Policing and Community Partnerships / Edition 1

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Overview

This timely book is a virtual "how to" manual to help guide the promotion of public safety and the quality of life in American neighborhoods by law enforcement agencies. It reflects a fundamental shift from traditional, reactive policing to priorities of prevention through community partnerships. Attempts to bring agencies closer to developing a "best" model that can at the same time be a successful classroom tool. Offers a comprehensive literature search—includes explanations and links to a practical and theoretical community policing rationale. Presents varied models of community policing and training programs, unlike other books which focus exclusively on large departments with many resources such as Chicago, Los Angeles, New York. Provides information on how to write grant proposals for securing federal and local funds to build community policing programs. A valuable tool for justice and law enforcement professionals.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130280497
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 2/27/2001
  • Series: Prentice Hall's Policing and ... Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 208
  • Product dimensions: 6.92 (w) x 8.89 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Meet the Author

Deborah Brown Carter is a professor and chair of the Psychology and Social Science department at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina. She performs many performance tests for the Charlotte Mecklenburg Police Department. She can be reached at deborah.carter@jcsu.edu.

Ellen G. Cohn is an associate professor of criminology in the School of Policy and Management at Florida International University and a member of the steering committee of the Miami-Dade Police Department's Citizens' Volunteer Program. She received her Ph.D. in criminology in 1991 from Cambridge University, England. Her research interests include the effect of the natural environment on crime and criminal behavior and various aspects of community policing. She is the lead author of Evaluating Criminology and Criminal Justice, published in 1998, and has published in many criminology and psychology journals, including Criminology, Journal of Criminal Justice, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Dr. Cohn can be reached at cohne@fiu.edu.

Francis D'Ambra is the chief of police of Manteo, North Carolina. He has extensive training in law enforcement including workshops with the FBI. He is a police instructor at the local community college, and writes articles for various publications.

Jill DuBois is a project manager at the Institute for Policy Research, Center for Law and Justice Studies, at Northwestern University. She has been involved with the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) evaluation project since its earliest days, interviewing police personnel ranging from patrol officers to high-ranking and civilian executives in the department. She also attends and documentsmeetings of many types within the Chicago Police Department. In addition to being a key evaluator of the implementation of the CAPS program citywide, she has authored a paper on the experiences of the prototype District Advisory Committees, which is part of the consortium's project paper series Along with her colleagues, she has written a recently released book on the CAPS problem-solving model entitled On the Beat: Police and Community Problem Solving (Westview Press, 1999). She serves as main compiler and editor for CAPS evaluation reports and papers and provided extensive editorial assistance for Community Policing, Chicago Style, by Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M. Hartnett (Oxford University Press, 1997). She has authored five books in a world cultures series for high school students as well. Jill DuBois can be reached at jdubois@nwu.edu.

Carroy U. Ferguson, Ph.D., is a professor at the College of Public and Community Service, University of Massachusetts/Boston and the director of the college's Peer Advising and Service Internship Program. He is also a practicing clinical psychologist and he co-founded two organizations, Interculture, Inc. and Associates in Human Understanding. He is on a number of boards, including the national board of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. He has years of experience as a consultant and workshop leader on a variety of topics involving personal growth, social change, and social justice. He is the co-author of the book Innovative Approaches to Education and Community Service: Models and Strategies for Change and Empowerment (1993) and the author of the book A New Perspective on Race and Color (1997). He has also authored a new book Transitions in Consciousness from an African American Perspective (in review) and a forthcoming book manuscript Evolving the Race Game: A Transpersonal Perspective. He also has publications in journals, as well as chapters in other books. His research and professional work involves looking at the phenomenon of consciousness and its relationship to the quality of societal life, self-healing, self-empowerment, and social justice. Dr. Ferguson can be reached at carroy.ferguson@umb.edu.

