Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges / Edition 5

Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges / Edition 5

by Ken Peak
     
 

Designed to put readers “inside” the police officer's uniform, this personally-involving, comprehensive, and timely introduction to police work provides a “real-world” flavor not found in most policing books. Written in an exceptionally reader-friendly open and frank style, it blends the real and the

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Overview

Designed to put readers “inside” the police officer's uniform, this personally-involving, comprehensive, and timely introduction to police work provides a “real-world” flavor not found in most policing books. Written in an exceptionally reader-friendly open and frank style, it blends the real and the ideal–reflecting the author's more than 30 years' experience as a police administrator and academic. Features boxed articles from Law Enforcement News, and “Practitioner's Perspectives” with short essays written by selected individuals who have expertise in particular areas of policing. Policing Levels, Roles, and Functions. Police Subculture: The Making of a Cop. Organization and Administration. On Patrol: Personnel, Methods, Functions. Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving. Criminal Investigation. Extraordinary Problems and Methods. Police and the Rule of Law. Accountability: Ethics, Force and Corruption, Discipline. Civil Liability. Issues and Trends. Comparative Perspectives. Technology Review. Challenges of the Future. For those involved/interested in General Policing, Community Policing, and Policing Issues.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131188648
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
05/17/2005
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
512
Product dimensions:
8.18(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.02(d)

Related Subjects

Meet the Author

Ken Peak is a full professor and former chairman of the Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nevada, Reno, where he was named Teacher of the Year by the university's Honor Society. He entered municipal policing in Kansas in 1970 and subsequently held positions as a nine-county criminal justice planner in Kansas; director of a four-state Technical Assistance Institute for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; director of university of police at Pittsburg State University (Kansas); acting director of public safety, University of Nevada, Reno; and assistant professor of criminal justice at Wichita State University. His textbooks include Community Policing and Problem Solving: Strategies and Practices (3d ed., with Ronald W. Glensor); Justice Administration: Police, Courts, and Corrections Management (3d ed.); Police Supervision (with Ronald W. Glensor and Larry K. Games); and Policing Communities: Understanding Crime and Solving Problems (an anthology, with R. Glensor and M. Correia). He has published two historical books: Kansas Temperance: Much Ado About Booze, 1870-1920 (with P Peak), and Kansas Bootleggers (with Patrick G. O'Brien). He also has published more than 50 journal articles and book chapters. He served as chairman of the Police Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences from 1997-1999 and recently served as president of the Western and Pacific Association of Criminal Justice Educators. His teaching interests include policing, administration, victimology, and comparative justice systems. He received two gubernatorial appointments to statewide criminal justicecommittees while residing in Kansas and holds a doctorate from the University of Kansas.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with RMSummary - Review Questions - Independent Student. Activities - Related Web Sites - Notes.)

1. Historical Development.

English and Colonial Officers of the Law.

Sheriff - Constable - Coroner - Justice of the Peace.

The Old English System of Policing.

Policing in Colonial America - Legacies of the Colonial Period.

Police Reform in England and America, 1829—1860.

Full-Time Policing Comes to the United States.

Imitating Peel - Early Issues and New Traditions - Attempts at Reform in Difficult Times - Increased Politics and Corruption - Meanwhile, on the American Frontier . . .

practitioner’s perspective: “what science has done for the police,” chief francis o’neill, chicago, 1903

The Entrenchment of Political Influence.

The Movement toward Professionalization.

Attempts to Thwart Political Patronage - The Era of August. Vollmer - The Crime Fighter Image - The Wickersham. Commission - Police as the “Thin Blue Line”: William H. Parker.

A Retreat from the Professional Model.

Coming Full Circle to Peel: The President’s Crime Commission.

Community-Oriented Policing and Problem-Solving Era.

The Three Generations of COPPS.

2. Law Enforcement Levels and Functions: Toward Defending OurHomeland.

Federal Agencies.

The Department of Homeland Security - The Department of Justice - Other Related Federal Agencies.

State and Local Agencies.

State Police - Local (Municipal Police and County Sheriff) Agencies.

3. Police Subculture: The Making of a Cop.

First Things First: Recruiting Qualified Applicants.

Wanted: Those Who Walk on Water - Recruiting Problems and Successes.

Testing: The Hurdle Process for New Personnel.

Written Examinations: General Knowledge and Psychological Tests - Physical Agility Test - Oral Interview - Character. Investigation - Polygraph Examination - Medical Examination and Drug Screening.

The Recruit’s Formal Entry into Policing: Academy Training.

Types of Academies - The Curriculum: Status and Ongoing Need for Revision - A New Uniform and Demeanor - A Sixth Sense.

