Plant Fibers

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642833519
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/14/2011
  • Series: Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis Series, #10
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 377
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.83 (d)

Table of Contents

Biosynthesis of Cell-Wall Polysaccharides: Membrane Isolation, in Vitro Glycosyl Transferase Assay and Enzyme Solubilization.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Membrane Isolation.- 2.1 Isolation of Crude Membrane Fractions.- 2.2 Plasma Membrane Enriched Preparations.- 3 Assay Methods for Glycosyl Transferases.- 3.1 General Aspects.- 3.2 Glucan Synthase Assay.- 4 Solubilization Methods.- 4.1 Overview.- 4.2 Solubilization Techniques.- 5 Summary.- References.- Analysis of Cross-Links in the Growing Cell Walls of Higher Plants.- 1 Background.- 1.1 Polymeric Components of the Growing Cell Wall.- 1.2 The Value of Specific Degradative Techniques.- 1.3 Cross-Links in the Assembly of a Growing Cell Wall.- 2 Chemistry of Cross-Links.- 2.1 Chemistry of Noncovalent Cross-Links.- 2.2 Chemistry and Properties of Covalent Cross-Links.- 3 Methods for Breaking Cross-Links.- 3.1 Methods for Breaking Noncovalent Cross-Links.- 3.1.1 Methods for Breaking Hydrogen-Bonds.- 3.1.2 Methods for Breaking Ionic Bonds.- 3.1.3 Methods for Breaking Calcium Bridges.- 3.2 Methods for Breaking Covalent Cross-Links.- 3.2.1 Methods for Breaking Phenolic Coupling Products.- 3.2.2 Methods for Breaking Glycosidic “Cross-Links”.- 3.2.3 Methods for Breaking Ester Cross-Links.- 4 Authentic Low-Molecular-Weight Models of Possible Cross-Links.- 4.1 Synthesis of Artificial Hydroxycinnamoyl-Carbohydrate Esters.- 4.2 Isolation of Naturally Occurring Feruloyl Disaccharides.- 4.3 Synthesis of Uronoyl-Sugar Esters.- 4.4 Synthesis of Isodityrosine.- 5 Alternative Methods.- References.- Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride and Cell-Wall Analysis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Glycoprotein Deglycosylation.- 3 Selective Cleavage of Glycosidic Linkages.- 3.1 Apparatus Necessary.- 3.2 Transfer of HF from HF Tank to the HF Reservoir.- 3.3 HF Solvolysis of Cell Walls.- 3.4 Filtration of the Reaction Mixture.- 3.5 Recovery of Sugars from the HF/Ether-Soluble Fraction.- 4 Characterization of Cell-Wall Fractions.- 4.1 HF/Ether-Soluble Fraction.- 4.2 Water-Soluble Fraction.- 4.3 Water-Insoluble Residue.- 4.4 Final Residue.- 4.5 Summary.- 5 Vapor-Phase HF Solvolysis of Lignocellulose.- 5.1 Lignocellulose Sample Preparation and Anhydrous HF Properties.- 5.2 Vapor-Phase HF Solvolysis Apparatus and Prool.- 5.3 Sugar Analysis.- 5.4 Sample Results for the Hardwood Populus grandidentata.- 5.5 Microscopy of the Residual Lignin Framework.- References.- Immunogold Localization of Specific Components of Plant Cell Walls.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Production of Polysaccharide-Specific Antibodies and Tests for Specificity of Antibodies.- 2.1 Preparation of Antibodies.- 2.2 Specificity of Anti-Cell-Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Antibodies for Cell-Wall Polymers.- 2.3 Specificity of Anti-Cell-Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Antibodies to Saccharides.- 3 Immunolabeling with the Anti-Cell-Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Antibodies.- 3.1 Preparation of Plant Tissues for Immunolabeling.- 3.2 On-Grid Immunolocalization with Anti-Cell-Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Antibodies.- 3.3 Results of Immunolabeling with Anti-Cell-Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Antibodies.- 3.4 Problems Encountered During Immunolabeling.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements in Plant Cellulose Analysis.- 1 Stable Isotopes.- 2 Isotope Ratios in Plants.- 3 Preparation of Samples for Combustion.- 3.1 Cellulose Extraction.- 3.2 Cellulose Nitration.- 4 Preparation of Gases for Isotopic Analysis.- 4.1 Hydrogen.- 4.2 Oxygen.- References.- Analysis of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes of Plant Cell Walls.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Isolation and Fractionation of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes from the Milled Wood Lignin Fraction.- 2.1 Isolation of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes from Milled Wood Lignin Fraction.