Susan M. Hartnett has been a research associate and administrator at Northwestern University for the last twelve years. Her background includes a decade of survey research and program evaluation in such areas as education, crime prevention, the media, juvenile delinquency, and community policing. She managed the Northwestern University Survey Laboratory for seven years. Subsequently, she has directed an evaluation of Chicago's Alternative Policing Strategy program. She co-authored (with Wesley G. Skogan) a book about the impact of Chicago's community policing program on residents and police, entitled Community Policing, Chicago Style, published by the Oxford University Press, 1997. More recently, she co-authored a book entitled On The Beat: Police and Community Problem Solving in Chicago, by Skogan, Hartnett, et al., published by Westview Press, 1999. Susan Hartnett can be reached at susanhartnet@aol.com.

Kent R. Kerley has recently received his Ph.D. and is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Tennessee. His main areas of research are community policing, crime and the life course, and white-collar crime. His most recent work appears in Police Quarterly and Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. Dr. Kerley can be reached at kkerley@utk.edu.

Captain Michael F Masterson, Commanding Officer-Detective Team and Dane County Narcotics and Gang Task Force 1991-1995 and Personnel and Training Team 1996-1999. Currently he is the Commander of the North Police District of Madison, Wisconsin. Captain Masterson can be reached at mmasterson@ci.madison.wi.us.

Thomas B. Priest is a professor of criminal justice and sociology at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has evaluated police performance for the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, for some time. He has conducted many surveys in Charlotte and is a significant contributor to the sociological press. His expertise is in stratified societies with an emphasis on the Philadelphia elite. Professor Priest can be reached at tbpriest@jcsu.edu.

Chief Charles H. Ramsey was appointed chief of the Metropolitan Police Department on April 21, 1998. A nationally recognized innovator, educator, and practitioner of community policing, Chief Ramsey has refocused the MPDC on crime fighting and crime prevention through a more accountable organizational structure, new equipment and technology, and an enhanced strategy of community policing. A native of Chicago, Illinois, Chief Ramsey served the Chicago Police Department for nearly three decades in a variety of assignments. At the age of eighteen, he became a Chicago Police cadet. In 1994, he was named Deputy Superintendent of the Bureau of Staff Services, where he managed the department's education and training, research and development, labor affairs, crime prevention and professional counseling functions.

Chief Ramsey was instrumental in designing and implementing the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy, the city's nationally acclaimed model of community policing. As co-manager of the CAPS project in Chicago, Chief Ramsey was one of the principal authors of the police department's strategic vision. He also designed and implemented the CAPS operational model and helped to develop new training curricula and communications efforts to support implementation. As head of the 4600member Metropolitan Police Department, Chief Ramsey has worked to improve police services, enhance public confidence in the police and bring down the District of Columbia's crime rate.

Chief Ramsey holds both bachelor's and master's degrees in criminal justice from Lewis University in Romeoville, Illinois. A graduate of the FBI National Academy and the National Executive Institute, Chief Ramsey has lectured nationally on community policing as an adjunct faculty member of both the Northwestern University Traffic Institute's School of Police Staff and Command and Lewis University. For his national contributions to community policing, Chief Ramsey received the 1994 Gary P. Hayes Award from the Police Executive Research Forum, the group's highest honor for achievement in policing. The chief can be reached at mpdcchief_org@excite.com.

Gerald A. Rudoff is a lieutenant with the Miami-Dade Police Department, Community Affairs Bureau, one of the original founders of the Youth Crime Watch concept, and the current president-elect of Youth Crime Watch of America. He is a graduate of the Southern Police Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, where he studied the concepts and philosophies of community oriented policing in depth, and of the National Crime Prevention Institute, also in Louisville, KY Lt. Rudoff is a certified practitioner of Kingian Nonviolence Conflict Reconciliation. Lt. Rudoff can be reached at gar_mia@yahoo.com.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

