Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins

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This book presents refereed and edited papers from the 6th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Scotland in August 2001. It covers a range of topics from plant biochemistry to toxic effects in animals (particularly grazing farmed animals) and humans. The contents include the evolution of antinutrients and toxins in plants, biomedical applications of toxins in plants, isolation, identification and effects of plant and fungal toxins and the effect of plant toxins on aversion to plants in animal diets.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780851996141
  • Publisher: CAB International North America
  • Publication date: 11/1/2003
  • Series: Cabi Publishing Series
  • Pages: 608
  • Product dimensions: 6.25 (w) x 6.40 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Evolution of Toxins and Anti-nutritional Factors in Plants with Special Emphasis on Leguminosae 1
2 Lack of Apparent Base Sequence Preference of Activated Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Cross-links with DNA 26
3 Correlation of an Endophytic Fungus (alternaria spp.) with the Presence of Swainsonine in Lambert Locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii) 32
4 Delphinium Alkaloid Toxicosis in Cattle from Switzerland 38
5 Toxicity of a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Riddelline, in Neonatal Pigs 44
6 Bacteria and Corynetoxin-like Toxins in Nematode Seed-galls in Festuca nigrescens from North America and New Zealand 50
7 Preliminary In Vitro Studies of Cistus salvifolius Leaves in Relation to Metabolic Disorders in Sheep 56
8 Fusarochromanone and Wortmannin: Novel Fusarium Toxins 63
9 Improved Methods for the Extraction and Purification of Corynetoxins for Preparative or Analytical Purposes using Water Solubilizing Additives 70
10 Nephrotic Syndrome in Cattle Caused by the Shrub Nolletia gariepina in the Kalahari Sandveld of Southern Africa 76
11 The Concentration of Steroidal Sapogenins in and the Degree of Fungal Infection on Narthecium ossifragum Plants in More and Romsdal County, Norway 79
12 Calcinosis in ruminants due to Plant Poisoning: Contributions on the Pathogenesis 84
13 Evaluation of Ipomoea carnea Toxicity to Growing Goats: Clinical, Biochemical, Haematological and Pathological Alterations 90
14 Chemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Macrocyclic Diterpenoids Isolated from Euphorbia Species 96
15 Disposition of Swainsonine in Sheep Following Acute Oral Exposure 102
16 Stimulating Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Lipid Peroxidation in the In Vitro Model Systems 108
17 An Indirect Competitive ELISA for Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids of Heliotropium europaeum 114
18 Victor King Chesnut (1867-1938), a Poisonous Plant Pioneer 120
19 Phomopsin Intoxication of the Rat Causes Prodigious Loss of Bodyweight and Liver Weight 123
20 The Role of Condensed Tannins on the Rumen Degradation of Lotus pedunculatus 128
21 Cyclopiazonic Acid: Food Chain Contaminant? 134
22 Calystegines Isolated from Ipomoea spp. Possibly Associated with an Ataxia Syndrome in Cattle in North Western Australia 140
23 Spectrofluorometric Analysis of Phylloerythrin in Plasma and Skin from Sheep Suffering from Hepatogenous Photosensitization 146
24 Plants Toxic for Domestic Animals in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil 151
25 Occurrence of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Seeds and Seedlings of Idiospermum australiense, a Primitive Rainforest Angiosperm from Tropical Australia 157
26 Photosensitization in Cattle in Southern Brazil 162
27 Transformed Root Cultures of Solanum dulcamara and Production of Secondary Metabolites 167
28 Antibacterial Properties of Phytochemicals in Aromatic Plants in Poultry Diets 175
29 Microbial Metabolism of Tannins 181
30 Modulation of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin Activity on Vero Cells by the Use of the Secondary Plant Compound Swainsonine 198
31 The Identification of Corynetoxin-like Tunicaminyluracil-glycolipids form Nematode Galls in Festuca nigrescens from North America and New Zealand 204
32 The Metabolism of Saponins from Yucca schidigera in Sheep 210
33 Ecological, Physical and Behavioural Interactions between Marsupial Folivores and Eucalyptus Antifeedants 215
34 PCR Amplification for Detection of Synergistes jonesii, the Ruminal Bacterium that Degrades the Toxins of Leucaena leucocephala 223
35 Bracken Fern (genus Pteridium) Toxicity - Global Problem 227
36 Histochemical Studies of Bracken Fern: Localization of Phenolic and Tannin Defences in Bracken Accessions along an Altitudinal Gradient in the Neotropics 241
37 Chronic Toxicity in Cattle due to Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) in Tarija Department, Bolivia: an Interdisciplinary Investigation 248
38 Ptaquiloside in Bracken and in Topsoil in 20 Danish Bracken Populations 253
