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Drugs from plants are a major contribution to world health. Their production involves machinery, workers, quality control, standards, and legislation. Phytopharmaceutical Technology is a practical reference volume that provides the basic information necessary to select and operate machinery and to process plant products through to the desired liquid, solid, or powdered drug form. As a result, much of the book is devoted to the production process. Topics discussed include plants and plant parts; converting plants to medicinal forms; tips on handling incoming plant materials, including quality, pests, residues, analytical techniques and legislation; solvents for extraction, chemical data and notes regarding selection and use; and production processes, including grading (sorting), size reduction (comminution), extraction, concentration, purification, and drying. The book also contains details regarding the dozens of types of machinery that can be used, as well as drawings, including cross-sections and schematics of the working action. Quality assurance, standardization, and regulation is also discussed. Phytopharmaceutical Technology is a handy reference tool for engineers and industrial chemists in the plant drug processing industry, as well as excellent reading for university students.
MEDICINAL FORMS. OPENING REMARKS. MEDICINAL FORMS FROM FRESH PLANTS. Fruit Pulps. Juices. Succi. Syrups. Sirupi. Alcoholates. Alcoholaturae. Homoeopathic Preparations from Fresh Plants. DOSAGE FORMS OBTAINED FROM DRUGS. Terms and Definitions. Herbal Teas. Herbal Remedies. Standardized Drug Powders. Pulveres Normati. Pulveres Titrati. Drug Extracts. STARTING MATERIAL. RECOVERY OF DRUGS. Botanical Principles. Problems in the Production of Drugs of Pharmacopoeia Quality. Pest Control. ANALYSIS OF DRUGS. Quality Assurance of Imported Products. EXTRACTION AGENTS. PRELIMINARY REMARKS, TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. PHARMACEUTICAL SOLVENTS. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Ketones. Carboxylic Acids. Esters. Ethers. Water. Oils. SOLVENT MIXTURES. Water-Solubility of Solvents. Binary and Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures. PROCESSING. COMMINUTION, GRADING AND CLASSIFICATION OF DRUG PLANT MATERIALS. Definitions. Principles of Comminution. Principles of Classification. Comminution and Classification of Drug Plant Materials. EXTRACTION OF DRUGS. Terms and Definitions. Methods Establishing a Concentration Equilibrium. Methods for Exhaustive Extraction of the Drug. Extraction with Supercritical Gases. Summarized Evaluation of Extraction Processes. PURIFICATION OF MISCELLAE. Necessity and Objectives of Purification of Miscellae. Physical Methods and Their Application. Physico-Chemical Methods and Their Application. Bacteria Reducing Purification Processes. CONCENTRATION OF MISCELLAE. Definitions. Principles of Vaporization. Use of Vaporizers. DRYING OF EXTRACTS. Definition of Drying. Principles of Drying. Application of Various Types of Drying. Comminution of Dried Extracts. RECOVERY OF ETHEREAL OILS. The Enfleurage Process. Steam Distillation. APPARATUS AND MACHINERY. APPARATUS FOR SORTING AND GRADING DRUG PLANT MATERIALS. Grading by Size. Optical Grading. MACHINERY FOR COMMINUTION OF DRUGS. Machinery for Cutting Up Drug Plants. Machines for Grinding Drug Plant Materials. Examples of Use. MACHINERY FOR CLASSIFYING DRUG MATERIALS. Air Classifiers. Sieves. Complete Infusion Production Plant. MACHINERY FOR EXTRACTION OF DRUGS. Machinery for Maceration, Kinetic Maceration, Remaceration, Digestion and Similar Processes. Machinery for Percolation. Machinery for Countercurrent Extraction. Machinery for Extraction with Supercritical Gases. Machinery for Treatment of Drug Residue. MACHINERY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF EXTRACTS. Filtration Apparatus. Separators, Decanters and Centrifuges. Apparatus for Pasteurization and Ultra-High-Temperature Heating. APPARATUS FOR CONCENTRATING EXTRACTS. Tube Vaporizers with Auto-Circulation. Tube Vaporizers with Pumped Circulation. Falling Film Vaporizers. Thin Layer Vaporizers. Centrifugal Rotary Vaporizers. Rotary Thin Layer Vaporizers. Conventional Rotary Vaporizers. APPARATUS FOR DRYING EXTRACTS. Spray Dryers. Vacuum Belt Dryers. Roller Dryers. Drying Ovens and Vacuum Drying Ovens. Freeze Dryers. Microwave Dryers. QUALITY ASSURANCE OF PHYTOPHARMACEUTICALS. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. STANDARDIZATION. Correct and Meaningful Use of Indicative Substances. REGULATION. PHYSICAL QUALITY ASSURANCE. QUALITY ASSURANCE BY CULTIVATION AND BREEDING. STABILIZATION AND STABILITY. Terms and Definitions. Methods of Stabilization. FURTHER PROCESSING TO THE FINISHED MEDICINE. PREPARATION OF SOLID DOSAGE FORMS FROM DRIED EXTRACTS. PREPARATION OF LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS FROM EXTRACTS. PRESERVATION OF LIQUID PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. REFERENCES. INDEX. c. 376 pp., 1989, ISBN 0-8493-7709-9.