Postacademy Field Training.

The Field Training Officer Concept - New Technology.

Having the “Right Stuff”: A Working Personality.

Developing and Using a Police Personality - What Traits Make a Good Cop?

Roles, Functions, and Styles of Policing.

Defining and Understanding the Police Role - Role. Conflicts - Policing Functions and Styles - Which Role, Function, and Style Is Typically Employed?

4. Organization and Administration.

Organizations and the Police.

What Are Organizations? - Organizations as Bureaucracies.

Organizational Communication.

Definition and Characteristics - Communication within Police. Organizations - The Grapevine - Written Communication - Barriers to Effective Communication.

Police Agencies as Organizations.

Chain of Command - Organizational Structure - Unity of Command and Span of Control - Organizational Policies and Procedures.

Contemporary Police Chiefs and Sheriffs.

The Police Chief - The Sheriff.

The Chief Executive Officer: A Model.

Applying the Mintzberg Model of CEOs - The Interpersonal Role - The Informational Role - The Decision-Maker Role.

practitioner’s perspective: “police ingenuity and entrepreneurship,” Dennis D. Richards.

An Example of Mintzberg in Action: NYPD’s Compstat.

Middle Managers: Captains and Lieutenants.

The First-Line Supervisor.

Ten Tasks - Types of Supervisors.

Police and Politics.

Political Exploitation of the Police - Police Executive Relations and Expectations.

5. On Patrol: Methods and Menaces.

Patrol as Work: Culture of the Beat.

Purposes and Nature of Patrol - Filling Occasional Hours of Boredom - Patrol Work as a Function of Shift. Assignment - Influences of One’s Assigned Beat - Where Danger Lurks: The Hazards of Beat Patrol.

An Unappreciated American Icon: The Patrol Vehicle.

A Sanctuary and a Place for Vital Gear - Evolution of the Patrol Vehicle - Today’s Accoutrements.

Studies of the Patrol Function.

Discretionary Use of Police Authority.

The Link between Patrol and Discretion - An Exercise in Discretion - Attempts to Define Discretion - Determinants of Discretionary Actions - Pros, Cons, and Politics of Discretionary Authority.

A Related Function: Traffic.

Policing Today’s Motorized Society - Traffic Accident Investigation - In Pursuit of the “Phantom Driver”

6. Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving.

Basic Principles of Community Policing.

A Major Step Forward: Problem-Oriented Policing.

The Problem-Solving Process: SARA.

A Collaborative Approach: Basic Principles of COPPS.

Implementing COPPS.

Principal Components of Successful Implementation.

A Broader Role for the Street Officer.

Did It Succeed? Evaluating COPPS.

Crime Prevention.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design - Studying Prey: Repeat Victimization - Drug Abuse and Resistance Education.

COPPS Case Studies.

Addressing Domestic Violence in Charlotte-Mecklenburg - Ameliorating Juvenile Problems in Tulsa.

7. Criminal Investigation: The Science of Detection.

The Scope of Forensic Science and Criminalistics.

Origins of Criminalistics.

Personal Identification: Anthropometry and Dactylography - Firearms Identification - Contributions of August Vollmer and Others.

The Evolution of Criminal Investigation.

Investigative Beginnings: The English Contribution - Investigative Techniques Come to America - State and Federal Developments.

Forensic Science and the Criminal Justice System.

Investigative Stages and Activities - Arrest and Case Preparation.

Qualities of Detectives.

Officers Who “Disappear”: Working Undercover.

Problems with the Role - Returning to Patrol Duties.

Uses of the Polygraph.

DNA Analysis.

Methods - The Debate about Forced Testing - Recent Developments: Mitochondrial DNA and National Databases.

Behavioral Science in Criminal Investigation.

Criminal Profiling - Psychics and Hypnosis.

Recent Developments in Forensic Science and Investigation.

Interrogations of a Different Sort: Terrorism Suspects - Forensic Entomology: Using “Insect Detectives” Stalking Investigations - Investigating “Cybercrooks” - Protecting the Innocents: Investigating Crimes against Juveniles and Missing Youths - No Stone Unturned: Handling Cold Cases.

8. Extraordinary Problems and Methods.

Terrorism and Homeland Security.

A Nation Changed and Challenged - Definitions and Types - Greater Law Enforcement Powers: The PATRIOT Act - Spiking Resources - Time for an Intelligence Overhaul? - A Companion Threat: Bioterrorism.

practitioner’s perspective, “bioterrorism: the challenges for local law enforcement,” kenneth w. hunter jr., sc.d.

Policing Hate.

Policing the Mafia.