Leaping from the earlier literature of policing and community partnership are stories, remedies, and models that are more different than alike. Often, most of that literature seems monopolized by specific yet admirable individuals who have now fulfilled their mission. One of the aims of the collection of articles in this book is to reveal the common thread that runs through contemporary policing and community partnerships from the professional and the personal experiences of individuals on the front lines of those issues. One consistent tread in this work is that change in policing and community partnerships is unchanging. It isn't constant, it's intensifying. Keeping abreast of those changes is a full time occupation. Yet, it is among those changes that efficient and productive measures can be harnessed to enhance quality-of-life issues—something all of us seek. One of the aims of this book is to bring to your doorstep some of those intense changes. Some of us will quickly identify with and even agree with them. On the other hand, some of us will seat in wonderment about and take issue with other descriptions and changes. Yet, if the authors of these articles know anything about quality-of-life issues, maybe they have more to offer than meets a first read. Perhaps, what Ralph Waldon Emerson said in Society and Solitude rings clear, "It's true that the only sin which we never forgive in each other is difference of opinion:" I think an informed decision-making process can far outweigh an uninformed one. With that said, the flow of the work among these chapters can prepare us to better understand police and community partnerships and to comprehend the hugeeffort and challenge confronting an American population about law and public order.

The centerpiece of this book is the community component of community policing as evidenced by the chapters revealing the necessity of winning community participation including community input and community decision-making prerogatives. First, we hear from experienced community organizers on methods, myths, and merits of community recruitment, followed by the personal experiences of a police chief from an affluent city who offers his impressions of dealing with the obstacles outside a police organization in an attempt to further community policing initiatives. Those articles pave the way for Washington, D.C.'s chief of police who instructs us in the art of involving community members as partners leading to a professor who evaluates his hometown police department and their innovative arrangements through partnerships with the community in Columbia, South Carolina. Yet, a question arises about measuring police performance, who is better suited to make those evaluations, volunteers, consultants, academics, or police personnel, the next article asked? A revelation comes from writers who bring evidence to police measuring their own organizational performance as opposed to outsiders. It appears that police personnel are better suited to test the community than others for various reasons as expressed in this article.

A study of policing service and community prerogatives suggests that an enormous amount of energy and resources are utilized in fulfilling those aims, and yet the question of reality or rhetoric about community policing becomes a point of concern for some observers. Evaluating police service from the perspective of the community to see how closely it is meeting objectives might help bring evidence to the question of limited resources. Quality police service, however, seems to be a different thing to different people. Some police strategies linked to community demands are revealed in community outcomes of police saturation practices followed by an examination of another method of community policing that highlights a successful program in Miami to curb youth school violence. There's always talk about reorganizing line officers but little talk about investigators, which is the subject of the next article leading to an examination of managerial styles of the police executives who manage our police agencies. What follows is a summary of each chapter and a frank discussion about the community component in the community policing initiative.

In Chapter 1, Jill DuBois and Susan Harnett tell the story of Chicago's Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), giving special attention to the community component of community policing. After years of field observations in Chicago, the writers were able to answer some important questions that have not been addressed adequately in prior research. Because of their extensive experiences at the grass root levels of community policing, these authors offer clear and precise recommendations for future reform activity in other cities. They argue that community participation doesn't just happen. It's up to a professional police agency to encourage a community to "buy in."

In Chapter Two, Chief Francis D'Ambra at Manteo, North Carolina, believes that an important part of establishing a sound community-oriented policing philosophy within a police agency requires, first and foremost, a commitment to organizational change. His primary focus relates to how an affluent small community manages the community oriented policing concept. He examines some of the obstacles to a community policing effort and reveals the problems of his office through what he calls nine "phantom menaces." Being aware of those obstacles, the chief argues, will aid others toward establishing good police-community partnerships.

Chapter Three, Chief Charles Ramsey of the Metropolitan Police of Washington, D.C., examines the next level of community policing. His discussions include the additional organizational reforms required to move departments in a more sophisticated level of community policing. The chief articulates the changes that will need to take place in the community to ensure the continued development of community policing. Largely, Chapter Three's focus is on the future of community policing and the expanded role the community must play as this strategy continues to develop and mature. That is, community responsibility. The chief argues that the most significant hurdle in taking community policing to the next level lies outside the police organization. It involves fully preparing the community for its role in community policing and then providing the community with the tools it needs to fulfill that new role.

Professor Carroy U. Ferguson in Chapter Four examines community policing initiatives in Columbia, South Carolina as characterized by the concept of a "shared responsibility" by the department and the community. A systematic evaluation of Columbia's community policing initiatives, using network analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques, confirmed that Columbia seems to have established a common vision for community policing among police and community leaders, bureaucrats, and citizens.