39 Pathological Aspects of Cyanobacterial Toxicity 262
40 Effect of Senna occidentalis Seed in Laying Hens: Evaluation of the Toxicity and Egg Production 269
41 Intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in Ruminants and Equidae in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil 275
42 Pathology of Experimental Stemodia kingii Intoxication in the Mouse 280
43 A Procedure for the Estimation of the Daily Intake of Saponins from Pasture by Sheep 286
44 Exposure of Native Australian Parrots to Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids 292
45 Poisonous Sedges: the Galegine Content of Schoenus rigens at Various Growth Stages 298
46 Lupin Non-starch Polysaccharides and their Effects on Chickens 304
47 Lectin Histochemical Study of Lipopigments Present in the Cerebellum of Solanum fastigiatum var. fastigiatum Intoxicated Cattle 310
48 Ipomoea carnea Induced Enhanced Macrophage Activity (Phagocytosis and Peroxide Production) in Immunocompetent Rats 316
49 Advanced Multidimensional NMR Experiments as Tools for Structure Determination of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids 322
50 Characterization of Steroidal Sapogenins in Panicum virgatum L. (Switchgrass) 329
51 Common Natural and Experimental Plant Intoxications in Animals Reported in Cuba 335
52 Intoxication by Prosopis juliflora Pods (Mesquite Beans) in Cattle and Goats in Northeastern Brazil 341
53 Screening Poisonous Plant Toxins for Cytotoxicity Using Bovine Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization Techniques 347
54 Growth of Bracken in Denmark and the Content of Ptaquiloside in Fronds, Rhizomes and Roots 354
55 Poisonous Plant Research: Biomedical Applications 361
56 Essential Amino Acids and Antimetabolites in the Seed Kernel of an Unconventional Legume, Gila Bean (Entada phaseoloides Merrill) 377
57 The Detection and Estimation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Plants and Feeds using an ELISA 387
58 Monocrotaline Pyrrole Protein Targets in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells 394
59 Analysis of Corynetoxins: a Comparative Study of an Indirect Competitive ELISA and HPLC 402
60 Pavetamine: an Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis in the Heart 408
61 Effects of the Mycotoxins Lolitrem B and Paxilline on Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle, cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems and Temperature in Sheep 412
62 Conditioned Feed Aversion as a Means of Preventing Sheep from Grazing Vermeerbos (Geigeria ornativa) 421
63 Prenatal Toxicity of Cyanide in Goats - a Model for Teratological Studies in Ruminants 425
64 The Chemical and Morphological Changes of Intermittent Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) Poisoning in Sheep 431
65 Biological Control of the Toxic Shrub Juniper 436
66 The Effect of Quail of Feed Contaminated with the Mycotoxin Aurofusarin 443
67 Effect of Tunicamycins on GlcNAc-1-P Transferase Activity in Rat Tissues and Toxic Effects during Pregnancy and Lactation 448
68 Experiences with the Quantitative Trace Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids using GCMS and LCMS 453
69 Perinatal Study of Senna occidentalis Intoxication in Rabbits 459
70 Fetal Effects of Maternal Ingestion of Solanum malacoxylon: Evaluation in Rats 465
71 A Survey of Venezuelan Plants Toxic to Livestock and their Potential as Anti-insect Materials 471
72 Dietary Butylated Hydroxytoluene Protects Against Aflatoxicosis in Turkeys 478
73 Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crops 484
74 Intoxication by Ramaria flavo-brunnescens in Domestic Animals 488
75 Natural Antioxidants and Mycotoxins: Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications 494
76 Rumex obtusifolius: Its Costs and the Benefits of Control 504
77 Effect of Varying Trypsin Inhibitor Activity of Full Fat Soya on Nutritional Value for Broiler Chicks 512
78 The Bioactivity-guided Isolation and Structural Identification of Two Novel Toxic Steroidal Glucosides, Stemodiosides B3 and B4 from Stemodia kingii 520
79 The Effect of Pattern of Feeding on the Development of Food Preferences in Goats in Response to Positive and Negative Postingestive Consequences 526
80 Conditioned Feed Aversion as a Means of Preventing Intake of Yellow-tulp (Homeria pallida) by Livestock 531
81 Plant-associated Diseases, Either New or New to the State, Encountered Over the Last Decade (1991-2001) in Western Australia 540
82 Steroidal Sapogenins and Saponins in Narthecium ossifragum from Scotland 548
83 Transfer of Cyanide and its Main Metabolite Thiocyanate in Milk: Study of Cyanogenic Plants Ingestion during Lactation in Goats 552
84 The Effect of Feeding Broilers Tall Fescue Grass (Festuca arundinacea) Seeds Containing the Endophyte Toxin Ergovaline on Ascites Syndrome Morbidity 558
85 Bovine Enzootic Haematuria on Sao Miguel Island - Azores 564
86 Toxicophenology and Grazing Risk Models of Tall Larkspur 575
Index 582
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