Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins

Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins

by Thomas Acamovic, Colin S Stewart, Tom W Pennycott

ISBN-10: 0851996140

ISBN-13: 9780851996141

Pub. Date: 11/01/2003

Publisher: CAB International North America

This book presents refereed and edited papers from the 6th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Scotland in August 2001. It covers a range of topics from plant biochemistry to toxic effects in animals (particularly grazing farmed animals) and humans. The contents include the evolution of antinutrients and toxins in plants, biomedical applications of

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This book presents refereed and edited papers from the 6th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Scotland in August 2001. It covers a range of topics from plant biochemistry to toxic effects in animals (particularly grazing farmed animals) and humans. The contents include the evolution of antinutrients and toxins in plants, biomedical applications of toxins in plants, isolation, identification and effects of plant and fungal toxins and the effect of plant toxins on aversion to plants in animal diets.

Product Details

CAB International North America
Publication date:
Cabi Publishing Series
Product dimensions:
6.75(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.70(d)

Table of Contents

1Evolution of Toxins and Anti-nutritional Factors in Plants with Special Emphasis on Leguminosae1
2Lack of Apparent Base Sequence Preference of Activated Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Cross-links with DNA26
3Correlation of an Endophytic Fungus (alternaria spp.) with the Presence of Swainsonine in Lambert Locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii)32
4Delphinium Alkaloid Toxicosis in Cattle from Switzerland38
5Toxicity of a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Riddelline, in Neonatal Pigs44
6Bacteria and Corynetoxin-like Toxins in Nematode Seed-galls in Festuca nigrescens from North America and New Zealand50
7Preliminary In Vitro Studies of Cistus salvifolius Leaves in Relation to Metabolic Disorders in Sheep56
8Fusarochromanone and Wortmannin: Novel Fusarium Toxins63
9Improved Methods for the Extraction and Purification of Corynetoxins for Preparative or Analytical Purposes using Water Solubilizing Additives70
10Nephrotic Syndrome in Cattle Caused by the Shrub Nolletia gariepina in the Kalahari Sandveld of Southern Africa76
11The Concentration of Steroidal Sapogenins in and the Degree of Fungal Infection on Narthecium ossifragum Plants in More and Romsdal County, Norway79
12Calcinosis in ruminants due to Plant Poisoning: Contributions on the Pathogenesis84
13Evaluation of Ipomoea carnea Toxicity to Growing Goats: Clinical, Biochemical, Haematological and Pathological Alterations90
14Chemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Macrocyclic Diterpenoids Isolated from Euphorbia Species96
15Disposition of Swainsonine in Sheep Following Acute Oral Exposure102
16Stimulating Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Lipid Peroxidation in the In Vitro Model Systems108
17An Indirect Competitive ELISA for Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids of Heliotropium europaeum114
18Victor King Chesnut (1867-1938), a Poisonous Plant Pioneer120
19Phomopsin Intoxication of the Rat Causes Prodigious Loss of Bodyweight and Liver Weight123
20The Role of Condensed Tannins on the Rumen Degradation of Lotus pedunculatus128
21Cyclopiazonic Acid: Food Chain Contaminant?134
22Calystegines Isolated from Ipomoea spp. Possibly Associated with an Ataxia Syndrome in Cattle in North Western Australia140
23Spectrofluorometric Analysis of Phylloerythrin in Plasma and Skin from Sheep Suffering from Hepatogenous Photosensitization146
24Plants Toxic for Domestic Animals in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil151
25Occurrence of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Seeds and Seedlings of Idiospermum australiense, a Primitive Rainforest Angiosperm from Tropical Australia157
26Photosensitization in Cattle in Southern Brazil162
27Transformed Root Cultures of Solanum dulcamara and Production of Secondary Metabolites167
28Antibacterial Properties of Phytochemicals in Aromatic Plants in Poultry Diets175
29Microbial Metabolism of Tannins181
30Modulation of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin Activity on Vero Cells by the Use of the Secondary Plant Compound Swainsonine198
31The Identification of Corynetoxin-like Tunicaminyluracil-glycolipids form Nematode Galls in Festuca nigrescens from North America and New Zealand204
32The Metabolism of Saponins from Yucca schidigera in Sheep210
33Ecological, Physical and Behavioural Interactions between Marsupial Folivores and Eucalyptus Antifeedants215
34PCR Amplification for Detection of Synergistes jonesii, the Ruminal Bacterium that Degrades the Toxins of Leucaena leucocephala223
35Bracken Fern (genus Pteridium) Toxicity - Global Problem227
36Histochemical Studies of Bracken Fern: Localization of Phenolic and Tannin Defences in Bracken Accessions along an Altitudinal Gradient in the Neotropics241