Chapter Five argues that the Madison Police Department believes that social order can be accomplished when community members participate in police decisions. However, measuring police performance and gaining neighborhood input, Captain Michael Masterson and Professor Dennis Stevens argue, is best left to police personnel. Compelling evidence presented in this chapter demonstrated that the typical community member would be more open with an officer than others, and that police personnel would be more respective in spotting potential criminal activity during the data collection process.

Professor Kent Kerley examines in Chapter Six the idea that many police departments adopt the rhetoric of community policing, in part to avail themselves of federal grants, but make few changes in their organizational structures and the tactics of their officers. In this chapter, no pretense is made of providing a resolution to the debate over the potential efficacy of community policing. There is, however, a contribution to the discussion by investigating perceptions of key community policing issues. Using data from a survey of 3000 members of various groups, the writer investigated perceptions regarding familiarity with community policing, extent to which community policing is utilized, police training needs, police-minority relations, and the focus of community policing training.

Professor Thomas Priest and Professor Deborah Carter in Chapter Seven examined the outcomes of one component of community-oriented policing, a police saturation operation, conducted in Charlotte, North Carolina. When police increase enforcement of laws bearing on a specific community problem, do residents or business people perceive any decrease in quality-of-life problems or in crime following the saturation operation?

In Chapter Eight, Lt. Gerald Rudoff and Professor Ellen Cohn examine community partnerships in public schools to help curb school violence. Their perspective is that violence has jeopardized the safety and the security of our children in one of the few places that students believe they are safe. One answer, the authors offer to curb the threat of violence is a collaborative community-based response to juvenile crime through The Youth Crime Watch originally developed under the Citizen's Crime Watch supported by the Miami Dade Police Department. The Miami Dade Police Department and the public schools in Miami have partnered together to bring safety back to the classroom. The city has had so much success with this innovative partnership that Youth Crime Watch programs are now in use throughout the country.

In Chapter Nine, Captain Michael Masterson is concerned with how investigative units within a police agency must reorganize to their workplace in order to meet the challenges of partnerships with the community.

Professor Dennis J. Stevens in Chapter Ten wanted to better understand the capability of police leadership linked to community policing opportunities. He surveyed ninety-seven police supervisors from lieutenants to chiefs who had command duties from eighteen police agencies across the United States. Results showed that the participants largely held leadership characteristics which generally supported traditional police practices as opposed to contemporary managerial practices required of community policing practitioners. One implication of his study is that police supervisors should blend police managerial techniques with Total Quality Management (TQM) skills since those managerial skills appear to optimize community policing practices.

Finally, the text concludes with a summation chapter in which Professor M.L. Dantzker provides the initial literature basis for community policing that leads into a brief discussion of the outcomes for each previous chapter.

Overall, this text was developed to offer a closer look at a very important component of community policing, the community partnership. By no means has this book exhausted all that pertains to this vital aspect of community policing. However, it has provided a starting point for those who are interested in learning more about how to emphasize the community in community policing.

Dennis J. Stevens, Ph.D.
Editor

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Table of Contents

Preface.

About the Authors.

About the Editor.

1. Making the Community Side of Community Policing Work: What Needs to Be Done, Jill DuBois and Susan M. Hartnett.

2. Community Partnerships in Affluent Communities: “The Phantom Menaces,” Chief Francis D'Ambra.

3. Preparing the Community for Community Policing: The Next Step in Advancing Community Policing, Chief Charles H. Ramsey.

4. Creative Community Policing Initiatives in Columbia, South Carolina, Carroy U. Ferguson.

5. The Value of Measuring Community Policing Performance in Madison, Wisconsin, Captain Michael F. Masterson and Dennis J. Stevens.

6. Perceptions of Community Policing across Community Sectors: Results from a Regional Survey, Professor Kent R. Kerley.

7. Community-Oriented Policing: Assessing a Police Saturation Operation, Professor Thomas B. Priest and Professor Deborah Brown Carter.

