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Overview
Comprised of 21 chapters, the book walks readers through the steps of pipeline construction and management. The comprehensive guide that this source provides enables engineers and technicians to manage routine auditing of technical work output relative to technical input and established expectations and standards, and to assess and estimate the work, including design integrity and product requirements, from its research to completion.
Design, piping, civil, mechanical, petroleum, chemical, project production and project reservoir engineers, including novices and students, will find this book invaluable for their engineering practices.
Editorial Reviews
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"This general purpose guide for engineers provides detailed practical information on the design and construction of pipelines and attendant facilities. Authored by a team of experts with extensive pipeline experience, the volume presents a comprehensive look at design criteria, planning considerations, and testing methodologies for many common tasks involved in pipeline construction. Topics discussed include route selection, environmental impact and regulations, rightofway concerns, materials options, pipe strength, hydraulic analysis, pump and valve stations, leak detection, hydrostatic testing, and operations and maintenance protocols. Technical drawings, tables, and relevant formulas and equations are provided throughout."Reference and Research Book News
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Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual
By E. Shashi Menon
Gulf Professional Publishing
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc.All right reserved.
ISBN: 9780123838544
Chapter One
Design BasisE. Shashi Menon, Ph.D., P.E.
Chapter Outline Introduction 1 1.1 Units of Measurement 2 1.1.1 Base Units 2 1.1.2 Supplementary Units 3 1.1.3 Derived Units 3 1.2 Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases 4 1.2.1 Liquid Properties 5 1.2.2 Gas Properties 19 Summary 40 Bibliography 41
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we outline the design basis that forms the foundation for the design of pipelines, pump stations, compressor stations, valves, and other facilities that comprise the pipeline system. The Design Basis Manual or Memorandum (DBM) is a document that is initially developed following discussions between the pipeline owner company and the engineering firm that is responsible for the designing and (in many cases) construction management of the pipeline. This document is continuously revised and updated during the project life. All participants in the project must have access to the DBM so that a consistent documented basis for all aspects of the pipeline will be followed throughout the design and construction of the project.
First, we review the units of measurement used in the pipeline industry. The various units of measurement and calculations used in the United States of America, Canada, and other countries will be discussed and the conversion between the commonly used units explained. Next, we address the physical properties of fluids (liquids and gases) that are transported in the pipeline. Chapters 7–9 will further describe the details of the pipeline design basis by analyzing the major components such as pipes, valves, pumps, compressors, and ancillary equipment. An outline of the various components that constitute a DBM is also provided in Appendix 1.
1.1 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
The units of measurement employed in the pipeline transportation industry consist mainly of the English or USCS system of units (US Customary System) and the metric or SI (Système International) system of units. USCS units are used exclusively in the United States of America, whereas SI units are used in the countries that use metric units, such as Europe, Asia, Australia, and South America. In Canada and some South American countries, a combination of USCS and SI units are used.
In USCS units, measurements are derived from the old footpoundsecond (FPS) and footslugsecond (FSS) system that originated in England. The basic units are foot (ft) for length, slug (slug) for mass, and second (s) for measurement of time.
In SI units, the corresponding units for length, mass, and time are meter (m), kilogram (kg), and second (s), respectively. In both USCS and SI units, time has a common unit of second.
Units of measurement are generally divided into three classes as follows:
Base units
Supplementary units
Derived units
Base units are units that are dimensionally independent, such as units of length, mass, time, electric current, temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity.
Supplementary units include those used to measure plain angles and solid angles, such as radian and steradian.
Derived units are formed by combining base units, supplementary units, and other derived units. Examples are force, pressure, and energy.