Origin and Organization.

practitioner’s perspective, “going undercover: an fbi agent’s two-year experience,” george togliatti.

Successful Police Offensives.

Policing Street Gangs.

Definition and Extent of the Problem - Organization and Revenues - Ethnic and Racial Types of Gangs - Graffiti and Hand Signals - New Threats - Gangs and Terrorism.

Policing America’s Borders.

A New Terrorist Watch Program - The Southwestern Border - New Technologies: Border Drones.

9. The Rule of Law.

The Rule of Law.

The Fourth Amendment - The Fifth Amendment - The Sixth Amendment.

Juvenile Rights.

10. Accountability: Ethics, Force and Corruption, and Discipline.

In the Beginning: Problems Greet the New Millennium.

Troubles in Cities Large and Small - A New Tool: Federal Investigations.

Police Ethics.

A Scenario - Definition and Types - Ethics and Community Policing.

Use of Violence and Force.

A Tradition of Problems - The Prerogative to Use Force - Police Brutality - Use and Control of Lethal Force - Further Sources of Tension: Bias-Based Policing and Other Field Tactics - A Related Issue: Domestic Violence.

Police Corruption.

A Long-Standing “Plague” on Policing - Types and Causes - The Code of Silence - Investigation and Prosecution - Possible Solutions.

Limitations on Officers’ Constitutional Rights.

Free Speech - Searches and Seizures - Self-Incrimination - Religious Practices - Sexual Misconduct - Residency Requirements - Moonlighting - Misuse of Firearms - Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

Disciplinary Policies and Practices.

Maintaining the Public Trust - Due Process Requirements - Dealing with Complaints - Determining the Level and Nature of Sanctions.

11. Civil Liability: Failing the Public Trust.

A Legal Foundation.

History and Growth of Section 1983 Litigation - Police Actions Leading to Section 1983 Liability - Criminal Prosecutions for Police Misconduct.

Liability of Police Supervisors.

practitioner’s perspective, “police and civil liability,” samuel g. man.

New Areas of Potential Liability.

Police Vehicle Pursuits: A High-Stakes Operation - Computer Evidence - Disseminating Public Information.

12. Issues and Trends.

Contemporary Policing Trends.

Labor Relations: Officers’ Rights, Unionization, and Collective Bargaining - Women Who Wear the Badge.

practitioner’s perspective, “women in policing: past, present, and future,” chief penny harrington.

Minorities as Police Officers - On Guard: The Private Police — Accreditation.

Contemporary Policing Issues.

Higher Education for Police - A Related Program: The Police Corps - Stress: Sources, Effects, and Management.

13. Comparative Perspectives: Policing in Foreign Countries.

Iraq.

A History of Dictators and Disorder - Policing the World’s Most Perilous Place - Since Saddam’s Fall: A Poorly Trained and Equipped Force - The Future.

Saudi Arabia.

An Exodus over Terrorism - Social Behavior in a Patriarchal Land - Religious Underpinnings - Laws and Prohibitions - Guardians of Religious Purity.

China.

Policing a Vast Land - Reform under Police Law 1995.

Northern Ireland.

Recent Developments and Violence in a Long Civil War - A Divided Land — Political Factions - Policing the Terrorist War - A New Source of Terror: Paramilitary Groups.

Mexico.

A New President, Unfulfilled Promises - Police Organization - Recruitment and Training - Criminal Codes and the Legal System - Jail Atrocities.

Toward Democratizing the Police Abroad: Lessons Learned.

Interpol.

Tracking International Criminals - A Formula for Success.

14. Technology Review.

Police and Technology of the Future: Problems and Prospects.

Technology versus Terrorists.

The Development of Less-Lethal Weapons.

A Historical Overview - The Quest Continues.

The Use of Wireless Technology.

Instant Access to Information - Integrated Databases - Crime Mapping - Locating Serial Offenders - Gunshot Locator System - Dogs and Searches for Lost Persons.

Electronics in Traffic Functions.

Accident Investigation - Arresting Impaired Drivers - Preventing High-Speed Pursuits.

DNA.

Fingerprints and Mug Shots.

Crime Scenes: Computers to Explore and Draft Evidence.

Developments Relevant to Firearms.

Computer-Assisted Training - Using Gun “Fingerprints” to Solve Cases.

Gang Intelligence Systems.

15. Focus on the Future.

Taking Futures Seriously: A Working Group and a Futurists’ Society.

What the Future Might Hold for the Police.

Futures Research - High Technology: Coming Attractions - Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving - The Role of the Beat Officer - Other Personnel Issues.

Crime, Violence, and the Influence of Drugs and Guns.

Appendix I: Career Information.

Appendix II: The Police Corps.

Index.

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