37Chronic Toxicity in Cattle due to Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) in Tarija Department, Bolivia: an Interdisciplinary Investigation248
38Ptaquiloside in Bracken and in Topsoil in 20 Danish Bracken Populations253
39Pathological Aspects of Cyanobacterial Toxicity262
40Effect of Senna occidentalis Seed in Laying Hens: Evaluation of the Toxicity and Egg Production269
41Intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in Ruminants and Equidae in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil275
42Pathology of Experimental Stemodia kingii Intoxication in the Mouse280
43A Procedure for the Estimation of the Daily Intake of Saponins from Pasture by Sheep286
44Exposure of Native Australian Parrots to Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids292
45Poisonous Sedges: the Galegine Content of Schoenus rigens at Various Growth Stages298
46Lupin Non-starch Polysaccharides and their Effects on Chickens304
47Lectin Histochemical Study of Lipopigments Present in the Cerebellum of Solanum fastigiatum var. fastigiatum Intoxicated Cattle310
48Ipomoea carnea Induced Enhanced Macrophage Activity (Phagocytosis and Peroxide Production) in Immunocompetent Rats316
49Advanced Multidimensional NMR Experiments as Tools for Structure Determination of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids322
50Characterization of Steroidal Sapogenins in Panicum virgatum L. (Switchgrass)329
51Common Natural and Experimental Plant Intoxications in Animals Reported in Cuba335
52Intoxication by Prosopis juliflora Pods (Mesquite Beans) in Cattle and Goats in Northeastern Brazil341
53Screening Poisonous Plant Toxins for Cytotoxicity Using Bovine Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization Techniques347
54Growth of Bracken in Denmark and the Content of Ptaquiloside in Fronds, Rhizomes and Roots354
55Poisonous Plant Research: Biomedical Applications361
56Essential Amino Acids and Antimetabolites in the Seed Kernel of an Unconventional Legume, Gila Bean (Entada phaseoloides Merrill)377
57The Detection and Estimation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Plants and Feeds using an ELISA387
58Monocrotaline Pyrrole Protein Targets in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells394
59Analysis of Corynetoxins: a Comparative Study of an Indirect Competitive ELISA and HPLC402
60Pavetamine: an Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis in the Heart408
61Effects of the Mycotoxins Lolitrem B and Paxilline on Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle, cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems and Temperature in Sheep412
62Conditioned Feed Aversion as a Means of Preventing Sheep from Grazing Vermeerbos (Geigeria ornativa)421
63Prenatal Toxicity of Cyanide in Goats - a Model for Teratological Studies in Ruminants425
64The Chemical and Morphological Changes of Intermittent Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) Poisoning in Sheep431
65Biological Control of the Toxic Shrub Juniper436
66The Effect of Quail of Feed Contaminated with the Mycotoxin Aurofusarin443
67Effect of Tunicamycins on GlcNAc-1-P Transferase Activity in Rat Tissues and Toxic Effects during Pregnancy and Lactation448
68Experiences with the Quantitative Trace Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids using GCMS and LCMS453
69Perinatal Study of Senna occidentalis Intoxication in Rabbits459
70Fetal Effects of Maternal Ingestion of Solanum malacoxylon: Evaluation in Rats465
71A Survey of Venezuelan Plants Toxic to Livestock and their Potential as Anti-insect Materials471
72Dietary Butylated Hydroxytoluene Protects Against Aflatoxicosis in Turkeys478
73Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crops484
74Intoxication by Ramaria flavo-brunnescens in Domestic Animals488
75Natural Antioxidants and Mycotoxins: Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications494
76Rumex obtusifolius: Its Costs and the Benefits of Control504
77Effect of Varying Trypsin Inhibitor Activity of Full Fat Soya on Nutritional Value for Broiler Chicks512
78The Bioactivity-guided Isolation and Structural Identification of Two Novel Toxic Steroidal Glucosides, Stemodiosides B3 and B4 from Stemodia kingii520
79The Effect of Pattern of Feeding on the Development of Food Preferences in Goats in Response to Positive and Negative Postingestive Consequences526
80Conditioned Feed Aversion as a Means of Preventing Intake of Yellow-tulp (Homeria pallida) by Livestock531
81Plant-associated Diseases, Either New or New to the State, Encountered Over the Last Decade (1991-2001) in Western Australia540
82Steroidal Sapogenins and Saponins in Narthecium ossifragum from Scotland548
83Transfer of Cyanide and its Main Metabolite Thiocyanate in Milk: Study of Cyanogenic Plants Ingestion during Lactation in Goats552
84The Effect of Feeding Broilers Tall Fescue Grass (Festuca arundinacea) Seeds Containing the Endophyte Toxin Ergovaline on Ascites Syndrome Morbidity558
85Bovine Enzootic Haematuria on Sao Miguel Island - Azores564
86Toxicophenology and Grazing Risk Models of Tall Larkspur575

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