8. Youth Crime Watch of America: A Youth-Led Movement, Lt. Gerald A. Rudoff and Professor Ellen G. Cohn.

9. From Polarization to Partnership: Realigning the Investigative Function to Serve Neighborhood Needs Rather Than the Bureaucracy's Behest. The Change Experience of the Madison, Wisconsin Police Department, Captain Michael F. Masterson.

10. Community Policing and Police Leadership, Professor Dennis J. Stevens.

11. The Community in Community Policing: The Key to Success is the Police and Community Partnerships, Professor M.L. Dantzker.

Name Index.

Subject Index.

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Preface

Preface

Leaping from the earlier literature of policing and community partnership are stories, remedies, and models that are more different than alike. Often, most of that literature seems monopolized by specific yet admirable individuals who have now fulfilled their mission. One of the aims of the collection of articles in this book is to reveal the common thread that runs through contemporary policing and community partnerships from the professional and the personal experiences of individuals on the front lines of those issues. One consistent tread in this work is that change in policing and community partnerships is unchanging. It isn't constant, it's intensifying. Keeping abreast of those changes is a full time occupation. Yet, it is among those changes that efficient and productive measures can be harnessed to enhance quality-of-life issues—something all of us seek. One of the aims of this book is to bring to your doorstep some of those intense changes. Some of us will quickly identify with and even agree with them. On the other hand, some of us will seat in wonderment about and take issue with other descriptions and changes. Yet, if the authors of these articles know anything about quality-of-life issues, maybe they have more to offer than meets a first read. Perhaps, what Ralph Waldon Emerson said in Society and Solitude rings clear, "It's true that the only sin which we never forgive in each other is difference of opinion:" I think an informed decision-making process can far outweigh an uninformed one. With that said, the flow of the work among these chapters can prepare us to better understand police and community partnerships and to comprehend the huge effort and challenge confronting an American population about law and public order.

The centerpiece of this book is the community component of community policing as evidenced by the chapters revealing the necessity of winning community participation including community input and community decision-making prerogatives. First, we hear from experienced community organizers on methods, myths, and merits of community recruitment, followed by the personal experiences of a police chief from an affluent city who offers his impressions of dealing with the obstacles outside a police organization in an attempt to further community policing initiatives. Those articles pave the way for Washington, D.C.'s chief of police who instructs us in the art of involving community members as partners leading to a professor who evaluates his hometown police department and their innovative arrangements through partnerships with the community in Columbia, South Carolina. Yet, a question arises about measuring police performance, who is better suited to make those evaluations, volunteers, consultants, academics, or police personnel, the next article asked? A revelation comes from writers who bring evidence to police measuring their own organizational performance as opposed to outsiders. It appears that police personnel are better suited to test the community than others for various reasons as expressed in this article.

A study of policing service and community prerogatives suggests that an enormous amount of energy and resources are utilized in fulfilling those aims, and yet the question of reality or rhetoric about community policing becomes a point of concern for some observers. Evaluating police service from the perspective of the community to see how closely it is meeting objectives might help bring evidence to the question of limited resources. Quality police service, however, seems to be a different thing to different people. Some police strategies linked to community demands are revealed in community outcomes of police saturation practices followed by an examination of another method of community policing that highlights a successful program in Miami to curb youth school violence. There's always talk about reorganizing line officers but little talk about investigators, which is the subject of the next article leading to an examination of managerial styles of the police executives who manage our police agencies. What follows is a summary of each chapter and a frank discussion about the community component in the community policing initiative.

In Chapter 1, Jill DuBois and Susan Harnett tell the story of Chicago's Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), giving special attention to the community component of community policing. After years of field observations in Chicago, the writers were able to answer some important questions that have not been addressed adequately in prior research. Because of their extensive experiences at the grass root levels of community policing, these authors offer clear and precise recommendations for future reform activity in other cities. They argue that community participation doesn't just happen. It's up to a professional police agency to encourage a community to "buy in."

In Chapter Two, Chief Francis D'Ambra at Manteo, North Carolina, believes that an important part of establishing a sound community-oriented policing philosophy within a police agency requires, first and foremost, a commitment to organizational change. His primary focus relates to how an affluent small community manages the community oriented policing concept. He examines some of the obstacles to a community policing effort and reveals the problems of his office through what he calls nine "phantom menaces." Being aware of those obstacles, the chief argues, will aid others toward establishing good police-community partnerships.