- 2.1.1 Preparation of Extractive-Free and Depectinated Plant Meal.- 2.1.2 Extraction of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes from Milled Wood Lignin Fraction.- 2.1.3 Fractionation of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 2.1.4 Comments on Hydrophobic Chromatography.- 2.2 Isolation of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes from the Residual Plant Meal Previously Extracted with Aqueous 1,4-Dioxane.- 2.3 Purity and Molecular Weight Determination of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 3 Methods for Analyzing Constituent Units of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 3.1 Determination of Component Sugars.- 3.2 Determination of Configuration of Sugars.- 3.3 Structural Determination of Monomeric Units of Lignin.- 3.4 Methylation Analysis.- 3.5 Periodate Degradation Analysis.- 3.6 Determination of Esterified Components.- 3.7 Determination of Etherified Phenolic Acids.- 3.8 Spectroscopic Analysis.- 4 Linkage Analysis Between Lignin and Carbohydrates.- 4.1 Separation of LCC Fragments by Adsorption Chromatography.- 4.2 Linkage Analysis Between Lignin and Carbohydrates by Oxidative Cleavage.- 5 Linkage Analysis Between Phenolic Acids and Carbohydrates.- 5.1 Isolation of Oligosaccharides Containing Esterified Phenolic Acids.- 5.2 Structural Determination of Phenolic Acid-Containing Oligosaccharides.- 6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Fluorometric Measurement of Callose and Other 1,3-?-Glucans.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Nature and Function of Callose.- 1.2 Regulation of Callose Synthesis.- 1.3 Advantages and Limits of Fluorometric Callose Measurement.- 2 Procedures.- 2.1 Preparation of Plant Material.- 2.2 Callose Extraction and Assay.- 2.3 Instrumentation and Calibration.- 2.4 How to Optimize for New Problems.- 2.5 Callose Extraction with Dimethylsulfoxide.- 3 Application to Other l,3-?-Glucans.- References.- Measuring—-Glucan Deposition in Plant Cell Walls.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Chemical Analysis.- 2.1 Colorimetry.- 2.2 Chromatography.- 2.3 Methylation Analysis.- 3 Fragmentation Analysis.- 3.1 Mixed-Linkage Glucan.- 3.2 1,3-?-Glucan and Cellulose.- 3.3 Xyloglucan.- 4 Visualization.- 4.1 1,3-?-Glucan and Mixed-Linkage Glucan.- 4.2 Cellulose.- 4.3 Xyloglucan.- 4.3.1 Fluorescence-Labeled Lectins.- 4.3.2 Immuno-Gold Localization.- 5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Methods Used in the Chemistry of Lignin Biodegradation.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Degradation of Polymeric Lignin.- 2.1 Preparation of Polymeric Lignin.- 2.2 Analysis of Polymeric Lignin Degradation Products.- 2.3 Analysis of Low-Molecular-Weight Degradation Products.- 3 Degradation of Lignin-Substructure Model Compounds.- 3.1 Preparation of Lignin-Substructure Model Compounds.- 3.2 Analysis of Degradation Products.- References.- Measuring Lignin Degradation.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Lignin Preparations as Substrates for Lignin Degradation Studies.- 3 Methods for Measuring the Degradation of Lignin.- 3.1 Objective Evaluation of Lignin Degradation.- 3.2 Chemical Analysis.- 3.3 Spectroscopy.- 3.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography.- 3.5 Radioisotopic Methods.- 3.6 Microscopy and Related Techniques - Estimation of Lignin in Situ.- 3.7 Calorimetry.- References.- Methods for Studying the Plant Cytoskeleton.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Immunoblotting with Commercial Antibodies to Identify Isoforms of Actin and Tubulin Separated by Two-Dimensional Gel-Electrophoresis.- 2.1 Sample Preparation.- 2.2 Electrophoresis.- 2.3 Transfer.- 2.4 Immunostaining.- 2.5 Specificity.- 3 Immunofluorescence in Higher Plant Cells.- 4 Methods for Giant Algal Cells.- 4.1 Intracellular Perfusion for Reactivation, Localization and Selective Extraction of Cytoskeletal Structures.- 4.2 Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Using Immunofluorescence Screening.- 5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Analysis of Extensin Structure in Plant Cell Walls.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Isolation of Extensin Precursors.- 2.1 Elution of Precursors from Cell Walls.- 2.2 Carboxymethyl Cellulose Ion Exchange Chromatography.- 2.3 Gel Filtration Chromatography.