The Political Theory Reader / Edition 1

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The Political Theory Reader is a collection of more than 80 important readings that address the contested philosophical assumptions and competing principles of politics. Included are key selections by canonical figures in the history of political thought, the founders of the major ideological perspectives of the 19th and 20th centuries, and leading contemporary political theorists and philosophers. After opening chapters on the nature of political theory and selections introducing the major ideologies of the past 200 years, the readings are then arranged thematically, providing alternative perspectives on 11 great issues of politics, ranging from conceptions of human nature and the nature of political knowledge to questions of authority, citizenship, and justice. This structure not only helps to illustrate the diversity and evolution of political thinking, but also encourages the comparative evaluation of competing viewpoints.

Aimed at those coming new to the study of political theory, the Reader offers a carefully organized selection of unparalleled breadth, allowing students to see how different ideological voices express their beliefs about the great issues of politics and how political theory has evolved in its discussion of these issues.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Edited by Paul Schumaker, who is professor of Political Science at the University of Kansas, and just published by Wiley-Blackwell, this is an outstanding and definitive publication which will become a standard text for students of politics." (Orange Standard, June 2010)

"This [book] one offers at best a taste of political theory's intellectual richness." (Sacramento Book Review, June 2010)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405189965
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/2/2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 370
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Paul Schumaker is Professor of Political Science at the University of Kansas, where he has taught courses in political theory and community politics since 1972. Dr Schumaker has authored several books on political theory, including Critical Pluralism, Democratic Performance, and Community Power (1991). His most recent book is the political theory textbook From Ideologies to Public Philosophies (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008).

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

1 Political Theory, Public Philosophy, and Pluralism 1

Introduction 1

"What Is Political Philosophy?" Leo Strauss 5

"Political Ideology" Judith Shklar 9

"America's Old and New Public Philosophy" Theodore J. Lowi 11

"Reconstructing Political Pluralism" Avigail Eisenberg 18

"Pluralism: A Prelude" William E. Connolly 21

Part I Ideological Voices 27

2 Nineteenth-Century Ideologies 29

Introduction 29

"The Second Treatise of Government" John Locke 31

National Assembly of France, "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" 37

"Reflections on the Revolution in France" Edmund Burke 38

"The Communist Manifesto" Karl Marx Friedrich Engels 40

"Anarchism: What It Really Stands For" Emma Goldman 47

3 Twentieth-Century Ideologies 51

Introduction 51

"State and Revolution" Vladimir I. Lenin 53

"The Philosophic Basis of Fascism" Giovanni Gentile 58

"Why Liberalism Works" Paul Starr 60

"A Case for Conservatism" John Kekes 65

4 Newer Quasi-Ideologies 73

Introduction 73

"America's Search for a New Public Philosophy" Michael J. Sandel 75

"Public Religion and Public Reason" Richard John Neuhaus 79

"Justice, Gender, and the Family" Susan Moller Okin 82

"The Environmental Crisis and the Deep Ecological Movement" Arne Naess 87

"Globalization and Democracy" Michael Hardt Antonio Negri 92

Part II Philosophical Assumptions 99

5 Ontological Conceptions 101

Introduction 101

Plato, "The Theory of Forms" 104

"Ascending and Descending Theses of Government" Walter Ullman 107

"The Great Chain of Being" Ken Wilber 108

"On the General Will" Jean Jacques Rousseau 111

"Marx's Materialist Conception of History" Friedrich Engels 115

"Natural Selection" Charles Darwin 118

"Evolution and Ethics" T. H. Huxley 120

"Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of 'Postmodernism'" Judith Butler 122

6 Conceptions of Human Nature 127

Introduction 127

"St. Augustine's Conception of Fallen Man" Herbert Deane 129

"The Natural Condition of Mankind" Thomas Hobbes 131

"The Early Liberal Model of Man" C. B. Macpherson 133

"Estranged Labor" Karl Marx 137

"Mutual Aid" Peter Kropotkin 140

"The Rationality and Motivations of Parties in the Original Position" John Rawls 142

"The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self" Michael Sandel 144

"Conceptualizing Human Beings" Bhikhu Parekh 146

7 Images of Society 152

Introduction 152

Aristotle, "The Natural Origins of Political Associations" 153

"The Contractual Origins of Society" Thomas Hobbes 155

"The Great Primaeval Contract of Eternal Society" Edmund Burke 158

"Social Cleavages and Complex Equality" Paul Schumaker 160

8 Epistemological Orientations 165

Introduction 165

"The Epistemological Frame: Cartesian Politics" Benjamin Barber 167

"Of the Principle of Utility" Jeremy Bentham 171

"Narratives of the Good Life Guided by Living Traditions" Alasdair MacIntyre 173

"America's Civic Religion: A Hopeful Pragmatism" Richard Rorty 176

"In a Different Voice" Carol Gilligan 180

"Political Constructivism" John Rawls 184

Part III Political Principles 189

9 On Community 191

Introduction 191

"The Federalist No. 10" James Madison 193

"Toward a Theory of Civic Identities" Rogers M. Smith 196

"Towards a Global Covenant: Global Social Democracy" David Held 200

"Human-Scale Democracy" Kirkpatrick Sale 204

"The Chinese Boxes" Robert Dahl 208

10 On Citizenship 211

Introduction 211

"The Distribution of Membership" Michael Walzer 213

"Aliens and Citizens: The Case For Open Borders" Joseph H. Carens 216

"The Development of Citizen Rights" T. H. Marshall 222

"Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship" Iris Marion Young 226

"The Responsive Communitarian Platform: Rights and Responsibilities" Amitai Etzioni et al. 231

"The Threat Posed by Corrupt Citizens" Niccolo Machiavelli 236

11 On Structure 238

Introduction 238

"On Liberty" John Stuart Mill 240

"The Principles and Virtues of Free Markets" Adam Smith 242

"Progress and Poverty Without Marx" Lawrence E. Harrison 246

"The Strange Disappearance of Civic America" Robert D. Putnam 249

"The Third Way and Government" Anthony Giddens 251

"Islamic Government" Imam Khomeini 255

"A Letter Concerning Toleration" John Locke 259

12 On Rulers 261

Introduction 261

"Guardianship" Robert Dahl 263

"Speech to the Electors of Bristol" Edmund Burke 268

"Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States and Its Consequences" Alexis de Tocqueville 268

"A Realistic Alternative to the Classical Doctrine of Democracy" Joseph Schumpeter 271

"Strong Democracy: Politics in the Participatory Mode" Benjamin Barber 275

"What Deliberative Democracy Means" Amy Gutmann Dennis Thompson 280

"Liberalism, Populism, and the Theory of Public Choice" William Riker 283

13 On Authority 286

Introduction 286

"The Conflict Between Authority and Autonomy" Robert Paul Wolff 288

"The Role of Government in a Free Society" Milton Friedman 291

"The Tragedy of the Commons" Garrett Hardin 295

"What Should Government Do?" Benjamin I. Page James R. Simmons 300

"Liberalism and Public Morality" William Galston 306

14 On Justice 312

Introduction 312

APSA Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy, "American Democracy in an Age of Rising Inequality" 313

"A Kantian Conception of Equality" John Rawls 320

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol 325

"The Entitlement Theory" Robert Nozick 330

15 On Change 335

Introduction 335

"On Being Conservative" Michael Oakeshott 336

"Movements and Campaigns" Richard Rorty 341

"Letter from a Birmingham Jail" Martin Luther King Jr. 343

"The Neglected Duty" Abd Al-Salam Faraj 346

"Rebellion Beyond Nihilism" Albert Camus 349

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