1.1.1 Base Units
In USCS units, the base units are as follows:
Length – foot (ft)
Mass – slug (slug)
Time – second (s)
Electric current – ampere (A)
Temperature – degree Fahrenheit (°F)
Amount of substance – mole (mol)
Luminous intensity – candela (cd)
In SI units, the base units are as follows:
Length – meter (m)
Mass – kilogram (kg)
Time – second (s)
Electric current – ampere (A)
Temperature – Kelvin (K)
Amount of substance – mole (mol)
Luminous intensity – candela (cd)
1.1.2 Supplementary Units
In USCS and SI units, the supplementary units are as follows:
Plain angle – radian (rad)
Solid angle – steradian (sr)
Radian is defined as the plain angle between two radii of a circle with an arc length equal to the radius. Thus, it represents the angle of a sector of a circle with the arc length equal to its radius.
One radian = (180/π) degrees = 57:3 degrees ðdegÞ
Since a circle contains 360 degrees, this is equivalent to
(360/57:3) = 2π radians = 6:28 rad
The steradian is the solid angle having its apex at the center of a sphere such that the area of the surface of the sphere that it cuts out is equal to that of a square with sides equal to the radius of this sphere.
1.1.3 Derived Units
Derived units are those that are formed by combining base units, supplementary units, and other derived units. For example, area and volume are derived units formed by combination of the base unit length. Similarly, velocity (or speed) is derived from the base unit of length and time. It is important to note that numerically velocity and speed are the same, but velocity is a vector quantity, whereas speed is a scalar quantity. A vector has both magnitude and direction, whereas a scalar has only magnitude.
In USCS units, the following derived units are used:
Area – square inches (in^{2}), square feet (ft^{2})
Volume – cubic inches (in^{3}), cubic feet (ft^{3}), gallons (gal), and barrels (bbl)
Speed/velocity – feet per second (ft/s)
Acceleration – feet per second per second (ft/s^{2})
Density – slug per cubic foot (slug/ft^{3})
Specific weight – pound per cubic foot (lb/ft^{3})
Specific volume – cubic feet per pound (ft^{3}/lb)
Dynamic viscosity – pound second per square foot (lb·s/ft^{2})
Kinematic viscosity – square feet per second (ft^{2}/s)
Force – pounds (lb)
Pressure – pounds per square inch (lb/in^{2} or psi)
Energy/work – foot pound (ft·lb)
Quantity of heat – British Thermal Units (Btu)
Power – Horsepower (HP)
Specific heat – Btu per pound per °F (Btu/lb/°F)
Thermal conductivity – Btu per hour per foot per °F (Btu/h/ft/°F)
In SI units, the derived units are as follows:
Area – square meters (m^{2})
Volume – cubic meters (m^{3})
Speed/velocity – meter per second (m/s)
Acceleration – meter per second per second (m/s^{2})
Density – kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m^{3})
Specific volume – cubic meters per kilogram (m^{3}/kg)
Force – Newton (N)
Pressure – Newton per square meter (N/m^{2}) or Pascal (Pa)
Dynamic viscosity – Pascal second (Pa·s)
Kinematic viscosity – square meters per second (m^{2}/s)
Energy/work – Newton meter (N·m) or joule (J)
Quantity of heat – joule (J)
Power – joule per second (J/s) or watt (W)
Specific heat – joule per kilogram per Kelvin (J/kg/K)
Thermal conductivity – joule per second per meter per Kelvin (J/s/m/K) or (W/m/K)
Other derived units used in USCS and SI units and the conversion between various units are listed in Appendix 1.
1.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES
Since pipelines are used to transport liquids or gases (collectively referred to as fluids), we discuss some important physical properties of fluids that affect pipeline transportation. In liquid pipelines, these include specific gravity, viscosity, specific heat, bulk modulus, and vapor pressure. In compressible fluids, such as natural gas pipelines, the important properties are specific gravity, viscosity, molecular composition, heating value, specific heat, and the compressibility factor. These physical properties and how they are calculated including methods between various units will be illustrated using examples. The variation of these properties with the temperature and pressure of the fluid is important in both liquid and gas pipelines. In heavy crude oil pipelines, sometimes, the crude oil is heated to reduce viscosity and thus improve pumpability. This, in turn, reduces power requirements and hence cost of transportation. Therefore, the variation in viscosity and gravity with temperature become very important. Sometimes, a lowviscosity product (such as a diluent or light crude oil) is blended with a heavy crude oil to reduce the viscosity and enhance pumpability. We explain the methods commonly used to determine the blended properties of two or more liquids. Similarly for gases, knowing the molecular composition of individual gases, we explain the method of calculating the composition of the gas mixture and the corresponding gravity and viscosity.
