Plant Physiology / Edition 1

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Overview

This textbook offers plant physiology students a bold, comprehensive treatment of the subject. Plant physiology has experienced a surge of growth in recent years, as rapid progress in understanding the molecular basis of plant growth and development has revolutionized the study of plants.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...offers new and exciting material as well as novel approaches towards presenting the information to the readers." Plant Science Bulletin
"For lecturers who have been looking for a solid textbook which revolves around plant development, this textbook is excellent. I give it high marks compared to the other books already on the market." Phycology Newsletter
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540580164
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 1/23/1995
  • Edition description: 1995
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 629
  • Product dimensions: 10.00 (w) x 7.00 (h) x 1.44 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Setting the Aims in Physiology.- Concepts of Physiology.- Heterogeneity of Physiology.- Limitations of Reductionism.- Laws in Biology.- Universal Laws in Physiology.- System Theory.- Important Concepts.- Biochemistry and Physiology.- Further Reading.- 2 Theoretical Basis of Physiology.- Principles of Scientific Studies.- Reference Units.- The Principle of Causality in Physiology.- Single-Factor Analysis.- Multifactor Analysis.- The Problem of Complexity.- Formulation of Laws.- Characters and Variability.- Presentation of Data.- The Problem of Extrapolation.- Further Reading.- 3 The Cell as a Morphological System.- The Meristematic Plant Cell.- The Mature Plant Cell.- The Woody Plant Cell.- Further Reading.- 4 The Cell as an Energetic System.- The First Law of Thermodynamics.- The Second Law of Thermodynamics.- The Cell as an Open System, Dynamic Equilibrium.- Chemical Potential.- Chemical Potential of Water.- Concept of Water Potential in the Water Relations of Cells.- Chemical Potential of Ions.- Membrane Potential.- Energetics of Biochemical Reactions.- Phosphate Transfer and Phosphorylation Potential.- Redox Systems and Redox Potential.- Further Reading.- 5 The Cell as a Metabolic System.- Biological Catalysis.- Metabolic Compartmentation of the Cell.- Transport Mechanisms in Biomembranes.- ATP Synthesis by Energy-Transforming Biomembranes.- Uptake of Materials by the Cell.- Principles of Metabolic Regulation.- Further Reading.- 6 The Cell as a Dividing System.- Regulation of the Rate of Mitosis.- Determination of the Division Plane.- Cell Cycle and Cell Differentiation.- Further Reading.- 7 The Cell as a Polar System.- Significance of Cell Polarity.- Induction of Polarity by Light.- Induction of Polarity by Polarised Light.- Polarity and the Bioelectrical Field.- Polarity and Signalling Substances.- Further Reading.- 8 The Cell as a Growing System.- Biophysical Basis of Cell Growth.- Growth and Cell-Wall Structure.- Extension Growth of Multicellular Organs.- Regulation of Extension Growth.- Further Reading.- 9 The Cell as an Oscillatory System.- The Original Observation: Daily Leaf Movements of Bean Plants.- Further Selected Phenomena Illustrating Circadian Rhythms.- Selected Experiments to Analyse Endogenous Rhythms.- Endogenous Rhythm as a System Characteristic.- Further Reading.- 10 The Cell as a Gene-Physiological System.- Chromatin and Chromosomes.- RNA of the Cell.- Protein Synthesis.- Specific Inhibitors.- Folding and Assembly of Proteins.- Sorting Proteins.- Regulation of Gene Expression.- Further Reading.- 11 Intracellular Morphogenesis.- Intracellular Communication.- Morphogenesis of Mihondria.- Morphogenesis of Plastids.- Morphogenesis of Peroxisomes (Microbodies).- Further Reading.- 12 Photosynthesis as a Chloroplast Function.- Photosynthesis as Energy Conversion.- Energy Conversion in the Chloroplast.- Pigment Systems of Red and Blue-Green Algae.- Photosynthetic Electron Transport.- Protection Mechanisms Against Photo-Oxidative Destruction of the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- Mechanism of Photophosphorylation.- Biochemical Processes.- Anoxygenic Photosynthesis of Phototrophic Bacteria.- Further Reading.- 13 Respiratory Metabolism.- Catabolic Energy Production.- Respiratory Metabolism of Carbohydrates.- Photorespiration.- Mobilisation of Storage Material in Storage Tissues.- Regulation of Respiratory Gas Exchange.- Regulatory Interaction Between Synthesis and Breakdown of Carbohydrates.- Further Reading.- 14 The Leaf as a Photosynthetic System.- Measurement of the Rate of Photosynthesis.- Gross and Net Photosynthesis.- Limiting Factors of Net Photosynthesis.- Ability of Leaves to Adapt Photosynthetically.- Temperature Dependence of Net Photosynthesis.