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The Planting Design Handbook
     

The Planting Design Handbook

by Nick Robinson
 

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ISBN-10: 0566090082

ISBN-13: 9780566090080

Pub. Date: 03/28/1992

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Limited

This handbook has been widely used as a text on landscape architecture since 1992. Taking into account new developments in planting design theory and practice and digital media, Robinson (U. of Gloucestershire), a landscape architect in Britain and New Zealand, updates his discussion with new photos, color plates, and drawings by Jia-Hua Wu (Zhejiang Academy of Fine

Overview

This handbook has been widely used as a text on landscape architecture since 1992. Taking into account new developments in planting design theory and practice and digital media, Robinson (U. of Gloucestershire), a landscape architect in Britain and New Zealand, updates his discussion with new photos, color plates, and drawings by Jia-Hua Wu (Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, Hangzhou, China). Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780566090080
Publisher:
Ashgate Publishing, Limited
Publication date:
03/28/1992
Pages:
200

Table of Contents

Figures xi

Plates xvii

Tables xxxv

Acknowledgements xxxvii

Preface to the Second Edition xxxix

Introduction xli

Part 1 Principles

1 Why Design? 3

Planting Design - an Expression of Function 4

Planting Design as Management of Natural Vegetation Processes 6

Planting Design for Aesthetic Pleasure 8

What is Successful Planting Design? 8

2 Plants as a Medium for Design 10

Plants as Living Materials 10

Environmental Factors 11

Cycles of Plant Growth and Development 12

Aftercare 13

The Landscape Designer's View of Plants 16

Plants as Spatial Elements 16

Plants as Ornament 19

Plant Selection 21

Functional and Aesthetic Considerations in Design 26

3 Spatial Characteristics of Plants 28

Spatial Functions of Plants in the Human Landscape 28

Ground-level Planting (Carpeting Plants) 28

Shrubs and Herbaceous Plants Below Knee Height (Low Planting) 30

Knee to Eye Level Planting (Medium Height Planting) 33

Planting Above Eye Level (Tall Shrub/Small Tree Planting) 33

Tree Planting 36

4 Creating Spaces with Plants 43

The Experience of Space 43

The Use of Spaces 44

The Elements of Spatial Composition 45

Enclosure 45

Degree of Enclosure 46

Permeability of Enclosure 48

Dynamics 49

Shape 51

Vertical Proportion 56

Slope 56

Focus 58

Symmetric Focus 58

Asymmetric Focus 60

Focus on the Boundary 60

External Focus 62

5 Composite Landscape 65

Spatial Organizations 66

Linear Organizations 67

Clustered Organizations 67

Contained Organizations 70

Hierarchy of Spaces 73

Hierarchy According to Function 73

Transitions 78

Transitions between Abutting Spaces 80

Transitions between Interlocking Spaces 80

Transitional Spaces 80

Entrance Zones 80

6 Visual Properties of Plants 84

Subjective and Objective Responses to Plants 84

The Analysis of Visual Characteristics 86

Form 86

Prostrate and Carpeting Forms 87

Hummock, Dome and Tussock Forms 88

Erect or Ascending Form 90

Arching Form 91

Palm Form 92

Succulents and Sculptural Form 92

Oval Upright Form 93

Conical Form 94

Fastigiate and Columnar Forms 94

Tabulate and Level Spreading Form 96

Open Irregular Form 96

Trained Form 97

Line and Pattern 98

Ascending Line 99

Pendulous Line 100

Horizontal Line 100

Diagonal Line 101

The Quality of Line 101

Texture 103

Fine Texture 103

Coarse Texture 104

Medium Texture 105

Colour 105

Hue 105

Value 106

Saturation 107

Colour Perception 107

Colour Effects 108

Visual Energy 109

Combining Plants 109

7 Principles of Visual Composition 110

Five Principles of Visual Composition 110

Harmony and Contrast 110

Balance 113

Emphasis and Accent 113

Sequence 117

Scafe 118

Movement and Viewing Angles 119

Unity and Diversity in Planting Design 121

Planting Ideas 121

Inspiration 129

8 Plant Assemblages 131

Plant Communities 131

Forest Structures 131

Two Principles 133

Designing with Canopy Layers 134

Some Typical Canopy Structures 135

Deciduous Cool Temperate Communities (Europe and North America) 136

Three-layer Canopy Structures 136

Two-layer Canopy Structures 140

Single-layer Canopy Structures 142

Evergreen Temperate Communities (New Zealand) 145

Emergent Trees/Tree Canopy I Sub-canopy I Shrub Layer/Herb Layer 145

Tree Canopy I Shrub and Sapling Layer/Herb Layer 145

Bush Canopy I (Shrub and Sapling Layer)/(Field Layer) 145

Low Tree Canopy I Shrub and Sapling Layer/Field Layer 147

Shrubland Communities 147

Herb-dominated Communities 147

Design Interpretation 148

Horticultural Factors in Plant Associations 149

Growth Requirements 150

Relative Competitiveness 150

Mode of Spread 151

Increase by Seed 151

Vegetative Increase 151

Habit 153

Longevity and Life Cycles 153

Plant Knowledge 154

Part 2 Process

9 A Method for Planting Design 159

Inception 160

Initial Contact With the Client 160

Brief 161

Understanding: Gathering and Organizing Information 162

Survey 162

The Landscape Assessment 165

Synthesis - Generating and Organizing Ideas 168

Planting Policies 168

Design Concept 168

Schematic Planting Design 170

Masterplan 170

Sketch Planting Proposals 170

Detailed Planting Design 180

Working Drawings 186

Specifications 193

Realization 193

Planting 193

Establishment 196

Management 197

Learning Through the Design Process 198

Part 3 Practice

10 Structure Planting 201

Introduction 201

Forest and Woodland 201

Designing Forest and Woodland 203

What Functions will the Forest or Woodland Perform? 203

What Canopy Structure is Ultimately Required? 203

What are the Soil and Climatic Conditions? 203

What Forest Species Already Grow Successfully Nearby? 204

How Will the Forest or Woodland be Perpetuated? 204

Planting Mixes 205

High Forest/High Canopy Woodland 206

Approaches 206

Layer Components 208

Nurse Crops 209

Developing a Planting Mix 210

Constituents of the Mix 211

Mix Proportions 214

Spacing and Setting Out 215

Subsidiary Mixes 222

Low Forest/Low Woodland 222

Shrub Thicket 226

Woodland Scrub 229

High Scrub 229

Edges 229

Tall Edge 233

Low Edge 234

Outlying Groups 234

Clumps and Copses 235

Woodland and Forest Belts 236

Hedges and Hedgerows 237

Hedges 238

Hedgerows 241

Urban and Garden Hedges 242

Perimeter Hedging 246

Avenues 247

Avenue Species 248

Setting Out and Spacing 250

Trained Trees and Vines 252

11 Ornamental Planting 254

General Planting Areas 254

Layout of Planting Areas 255

Planting Arrangement 257

Canopy Layers 257

Successional Growth 260

Composition and Scale 260

Accents 261

Accent Groups 263

Planting Patterns 264

Ecological Ornamental Planting 266

Plant Spacing 267

Setting Out 271

Raised Planting and Container Planting 272

Walls, Pergolas, Trellis and other Vine Supports 274

Ornamental Planting in Specialized Habitats 277

12 Conclusion 279

References and Further Reading 280

Index 284

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