This chapter forms the foundation for all calculations for designing and planning the pipelines used to transport liquids and gases. These include pressure drop due to friction in pipes, valves, and fittings, as well as pump and compressor power requirements, all of which will be addressed in Chapters 8 through 12. In Appendix 1, tables are included listing physical properties of commonly transported liquids and gases such as water, refined petroleum products, crude oils, and natural gas.
1.2.1 Liquid Properties
Mass, Weight, Volume, and Density
For both liquids and gases, mass, weight, volume, and density are discussed in this section and the related terms specific volume and specific weight are also explained.
Mass is defined as the quantity of matter in a substance and it does not vary with temperature or pressure. It is a scalar quantity and hence has magnitude but no direction, compared to a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Mass is measured in slug (slug) in USCS units and kilograms (kg) in SI units. The term weight depends on the mass and acceleration due to gravity at a particular location and is a vector quantity. Weight is actually the force acting on a mass and hence is a derived unit. In USCS units, weight is stated in pounds (lb) and in SI units it is measured in Newton (N). The quantity of liquid contained in a storage tank may be referred to as 5000 lb weight. This is sometimes referred to incorrectly as 5000 lb mass of liquid. The correct term would be to say the mass of liquid contained in the tank is 5000/32.17 = 155.4 slug. The factor 32.17 represents the acceleration due to gravity (32.17 ft/s^{2}). This is based on Newton's second law of motion, represented by the following relationship:
Force = mass × acceleration (1.1)
Since force has the units of lb, from Eq. (1.1) it is clear that slug has the units of lb·s^{2}/ft.
Similarly, in SI units, if a storage tank contains 170 kg of crude oil, this is the mass of the crude oil. Its weight in Newton is 170 × 9:81 = 1667:7 N.
The factor 9.81 is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2}) in SI units. However, in common usage we tend to say (incorrectly) that the weight of crude oil in the tank is 170 kg.
Volume is defined as the space occupied by a given mass. In the case of a liquid in a tank, the liquid fills the tank up to a certain height. In comparison, a compressible fluid such as natural gas will fill an entire sphere or bullet used as a storage vessel. Thus, gas expands to fill its container. Consider a cylindrical storage tank for gasoline, if the inside diameter of the tank is 100 ft, the crosssectional area is
A = (π/4) × (100)^{2} = 7854 ft^{2}
If the liquid level in the tank is 20 ft, the volume of gasoline contained in the tank is given by
V = A × height = 7854 × 20 = 157,080 ft^{3}
In USCS units, the volume of a liquid may be stated in cubic feet (ft^{3}), gallons (gal) or barrels (bbl). In the US petroleum industry, a barrel and a gallon are defined as follows:
1 bbl = 42 US gal 1 US gal = 231 in^{3}
The imperial gallon, used in Canada and the United Kingdom, is 20% larger than the US gallon.
In SI units, liquid or gas volume is stated in cubic meters (m^{3}) or liters (L). These are related to each other and the US gallon as follows:
1 m^{3} = 1000 L 1 US gal = 3:785 L
Also the USCS and SI units for volume are related as follows:
1 m^{3} = 35:32 ft^{3} 1 bbl = 0:159 m^{3} = 158:97 L
(Continues...)
Table of Contents
1. Design Basis 2. Route Selection 3. Alignment Sheets 4. Wall Thickness Definition 5. Pipeline Analyses 6. Pipeline End Expansion Analysis 7. TieIn Spool Expansion Spool and Riser Design 8. Corrosion Protection 9. Specification Writing, Data Sheet Production, Requisition Development & Bid Analysis of Associated Materials and Valves 10. Installation Studies