Physiology of Behavior with MyPsychKit / Edition 9

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The latest discoveries in the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and physiological psychology are all incorporated in The Ninth Edition of Physiology of Behavior. This classic text continues its tradition as the most comprehensive, current, and teachable text for physiological psychology.

Thoughtfully organized, this text offers scholarly, yet accessible coverage and effectively emphasizes the dynamic interaction between biology and behavior. Collaboration with a talented artist has provided beautiful, accurate, and informative full-color illustrations that further enhance the appeal to both students and professors alike. Case studies and a CD of animations bring all the concepts to life.

Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System, Psychopharmacology, Methods and Strategies of Research, Vision, Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses, Control of Movement, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Reproductive Behavior, Emotion,

Ingestive Behavior, Learning and Memory, Human Communication, Neurological Disorders, Schizophrenia and the Affective Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Autistic Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Stress Disorders, and Drug Abuse

Physiological Psychology and Neuropsychology

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205593897
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 6/28/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 752
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Neil Carlson, U Mass Amherst

Emeritus at the University of Masschusetts at Amherst, Neil Carlson is an active researcher focusing on the relationship between the brain and behavior — specifically the role of the limbic system in learning and species-typical behavior. Dr. Carlson received his undergraduate degree and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois. In addition to writing Psychology: The Science of Behavior, Dr. Carlson is also the author of two best-selling physiology of behavior textbooks — Psychology: The Science of Behavior and Foundations of Physiological Psychology.

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction

Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach


Split Brains

Unilateral Neglect

Interim Summary

The Nature of Psysiological Psychology

The Goals of Research

Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology

Interim Summary

Natural Selection and Evolution

Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits

Evolution of the Human Species

Evolution of Large Brains

Interim Summary

Ethical Issues in Research with Animals

Careers in Neuroscience

Interim Summary

Strategies for Learning

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

2. Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System

Cells of the Nervous System


Supporting Cells

The Blood-Brain Barrier

Interim Summary

Communication within a Neuron

Neural Communication: An Overview

Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

The Action Potential

Conduction of the Action Potential

Interim Summary

Communication between Neurons

Structure of Synapses

Release of Neurotransmitter

Activation of Receptors

Postsynaptic Potentials

Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Effects of Postsynaptic Potentials: Neural Integration


Other Types of Synapses

Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

3. Structure of the Nervous System

Basic Features of the Nervous System

An Overview


The Ventricular System and Production

of CSF

Interim Summary

The Central Nervous System

Development of the Central Nervous System

The Forebrain

The Midbrain

The Hindbrain

The Spinal Cord

Interim Summary

The Peripheral Nervous System

Spinal Nerves

Cranial Nerves

The Autonomic Nervous System

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

4. Psychopharmacology

Principles of Psychopharmacology


Drug Effectiveness

Effects of Repeated Administration

Placebo Effects

Interim Summary

Sites of Drug Action

Effects on Production of


Effects on Storage and Release of Neurotransmitters

Effect on Receptors

Effects on Reuptake or Destruction of


Interim Summary

Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators


The Monoamines

Amino Acids




Soluble Gases

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additonal Resources

5. Methods and Strategies of Research

Experimental Ablation

Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage

Producing Brain Lesions

Sterotaxic Surgery

Histological Methods

Tracing Neural Connections

Study of the Living Human Brain

Interim Summary

Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity

Recording of Neural Activity

Recording of the Brain’s Metabolic and Synaptic Activity

Measuring the Brain’s Secretions

Stimulating Neural Activity

Behavioral Effects of Electrical Brain Stimulation

Interim Summary

Neurochemical Methods

Finding Neurons That Produce Particular Neurochemicals

Localizing Particular Receptors

Interim Summary

Genetic Methods

Twin Studies

Adoption Studies

Targeted Mutations

Antisense Oligonucleotides

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

6. Vision

The Stimulus Anatomy of the Visual System

The Eyes


Connections Between Eye and Brain

Interim Summary

Coding of Visual Information in the Retina

Coding of Light and Dark

Coding of Color

Interim Summary

Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex

Anatomy of the Striate Cortex

Orientation and Movement

Spatial Frequency

Retinal Disparity


Modular Organization of the Striate Cortex

Interim Summary

Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex

Two Streams of Visual Analysis

Perception of Color

Perception of Form

Perception of Movement

Perception of Spatial Location

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Addiitional Resources

7. Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses


The Stimulus

Anatomy of the Ear

Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information

The Auditory Pathway

Perception of Pitch

Perception of Loudness

Perception of Timbre

Perception of Spatial Location

Perception of Complex Sounds

Interim Summary

Vestibular System

Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus

The Receptor Cells

The Vestibular Pathway

Interim Summary


The Stimuli

Anatomy of the Skin and Its Receptive Organs

Perception of Cutaneous Stimulation

The Somatosensory Pathways

Perception of Pain

Interim Summary


The Stimuli

Anatomy of the Taste Buds and Gustatory Cells

Perception of Gustatory Information

The Gustatory Pathway

Interim Summary


The Stimulus

Anatomy of the Olfactory Apparatus

Transduction of Olfactory Information

Perception of Specific Odors

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additonal Resources

8. Control of Movement


Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Interim Summary

Reflexive Control of Movement

The Monosynaptic Stretch Reflex

The Gamma Motor System

Polysynaptic Reflexes

Interim Summary

Control of Movement by the Brain

Organization of Motor Cortex

Initiating, Imitating, and Comprehending Movements: Role of the Motor Association Cortex

Cortical Control of Movement: The Descending Pathways

Deficits of Skilled movements: The Apraxias

The Basal Ganglia

The Cerebellum

The Reticular Formation

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

9. Sleep and Biological Rhythms

A Physiological and Behavioral Description of Sleep

Stages of Sleep

Mental Activity During Sleep

Interim Summary

Disorders of Sleep



REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

Problems Associated with Slow-Wave Sleep

Interim Summary

Why Do We Sleep?