- Influence of Oxygen on Net Photosynthesis.- Regulation of CO2 Exchange by Stomata.- Further Reading.- 15 C4 Plants and CAM Plants.- C4 Syndrome.- C4 Dicarboxylate Cycle.- Ecological Aspects of the C4 Syndrome.- CAM, an Alternative to C4 Photosynthesis.- Isotope Discrimination During CO2 Fixation.- Further Reading.- 16 Metabolism of Water and Inorganic Ions.- Water.- Mineral Nutrition of Plants.- Essential Microelements.- Function of Nutrient Elements in Metabolism.- Salt Excretion in Halophytes.- Sequestration of Heavy Metals by Phyhelatin.- Further Reading.- 17 Ecological Cycles of Materials and Energy.- Carbon and Oxygen Cycles.- Nitrogen Cycle.- Energy Flux.- Further Reading.- 18 Biosynthetic Metabolism.- Primary and Secondary Metabolism.- Shikimate Pathway.- Biogenesis of Chlorophyll.- Further Reading.- 19 Physiology of Development.- Basic Aspects.- Growth.- Differentiation.- Pattern Formation and Morphogenesis.- Tumour Formation in Plants.- Morphogenesis of Acetabularia.- Further Reading.- 20 Physiology of Sexuality.- Five Case Studies of Gametogenesis and the Effects of Pheromones in Lower Plants.- Fertilisation in Flowering Plants.- Maternal and Paternal Inheritance.- Male Sterility.- Further Reading.- 21 Photomorphogenesis.- Action Spectra.- Pigments.- Phyhrome.- Mode of Action of Phyhrome in Photomorphogenesis.- Four Case Studies on the Effects of Phyhrome.- Cooperation Between Photosensors.- A Positive UV-B Effect: Synthesis of Flavone Glycosides in Cell Suspension Cultures.- Photomorphogenesis of Fungi.- Further Reading.- 22 Development of Chloroplasts.- Regulation of Chlorophyll Synthesis.- Formation of Holocomplexes.- Regulation of Matrix Enzymes.- The Plastid Factor.- Formation of the Apparatus of Nitrate Assimilation During the Development of Chloroplasts.- Further Reading.- 23 Physiology of Hormone Action.- Overview of the Structure and Function of Phytohormones.- Six Case Studies of the Physiology of Hormone Action.- Further Reading.- 24 Ripening and Germination of Reproductive and Distributive Organs.- Development of the Ripe Seed.- Germination of Ripened Seeds.- Regulation of Gene Expression During Embryo Development.- Regulation of Fruit Development by the Seed.- Bud Dormancy and Bud Germination.- Further Reading.- 25 Flower Formation and Photo- and Thermoperiodism.- Flower Induction and Morphogenesis.- Flower Formation and Florigen.- Photoperiodism.- Grafting Experiments and Florigen.- Flower Formation and Gibberellin.- Phyhrome and Photoperiodism.- Photoperiodism and Circadian Rhythm.- Photoperiodic Phenomena Independent of Flower Formation.- Significance of Photoperiodism.- Thermoperiodism.- Vernalisation.- Further Reading.- 26 Physiology of Senescence.- Monocarpic Plants.- Aging of Leaves in Perennial Plants.- Further Reading.- 27 Physiology of Regeneration and Transplantation.- Results from Organ Cultures.- A Technical Note: Tissue Cultures.- Proof of the Omnipotence of Specialised Cells.- Parasexual Hybridisation.- Wound Healing.- Cooperation of Several Factors During Regeneration.- Regeneration Experiments with Flower Formation.- Intracellular Regeneration.- Transplantation.- Chimaeras.- Further Reading.- 28 Effects of Ionising Radiation.- Exciting and Ionising Radiation.- Types of Ionising Radiation.- Process of Ionisation.- Some Thoughts on the Target Theory.- Effect of Ionising Radiation on Cell Components.- Repair of Radiation Damage in DNA.- Effect of Ionising Radiation on Higher Level Organisation in Cells.- Further Reading.- 29 Physiology of Xylem Transport.- The Transport Pathway from Perirhizal Zone into Root Vessels.- Root System and Root Hairs.- Two Plant Transport Systems.- Nitrogen in the Xylem Sap.- Transpiration and Ion Supply.- Water Balance.- Pathways.- Classical Experiments.- Transpiration.- Analogue Model for Water Transport in a Plant.- Distribution of Water Potential in a Tree.- Guttation and Root Pressure.- Further Reading.- 30 Physiology of Phloem Transport.- Basic Aspects.- Pathways.- Transport Molecules.- Mechanism of Sieve Tube Transport.- Further Reading.- 31 Physiology of Movement.- Free Movement of Plants Between Sites.- Phototropism.- Gravitropism.- Further Processes of Movement.- Further Reading.- 32 Physiology of Stress Resistance.- Water Stress.- Temperature Stress.- Light and UV Stress.- Biogenic Stress (Plant Diseases).- Further Reading.- 33 Physiology of Crop Production.- Basic Aspects.- Formation of Storage Material.- Production Factors.- Principles of Yield Production.- Optimum of a Production Factor: Nitrogen.- Suppression of Yield Antagonists: Herbicides.- Synthetic Growth Retardants.- Improvement of Hereditary Factors.- Gene Technology.- Case Study: Antibody Production in Plants.- Further Reading.- Appendix: Physical Quantities, Units, Conversion Factors and Constants.- References.

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