Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations

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Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations is the first comprehensive, integrated theory-to-practice text on this important subject. With insights and concepts drawn from the disciplines of Marketing, Psychology, and Political Science, this book covers every aspect of marketing's infiltration into the political process, including campaign strategy, market segmentation, and media strategy. The book is global in scope, with many examples and models drawn from countries around the world.

Marketing's role in the political process does not go unquestioned in this book. The authors present the importance of political marketing techniques for the stability of democratic institutions, and also note the potential threats to democracy, especially the use of marketing techniques to manipulate voters at the subconscious level. They conclude with a set of normative "do's and don'ts" for political marketing practice that strengthens civic education and democratic governance.

Political Marketing is concise and clearly organized:

Chapter 1 presents political marketing as a separate discipline and analyzes current trends in the field, leading to the authors' own, original definition of political marketing in theory and practice.

Chapter 2 introduces a new theory of political marketing in the context of existing models.

Chapter 3 is devoted to marketing tools of segmentation in voting markets and positioning of parties and politicians.

Chapters 4-7 discuss issues related to candidate image, direct campaign, debates, the "permanent campaign," and maintaining relationship with voters.

The final chapter, 8, is a special one. It undertakes the problem of democracy, which can be limited as a result of advanced marketing strategies used to convince voters to vote for a particular political option. Readers are encouraged to understand and engage in this ever-changing political reality.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780765629180
  • Publisher: Sharpe, M. E. Inc.
  • Publication date: 2/24/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eTextbook
  • Pages: 352
  • File size: 14 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Table of Contents

Introduction ix

1 Metatheory in Social Science and Political Marketing 3

Metatheory in Social Science 3

The Integrative Function 4

The Descriptive Function 4

The Delimiting Function 5

The Generative Function 6

Political Marketing as a Separate Discipline of Science and Practice 7

Mainstream and Political Marketing 7

Service Marketing and Political Marketing 10

Political Marketing: A Definition 13

Political Marketing Orientation 17

Candidate and Political Party as a Brand 24

Political Marketplace 27

2 An Advanced Theory of Political Marketing: What Is Missing? 30

A Model of Political Marketing 30

Process of Political Marketing According to Niffenegger 30

Marketing the Political Product According to Reid 36

Kotler and Kotler's Model of a Candidate's Marketing Map 38

Lees-Marshment's Theory of Comprehensive Political Marketing 41

Harris's Modern Political Marketing 43

Newman's Model of Political Marketing 45

Challenges for Political Marketing 49

Permanent Campaign 50

Media and Politics 56

Political Public Relations and Lobbying 65

Political Consultants 71

An Advanced Theory of Political Marketing 72

3 The Campaign Message Development: Segmentation and Positioning on the Voting Market 81

Voting Market's Segmentation Strategy 81

Primary Segmentation 83

Secondary Segmentation 88

Undecided Voters as a Strategic Segment 95

Electoral Segmentation: A Summary 102

Positioning of the Party and Candidate 103

Candidates' Positioning: The 2005 Polish Presidential Election 106

Triangulation Model in Candidate Positioning 114

Party Positioning Based on Slogans 120

4 Candidate Image 129

Candidate Image Structure 133

Ideal Political Leader 136

Integrity and Competence: Core Features of Candidate Image 145

The Importance of Advertising in Forming Politicians' Images 153

The Role of Emotion in Politics 158

5 Dissemination of the Campaign Message: Direct Campaign and Debates 161

Meetings With Voters and Candidates' Appearances 161

Electoral Conventions 162

Rallies and Meetings 165

Electoral Debates 168

The Influence of Debates on Voter Behavior 171

Candidate Image and Stands on Issues 181

The Image and Issues and Democratic Processes 186

The Influence of Televised Debates on Voter Preferences 193

The Importance of Political Debates in Democratic Processes 196

Volunteers and Canvassing 198

Campaign Influence Through Social Networks 199

6 Dissemination of the Campaign Message: Mediated Campaign 202

Printed Campaign Materials 202

Television Political Advertising 206

The Influence of Political Advertising on the Voter's Level of Knowledge 207

The Influence of Political Ads on Processing of Candidate Image Information 208

The Influence of Political Ads on Processing of Party Image and Issue Information 214

The Influence of Political Ads on Attitude Certainty 219

Negative Television Advertising 224

Response to Negative Advertising 228

Third-Party Negative Advertising 229

Formal Features of Negative Advertising 230

Fear Appeal 233

Radio Political Advertising 236

Campaigning on the Internet 237

Candidates' Websites 238

Blogs 242

Online Advertising 244

7 Postelection Marketing: Maintaining and Enhancing Relationship With Voters 247

Institutional Popularity of Politicians 248

Determinants of Congressmen's Popularity 249

Voters' Trust in Politicians 252

Trust in Political Systems and Politicians 256

Timing of Political Events 259

Psychological Foundations of the Management of the Times of Events 261

Theory and Practice Over Management of Political Events 265

Marketing-Oriented Parliament 273

8 Political Marketing and Democracy 275

The Advanced Model of Political Marketing: An Application 278

Political Marketing: Implications for Democracy 280

Paradox of Freedom in Democratic Countries 282

Ideological Extremity and Populism 285

References 289

Name Index 317

Subject Index 325

About the Authors 339

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