Functions of Slow-Wave Sleep

Functions of REM Sleep

Interim Summary

Physiological Mechanisms of Sleep and Waking

Chemical Control of Sleep

Neural Control of Arousal

Neural Control of Slow-Wave Sleep

Neural Control of REM Sleep

Interim Summary

Biological Clocks

Circadian Rhythms and Zeitgebers

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Control of Seasonal Rhythms: The Pineal Gland and Melatonin

Changes in Circadian Rhythms: Shift Work and Jet Lag

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

10. Reproductive Behahvior

Sexual Development

Production of Gametes and Fertilization

Development of the Sex Organs

Sexual Maturation

Interim Summary

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior of Laboratory Animals

Organizational Effects of Androgens on Behavior: Masculinization and Defeminization

Effects of Pheromones

Human Sexual Behavior

Sexual Orientation

Interim Summary

Neural Control of Sexual Behavior



Formation of Pair Bonds

Interim Summary

Parental Behavior

Maternal Behavior of Rodents

Hormonal Control of Maternal Behavior

Neural Control of Maternal Behavior

Neural Control of Paternal Behavior

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

11. Emotion

Emotions as Response Patterns


Anger, Aggression, and Impulse Control

Hormonal Control of Aggressive Behavior

Interim Summary

Communication of Emotions

Facial Expression of Emotions: Innate


Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Recognition

Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Expression

Interim Summary

Feelings of Emotions

The James-Lange Theory

Feedback from Simulated Emotions

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

12. Ingestive Behavior

Physiological Regulatory Mechanisms


Some Facts about Fluid Balance

Two Types of Thirst

Neural Mechanisms of Thirst

Interim Summary

Eating: Some Facts about Metabolism

Absorption, Fasting, and the Two Nutrient Reservoirs

Interim Summary

What Starts a Meal?

Signals from the Environment

Signals from the Stomach

Metabolic Signals

Interim Summary

What Stops a Meal?

Head Factors

Gastric Factors

Intestinal Factors

Liver Factors


Long-Term Satity: Signals from Adipose Tissue

Interim Summary

Brain Mechanisms

Brain Stem


Interim Summary

Eating Disorders


Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia Nervosa

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

13. Learning and Memory

The Nature of Learning

Interim Summary

Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

Induction of Long-Term Potentiation

Role of NMDA Receptors

Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity

Long-Term Depression

Other Forms of Long-Term Potentiation

Interim Summary

Perceptual Learning

Learning to Recognize Visual Stimuli

Perceptual Short-Term Memory

Interim Summary

Classical Conditioning

Interim Summary

Instrumental Conditioning

Basal Ganglia


Interim Summary

Relational Learning

Human Anterograde Amnesia

Spared Learning Abilities

Declarative and Nondeclarative Memories

Anatomy of Anterograde Amnesia

Role of the Hippocampal Formation in

Consolidation of Declarative Memories

Episodic and Semantic Memories

Spatial Memory

Confabulation: Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Evaluating the Accuracy of Memories

Relational Learning in Laboratory Animals

Role of the Hippocampal Formation in Memory Consolidation

Role of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

14. Human Communication

Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms


Speech Production

Speech Comprehension

Aphasia in Deaf Peole

The Bilingual Brain

Prosody: Rhythm, Tone, and Emphasis in Speech


Interim Summary

Disorders of Reading and Writing

Relation to Aphasia

Pure Alexia

Toward an Understanding of Reading

Toward and Understanding of Writing

Developmental Dyslexias

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

15. Neurological Disorders


Seizure Disorders

Cerebrovascular Accidents

Interim Summary

Disorders of Development

Toxic Chemicals

Inherited Metabolic Disorders

Down Syndrome

Interim Summary

Degenerative Disorders

Transmissible Spongiform


Parkinson’s Disease

Huntington’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

Interim Summary

Disorders Caused by Infectious Diseases

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

16. Schizophrenia and the Affective Disorders




Pharmacology of Schizophrenia: The Dopamine Hypothesis

Schizophrenia as a Neurological Disorder

Interim Summary

Major Affective Disorders



Physiological Treatments

Role of Monoamines

Evidence for Brain Abnormalities

Role of the 5-HT Transporter

Role of Circadian Rhythms

Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

17. Anxiety Disorders, Autistic Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Stress Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Panic Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Interim Summary

Autistic Disorder


Possible Causes

Interim Summary

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


Possible Causes

Interim Summary

Stress Disorders

Physiology of the Stress Response

Health Effects of Long-Term Stress

Effects of Stress on the Brain

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Interim Summary

Suggested Readings

Additional Resources

18. Drug Abuse

Common Features of Addiction

A Little Background

Physical Versus Psychological Addiction

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Tolerance and Withdrawal

Craving and Relapse

Interim Summary

Commonly Abused Drugs


Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine




Interim Summary

Heredity and Drug Abuse

Heritability Studies of Humans

Animal Models of Drug Abuse

Interim Summary

Therapy for Drug Abuse

Interim Summary


Name Index

Subject Index

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