepts & Calculations 911

CONCEPT SUMMARY 913

30 The Nature of the Atom 918

30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom 918

30.2 Line Spectra 919

30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 921

30.4 De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption about Angular Momentum 926

30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom 926

30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements 930

30.7 X-Rays 933

30.8 The Laser 937

30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser 939

30.10 Holography 941

30.11 Concepts & Calculations 943

CONCEPT SUMMARY 946

31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 952

31.1 Nuclear Structure 952

31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus 954

31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 955

31.4 Radioactivity 958

31.5 The Neutrino 965

31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity 966

31.7 Radioactive Dating 969

31.8 Radioactive Decay Series 973

31.9 Radiation Detectors 973

31.10 Concepts & Calculations 975

CONCEPT SUMMARY 976

32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles 982

32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 982

32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions 986

32.3 Nuclear Fission 988

32.4 Nuclear Reactors 990

32.5 Nuclear Fusion 991

32.6 Elementary Particles 994

32.7 Cosmology 999

32.8 Concepts & Calculations 1001

CONCEPT SUMMARY 1004

Appendixes A-1

Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation A-1

Appendix B Significant Figures A-1

Appendix C Algebra A-2

Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms A-3

Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry A-4

Appendix F Selected Isotopes A-5

Answers to Check Your Understanding A-9

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-16

Index A-27

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