Give students big writing help in a small package with POCKET KEYS FOR WRITERS. This indispensable pocket-style handbook covers the essentials of the writing process—taking students through the research process to the mechanics of writing and using punctuation to the evaluation and documentation of both print and electronic source materials. Concise, up-to-date, and practical, this edition is easier to use than ever before, with a new full-color design that helps students find the material they need when they need it. Renowned for her work in ESL instruction, author Ann Raimes provides useful "Language and Culture" boxes throughout the text as well as a dedicated ESL section covering issues of culture, varieties of English, and Standard Written English in relation to the vernacular. This edition has been updated to reflect guidelines from the 2009 MLA HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS, Seventh Edition.
PART ONE: WRITING IN COLLEGE. 1. Why Use a Handbook? 1a. The short answer. 1b. To write strong academic essays. 1c. To cite sources. 1d. To see why correctness matters. 1e. To find models of good papers. 2. Readers' Expectations. 2a. A clear purpose and audience. 2b. A conversation with sources and ideas. 2c. Revised and polished writing. 2d. A clear main idea.2e. Standard Written English. 3. Is Your Argument Convincing? 3a. Critical thinking. 3b. A debatable claim (thesis). 3c. Reasons and evidence. 3d. Areas of common ground. 3e. Visuals. Model paper 1: A student's argument essay. 4. Presentation Makes a Difference. 4a. In print. 4b. Online. 4c. Text (color, lists, headings). 4d. Photos and images. 4e. Data (tables, graphs, charts). 4f. Oral presentations, multimedia, e-portfolios. PART TWO: RESEARCH AND USING SOURCES. 5. Searching for Information. 5a. Source material and primary data. 5b. Print and online sources. 5c. Starting points. 5d. Keyword searching. 5e. Google. 5f. Online alerts. 6. Recognizing a Scholarly Article. 6a. Print articles. 6b. Online articles. 7. Evaluating Sources. 7a. Print sources. 7b. Online sources. 7c. Basic information on Web sites. PART THREE: WRITING WITHOUT PLAGIARIZING. 8. Avoiding Cheating. 8a. Seven types of plagiarism. 8b. Why, how, and what to cite. 8c. Boundaries of a source citation. 8d. Keeping track of sources. 8e. Bibliographic software. 9. Using Source Material. 9a. Organization with ideas, not sources. 9b. The issue of I .9c. Summarizing and paraphrasing. 9d. Quoting. 9e. Integrating source citations. PART FOUR: DOCUMENTING RESEARCH PAPERS. 10. MLA Style. At a Glance: Index of MLA Style.10a. Basic features. 10b. Citing sources. 10c. MLA list of works cited. 10d. Print books (Source Shot 1). 10e. Print articles (Source Shot 2). 10f. Online databases (Source Shot 3). 10g. Web sources. 10h. Visual, performance, multimedia, miscellaneous sources. Model paper 2: A student's research paper, MLA style. 11. APA Style. At a Glance: Index of APA Style. 11a. Basic features. 11b. Citing sources. 11c. List of references. 11d. Print books and parts of books. 11e. Print articles (Source Shot 4). 11f. Online sources (Source Shot 5).11g.Visual, multimedia, miscellaneous sources. Model paper 3: A student's research paper, APA style. 12. Chicago Style. At a Glance: Index of Chicago Style. 12a. Basic features. 12b. Citing sources. 12c. Endnotes and footnotes. 12d. Print books. 12e. Print articles. 12f. Online sources. 12g. Visual, multimedia, miscellaneous sources. 12h. Sample bibliography. Model paper 4: Samples from a student's research paper, Chicago style. 13. CSE Style. At a Glance: Index of CSE Style Features. 13a. Basic features. 13b. Citing sources. 13c. List of references. 13d. Print books. 13e. Print articles. 13f. Online, multimedia, miscellaneous sources. Model paper 5: Samples from a student's research paper, CSE style. PART FIVE: THE FIVE C'S OF STYLE. 14.Cut. 14a.Wordiness.14b.Formulaic phrases.14c.References to your intentions. 15.Check for Action ("Who's Doing What?"). 15a."Who's doing what?"15b.Sentences beginning with there or it.15c.Unnecessary passive voice. 16.Connect. 16a.Consistent subjects.16b.Transitional words.16c.Variety in connecting ideas. 17.Commit. 17a.Confident stance.17b.Consistent tone. 18. Choose Words Carefully. 18a. Vivid and specific words. 18b. Slang, regionalisms, and jargon. 18c. Biased and exclusionary language. PART SIX: COMMON SENTENCE PROBLEMS. 19. FAQs about Sentences. 20. Sentence Fragments. 20a. What a sentence needs. 20b. Turning fragments into sentences. 20c. Beginning with and, but, or or. 20d. Intentional fragments. 21. Run-ons or Comma Splices. 21a. Identifying. 21b. Correcting. 22. Sentence Snarls. 22a. Mixed constructions, faulty comparisons, convoluted syntax .22b. Misplaced modifiers. 22c. Dangling modifiers. 22d. Shifts. 22e. Logical sequence after the subject. 22f .Parallel structures. 22g. Is when and the reason is because. 22h. Necessary and unnecessary words. 23. Using Verbs Correctly. 23a. Verbs in Standard Written English. 23b. Auxiliary verbs. 23c. Verbs commonly confused. 23d. Verb tenses. 23e. -ed forms (past tense, past participle). 23f. Conditional sentences, wishes, requests, demands, recommendations. 23g. Active and passive voices. 24. Subject-Verb Agreement. 24a. Basic principles. 24b. Words between subject and verb. 24c. Subject following the verb. 24d. Eight tricky subjects. 24e. Collective nouns (family, etc.). 24f. Compound subjects (and, or, nor). 24g. Indefinite pronouns (anyone, etc.). 24h. Expressing quantity (much, etc.).24i. Relative clauses (who, which, that ). 25. Pronouns (I/me, who/whom, etc.). 25a. Which to use (I/me, he/him, etc.). 25b. Specific antecedent .25c. Agreeing with antecedents. 25d. Using you. 25e Relative pronouns (who, whom, which, that ). 26. Adjectives and Adverbs (good/well, etc.). 26a. Forms. 26b. When to use. 26c. Hyphenated (compound) adjectives. 26d. Double negatives. 26e. Comparatives and superlatives. PART SEVEN: PUNCTUATION AND MECHANICS. 27. Punctuation Shows Intent. 28. Commas. 29. Apostrophes. 30. Quotation Marks. 31. Other Punctuation Marks. 32. Italics and Underlining. 33. Capitals, Abbreviations, and Numbers. 34. Hyphens. 35. Online Guidelines. PART EIGHT: WRITING ACROSS LANGUAGES AND CULTURES. 36. Standard Written English. 36a. Cultures and Englishes. 36b. Spoken varieties and Standard Written English. 37. Nouns and Articles (a, an, the). 37a. Types of nouns. 37b. Basic rules. 37c. The for specific reference. 37d. Four questions to ask about articles. 38. Infinitive, -ing, and -ed Forms. 38a. Verb + infinitive. 38b. Verb + -ing. 38c. Preposition + -ing. 38d. Verb + infinitive or -ing. 38e. -ing or -ed adjectives. 39. Sentence Structure and Word Order. 39a. Basic rules. 39b. Direct and indirect objects. 39c. Direct and indirect questions. 39d. Although and because clauses. PART NINE: WORDS TO WATCH FOR. 40. Glossary of Usage. Index. Editing Marks.