Chapter Three, Chief Charles Ramsey of the Metropolitan Police of Washington, D.C., examines the next level of community policing. His discussions include the additional organizational reforms required to move departments in a more sophisticated level of community policing. The chief articulates the changes that will need to take place in the community to ensure the continued development of community policing. Largely, Chapter Three's focus is on the future of community policing and the expanded role the community must play as this strategy continues to develop and mature. That is, community responsibility. The chief argues that the most significant hurdle in taking community policing to the next level lies outside the police organization. It involves fully preparing the community for its role in community policing and then providing the community with the tools it needs to fulfill that new role.

Professor Carroy U. Ferguson in Chapter Four examines community policing initiatives in Columbia, South Carolina as characterized by the concept of a "shared responsibility" by the department and the community. A systematic evaluation of Columbia's community policing initiatives, using network analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques, confirmed that Columbia seems to have established a common vision for community policing among police and community leaders, bureaucrats, and citizens.

Chapter Five argues that the Madison Police Department believes that social order can be accomplished when community members participate in police decisions. However, measuring police performance and gaining neighborhood input, Captain Michael Masterson and Professor Dennis Stevens argue, is best left to police personnel. Compelling evidence presented in this chapter demonstrated that the typical community member would be more open with an officer than others, and that police personnel would be more respective in spotting potential criminal activity during the data collection process.

Professor Kent Kerley examines in Chapter Six the idea that many police departments adopt the rhetoric of community policing, in part to avail themselves of federal grants, but make few changes in their organizational structures and the tactics of their officers. In this chapter, no pretense is made of providing a resolution to the debate over the potential efficacy of community policing. There is, however, a contribution to the discussion by investigating perceptions of key community policing issues. Using data from a survey of 3000 members of various groups, the writer investigated perceptions regarding familiarity with community policing, extent to which community policing is utilized, police training needs, police-minority relations, and the focus of community policing training.

Professor Thomas Priest and Professor Deborah Carter in Chapter Seven examined the outcomes of one component of community-oriented policing, a police saturation operation, conducted in Charlotte, North Carolina. When police increase enforcement of laws bearing on a specific community problem, do residents or business people perceive any decrease in quality-of-life problems or in crime following the saturation operation?

In Chapter Eight, Lt. Gerald Rudoff and Professor Ellen Cohn examine community partnerships in public schools to help curb school violence. Their perspective is that violence has jeopardized the safety and the security of our children in one of the few places that students believe they are safe. One answer, the authors offer to curb the threat of violence is a collaborative community-based response to juvenile crime through The Youth Crime Watch originally developed under the Citizen's Crime Watch supported by the Miami Dade Police Department. The Miami Dade Police Department and the public schools in Miami have partnered together to bring safety back to the classroom. The city has had so much success with this innovative partnership that Youth Crime Watch programs are now in use throughout the country.

In Chapter Nine, Captain Michael Masterson is concerned with how investigative units within a police agency must reorganize to their workplace in order to meet the challenges of partnerships with the community.

Professor Dennis J. Stevens in Chapter Ten wanted to better understand the capability of police leadership linked to community policing opportunities. He surveyed ninety-seven police supervisors from lieutenants to chiefs who had command duties from eighteen police agencies across the United States. Results showed that the participants largely held leadership characteristics which generally supported traditional police practices as opposed to contemporary managerial practices required of community policing practitioners. One implication of his study is that police supervisors should blend police managerial techniques with Total Quality Management (TQM) skills since those managerial skills appear to optimize community policing practices.

Finally, the text concludes with a summation chapter in which Professor M.L. Dantzker provides the initial literature basis for community policing that leads into a brief discussion of the outcomes for each previous chapter.

Overall, this text was developed to offer a closer look at a very important component of community policing, the community partnership. By no means has this book exhausted all that pertains to this vital aspect of community policing. However, it has provided a starting point for those who are interested in learning more about how to emphasize the community in community policing.

Dennis J. Stevens, Ph.D.
Editor

Read More Show Less

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