Police & Society / Edition 5

Police & Society / Edition 5

by Roy Roberg, Kenneth Novak, Gary Cordner, Brad Smith

ISBN-10: 0199772568

ISBN-13: 9780199772568

Pub. Date: 02/11/2011

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Police & Society offers an in-depth and analytical look at the process of policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive…  See more details below


Police & Society offers an in-depth and analytical look at the process of policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing and show how that research is put into practice. Now in its sixth edition, this unique text incorporates expanded coverage of police technology, homeland security, privacy and surveillance, immigration, and evidence-based practices and includes the most current scholarship. A new companion website (www.oup.com/us/roberg) features an online student study guide, animated flashcards, and self-quizzes.

Product Details

Oxford University Press
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
7.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a summary
About the Authors
1. Police in a Democracy
Policing a Free Society
Police and Government
Police and Rule of Law
Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Police Systems
The U.S. Police System
Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies
Similarities and Differences
Police Role and Purpose
Law Enforcement or Politics?
Crime Fighting or Social Service?
Proactive or Reactive?
Police Activities and Workload
Police Goals and Strategies
Looking Ahead
2. Police History
Foundations of Policing
Early Policing
Policing in Nineteenth-Century England
The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States
The First City Police Forces
The County Sheriff
Vigilance Committees
Modern American Policing
The Political Era
Police Development
Criticism in the Political Era
The Reform Era
Minority Perspectives on the Development of American Police
State Police
Texas and Massachusetts
Highway Patrol
Federal Law Enforcement
The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service
Postal Inspectors
The Secret Service
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
3. Legal Issues
Criminal Procedure
Searches and Seizures of Persons
Searches and Seizures of Property
Interrogations and Confessions
Civil Liability
Costs of Liability in Policing
Avenues of Liability
Civil Liability in State Courts
Civil Liability in Federal Courts
Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century
Use of Force
Impact on Officers
4. Police Strategies
Evolving Strategies of Policing
Landmark Studies of Police Effectiveness
Patrol Studies
Response Time Studies
Criminal Investigation Studies
Strategic Developments
Improving Crime-Control Effectiveness
Improving Police-Community Relations
Improving Professionalism
Developing Evidence-Based Practices
Strategic Alternatives
Community Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing
Intelligence-Led Policing
Predictive Policing
What Works in Policing
5. Police Management
The Managerial Process
The Development of Police Management
Classical Police Management
Behavioral Police Management
Contemporary Police Management
Organizational Design
Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design
Increasing Influence of Police Paramilitary Units
Broken-Windows and Zero-Tolerance Policing
Compstat Process
Police Legitimacy and Procedural Justice
Police Goals and Organizational Performance
Supervisory Styles and Officer Behavior
Measuring Police Performance
Changing Performance Measures
Managing Group Behavior
Police Subcultures
Employee Organizations
Police Unions
Media Relations
6. Organizational Change
The Change Process
Resistance to Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
The Madison Experience
Laying the Foundation
Key Elements to Change
Results from Madison
The Chicago Experience
Laying the Foundation
Key Elements to Change
Results from Chicago
Lessons Learned from Madison and Chicago
A Final Lesson: Surviving Leadership Change
Changing Officer Performance Measures
Compstat as a Change Process
Learning Organizations and R&D
Police-Researcher Partnerships
Utilizing Middle Managers
7. Selection and Development
Recruitment Methods
Targeting Females and Minorities
Targeting the Service Oriented Selection
Preemployment Standards
General Suitability
Preemployment Testing
Recruit Screening Methods
Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
Recruit Training
Program Orientation
Philosophy and Instructional Methods
Curriculum Development and Content
Curriculum Updates
Effectiveness of Recruit Training
Field Training
FTO Program
PTO Program
Career Growth
8. Field Operations
The Patrol Function
Historical Development
Patrol Methods
Use of Patrol Resources
Focused Interventions
Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns
Guns and Gang Violence
Focused Deterrence Initiatives
Policing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing Focused on Disorder
Reactive Arrests and Intimate Partner Violence
Dual Arrest
Police Pursuits
The Investigative Function
Historical Development
Selected Research on Investigative Operations
Advances in Physical Evidence: AFIS and DNA Career Criminal Programs
Bias Crime Programs
Detective-Patrol Relationships
Enticement and Entrapment
9. Behavior and Misconduct
Perspectives of Police Behavior
Universalistic Perspectives
Particularistic Perspectives
Socialization Versus Predisposition
Early Examinations of Police Behavior
Decision Making and Police Discretion
Organizational Variables
Neighborhood Variables
Situational Variables
Individual (Officer) Variables
Career Orientation
Police Deviance
Types of Deviance and Misconduct
The Prevalence of Police Deviance
Deviant Officers
The Persistence of Corruption
Are Gratuities a Type of Misconduct?
Police Sexual Misconduct
The Drug War and Police Deviance
10. Force and Coercion
Police-Citizen Interactions
Context of Force
National Estimates on Police Use of Force
Learning to Use Force
Areas of Training
Police Culture and the Use of Force
Controversy and the Use of Force
Inappropriate Force
Brutality and Excessive Force
Physical and Psychological Force in Police History
Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality
Brutality in the Twenty-First Century
Deadly Force
Individual and Situational Factors
Environmental and Departmental Variations
Racial Considerations
Legal and Policy Changes
11. Accountability and Ethics
Internal Accountability Mechanisms
Bureaucratic Organization and Management
Internal Investigation
Issues in Internal Investigations
Early Warning/Early Identification Systems
Effectiveness of Internal Investigations
External Accountability Mechanisms
Civilian Review
Police Auditor Systems
The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms
Professional Standards
The Police Professionalization Movement
Criteria of Police Professionalization
Ethical Standards
Ethical Perspectives
Ethical Dilemmas
The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards
12. Diversity
Racial Minorities in Policing
Unequal Treatment
Performance of African American Police
Women in Policing
Unequal Treatment
Performance of Women Officers
Affirmative Action
Equal Employment Opportunity
Reverse Discrimination
Increasing Diversity in Police Departments
Promotional Opportunities
Integration of Minorities and Women into Policing
Police Culture
Structural Characteristics
Pregnancy and Maternity
Sexual Harassment
Future Prospects
13. Stress and Officer Safety
The Concept of Stress
Occupational Stress
Overview of Stressors
Police Stressors
Emerging Sources of Stress
Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Shift Work
Social Supports and Police Stress
Consequences of Stress
Alcohol Abuse
Drug Abuse
Marital and Family Problems
Policies and Programs
Officer Safety
Danger and Police Work
Safety and the Mentally Ill
Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities
14. Higher Education
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police
Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education
Quality of Higher Education Programs
Higher Education Requirements for Police
The Impact of Higher Education on Policing
Higher Education and Attitudes
Higher Education and Performance
Higher Education and Use of Force
Higher Education and Promotion
Higher Education and Job Satisfaction
Higher Education and Terrorism
Higher Education and Chief 's Scholar Program
Validating Higher Education for Police
Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
Higher Education and Discrimination
Higher Education Incentive Programs
Higher Education Requirements and Policy Implications
15. Emerging Issues
Changes in American Society
Aging Population
Cultural Diversity
Shifting Economics
Immigration and Migration
Modern Problems
Crime Trends
Cyber Crime
Eyewitness Identification
Shrinking Budgets
Modern Technology
Crime Detention and Crime Solving
Surveillance and Privacy
Communications and Interoperability
Social Media
Long-Term Trends
Terrorism and Homeland Security
Name Index
Subject Index

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