- 3 Deglycosylation of Extensin.- 4 Visualization of Isolated Molecules.- 5 In Vitro Cross-Linking of Extensin Monomers.- 6 Quick-Freeze, Deep-Etch of Wall Assemblies.- 7 Immunolocalization of HRGPs.- 8 Conclusion.- References.- Methods for Analysis of Dietary Fibre.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Problems Associated with DF Analysis.- 2.1 Fresh and Processed Foods.- 2.2 Determination of the Monomeric Composition.- 2.3 Lignin.- 3 Isolation and Analysis of Milligram Quantities of DF: An Assessment of Different Methods.- 3.1 Observations on the Procedure of Theander and Co-workers and the Modification by Faulks and Timms.- 3.2 Observations on the Procedure of Englyst et al.- 3.3 Observations on the AOAC Method.- 3.4 Analysis of Sugars in DF Preparations.- 4 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Methods Used in the Investigation of Insoluble Dietary Fiber.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sample Pretreatment for Determination and Preparation.- 3 Analytical Methods for Determination.- 4 Sample Preparation for the Investigation.- 4.1 Detergent Method.- 4.2 Enzymatic Method.- 4.3 Large-Scale Preparation.- 5 Chemical and Physical Properties.- 5.1 Analysis of Sugar Components.- 5.2 Observations of the Surface.- 5.3 Measurement of Physical Properties.- 5.4 Determination of Adsorptive Properties.- 5.5 Conformation Analysis.- 6 Nutritional Properties of Dietary Fiber.- 7 Summary.- References.- Measurement of Lint Production in Cotton and Factors Affecting Yield.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Description of Growth Patterns.- 2.1 Vegetative Development.- 2.2 Reproductive Development.- 2.3 Earliness in Maturity Patterns.- 3 Determination of Yield and Yield Components.- 3.1 Hand Harvesting.- 3.2 Determination of Yield Components.- 3.3 Machine Harvesting.- 3.4 Sampling Technique for Fiber Quality Measurements.- 4 Analysis of Cotton Plant Growth.- 4.1 Collection of Primary Data.- 4.2 Growth Analysis Formulae.- 4.3 Nondestructive Methods for Assessing Reproductive Development.- 5 Resource Allocation.- 5.1 Lint Yield Determination.- 5.2 Growth Analysis Studies.- References.- Analysis of Carbohydrates Conferring Hardness on Seeds.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Cyhemical Localization.- 2.1 Light Microscopy.- 2.1.1 Cryostat Sectioning and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining.- 2.1.2 Specific Iodine-Staining of Xyloglucans.- 2.2 Electron Microscopy.- 3 Quantitative and Compositional Analysis.- 3.1 Galactomannan by Gravimetric and Compositional Analysis.- 3.2 Xyloglucan by Extraction and Purification.- 3.3 Lupin-Seed Cotyledonary Polysaccharides by Hydrolysis of Alcohol- Insoluble Residues.- 3.4 Enzymatic Analysis.- 4 Biosynthesis.- 4.1 Galactomannan Biosynthesis in Vitro.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- Methods Used in Monitoring and Controlling the Quality of Bread with Particular Reference to the Mechanical Dough Development Process.- 1 Introduction.- 2 MDD Bread Processes.- 2.1 Origins of MDD Processes.- 2.2 Operating Conditions for Batch MDD Processes.- 2.3 Commercial Practice in MDD Bakeries.- 3 Laboratory Evaluation and Testing for the MDD Process.- 3.1 Bread Properties.- 3.2 Ingredient Formulae for MDD Bread.- 3.3 Flour Properties.- 3.4 Performance Testing for MDD Processes.- References.- Analytical Methods for Gelation of Soybean Proteins.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Analysis of the Gelation Process and its Mechanism.- 2.1 Conformational Changes in Soybean Proteins.- 2.2 Association-Dissociation Behavior.- 3 Gel Analysis.- 3.1 Network Structure.- 3.2 Gel Extraction.- 3.3 Analytical Methods for Examining Rheological and Textural Properties of a Gel.- 4 Relationships Between Protein Structure and Gel Properties.- 4.1 Native Proteins.- 4.2 Artificial Proteins.- References.- Techniques of Solar Crop Dryers.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Drying Process.- 2.1 Drying Parameters.- 2.2 Effect of Parameters.- 3 Solar Drying Techniques.- 3.1 Direct-Mode Solar Dryers.- 3.2 Indirect-Mode Solar Dryers.- 4 Calculations for the Drying System.- 4.1 Wind Ventilation.- 4.2 Natural Convection.- 4.3 Forced Ventilation.- 4.4 Example: Calculation of Design Parameters.- 5 Conclusions.- References.
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