Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics: Sustainable Design Methods for Architecture / Edition 1

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Overview

Discover sustainable methods for designing crucial building systems for architects.

This indispensable companion to Norbert Lechner's landmark volume Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects, Third Edition completes the author's mission to cover all topics in the field of sustainable environmental control. It provides knowledge appropriate for the level of complexity needed at the schematic design stage and presents the most up-to-date information available in a concise, logical, accessible manner and arrangement. Although sustainability deals with many issues, those concerning energy and efficiency are the most critical, making an additional goal of this book one of providing architects with the skills and knowledge needed to create buildings that use electricity and water efficiently. Guidelines and rules-of-thumb are provided to help designers make their buildings use less energy, less water, and less of everything else to achieve their primary objectives.

In addition, this book:

  • Addresses ways to reduce electricity usage through more efficient lighting systems and appliances and by incorporating automatic switches and control systems that turn off systems not in use.
  • Covers the design of well-planned effluent treatment systems that protect against potential health hazards while also becoming a valuable source of reclaimed water and fertilize.r
  • Provides coverage of fire protection and conveyance systems, including very efficient types of elevators and escalators and designs that encourage the use of stairs or ramps.

Complete with case studies that illustrate how these systems are incorporated into large-project plans, Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics is an indispensable resource for any architect involved in a sustainable design project.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118014752
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 11/29/2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 304
  • Sales rank: 1,432,593
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 0.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Norbert M. Lechner is Professor Emeritus in the College of Architecture, Design, and Construction at Auburn University and was a registered architect in the state of Alabama. His articles have appeared in Architectural Lighting and Solar Today. In addition to writing, he has lectured and held workshops in the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

1. Electricity – Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 History of Electricity 2

1.3 The Water Analogy 4

1.4 Ohm’s Law 6

1.5 Types of Electricity 6

1.6 Power Factor 9

1.7 Types of Circuits 11

1.8 Power Generators in Series and Parallel 15

1.9 Voltage Drop 16

1.10 Electrical Power 18

1.11 Electrical Energy 19

1.12 Paying for Electricity 20

1.13 Reduction in Maximum Demand 22

1.14 Transformers 23

1.15 Electricity and Safety 24

1.16 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) 26

1.17 Conclusion 26

Resources 26

2. Electrical Distribution in Buildings 27

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 A Brief Historical Perspective 28

2.3 Centralized Electrical Power 30

2.4 Decentralized and Private Sources of Electricity 31

2.5 Electrical Distribution in Small Buildings 32

2.6 Electrical Distribution in Large Buildings 36

2.7 Switches, Fuses, and Circuit Breakers 39

2.9 Conduits and Raceways 42

2.10 Office Landscapes 43

2.11 Electrical Safety Systems 47

2.12 Low-Voltage Circuits 50

2.13 Emergency Power 51

2.14 Communication and Building Control Wiring 53

2.15 Electrical Construction Drawings 56

2.16 Lighting Protection 56

2.17 Sustainability 58

2.18 Conclusion 59

Resources 59

3. Plumbing—Water Supply 61

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 Brief History of Water Supply 63

3.3 Sources of Drinking Water 64

3.4 Water Use 67

3.5 Private Water Supply 68

3.6 Rainwater Harvesting 71

3.7 Water Distribution in Buildings 79

3.8 Water Quality 85

3.9 Water Efficiency 85

3.10 Hot Water 88

3.11 Hot Water Conservation 97

3.12 Conclusion 103

Resources 103

4. Drainage 105

4.1 Introduction 106

4.2 Short History of Sanitary Drainage 106

4.3 Basic Principles of Drainage 114

4.4 Basic Concepts of Plumbing Fixtures 115

4.5 Drainage Piping 116

4.6 Water Closets and Alternatives 121

4.7 Composting Toilets 125

4.8 On-Site Septic Tank Systems 126

4.9 On-Site Aerobic Systems 128

4.10 Special and Innovative Treatment Systems 130

4.11 Constructed Wetlands 131

4.12 Biologic Machines 134

4.13 Graywater Systems 136

4.14 Alternative Community Sewage Systems 139

4.15 Stormwater 141

4.16 Special Drainage Systems 152

4.17 Case Study 153

4.18 Conclusions 155

Resources 155

5. Architectural Acoustics 157

5.1 Introduction 158

5.2 A Short History of Architectural Acoustics 159

5.3 The Physics of Sounds 161

5.4 The Biology of Sounds 170

5.5 Perception of Sound 175

5.6 Sound and Health 179

5.7 Sound-Absorbing Materials 180

5.8 Applications of Sound-Absorbing Materials 182

5.9 Sound Transmission 188

5.10 Design for Low Sound Transmission 189

5.11 Acceptable Noise Levels 194

5.12 Open-Plan Offices 196

5.13 Impact Noise 198

5.14 Mechanical Systems Noise Control 199

5.15 Theaters, Classrooms and Auditoriums 202

5.16 Rules for Drawing Ray Diagrams 205

5.17 Electronic Sound Systems 206

5.18 Noise Outdoors 206

5.19 Conclusions 210

Resources 211

6. Fire Protection 213

6.1 Introduction 214

6.2 A Short History of Fires in Buildings 216

6.3 Fire Principles 221

6.4 Fire Prevention 224

6.5 Passive Fire Protection 225

6.6 Detection 228

6.7 Alarms 229

6.8 Safe Egress 232

6.9 Fire Suppression 235

6.10 Non-Water Fire Suppression Systems 242

6.11 Smoke Control 243

6.12 Fire Codes 249

6.13 Elevators and Fires 250

6.14 Lightning Protection 250

6.15 Conclusion 251

7. Conveyance Systems in Buildings 253

7.1 Introduction 254

7.2 A Short History of the Elevator 254

7.3 Elevator Types 261

7.4 Elevator Design 265

7.5 Escalators 271

7.6 Moving Walkways and Ramps 275

7.7 Vertical Transport and Health 276

7.8 Special Lifts for People 280

7.9 Material Conveying Systems 282

7.10 Conclusion 284

Resources 284

Index 285 

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