Politics of Modern South Asia


Comprising the states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, South Asia has gained considerable international visibility over the past decade. Nuclear proliferation, the rapid evolution of India as a major global economic player, the emergence of new markets, cross-border terrorism, and issues of climate change and the environment are prominent among the factors that have contributed to the growing importance of the region. This has led to a commensurate growth of interest in ...

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Comprising the states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, South Asia has gained considerable international visibility over the past decade. Nuclear proliferation, the rapid evolution of India as a major global economic player, the emergence of new markets, cross-border terrorism, and issues of climate change and the environment are prominent among the factors that have contributed to the growing importance of the region. This has led to a commensurate growth of interest in the modern politics of South Asia, and a vast expansion of in scholarly work.

This new five-volume collection from Routledge brings together the best and most influential research to make sense of this ever-expanding corpus. And while each of the five volumes has been carefully designed by the collection’s editor to be self-contained, they are also helpfully linked to one another through a general introduction (which places the assembled materials in their intellectual and historical context), cross-referencing, a general index, and an annotated bibliography of further readings.

Each of the five volumes is organized around the following themes: History, Political Theory and Institutions; Society, Religion, Political Culture, and Movements; Political Economy (in two parts: volumes 3 and 4); and International Relations to provide a readily accessible and comprehensive research and pedagogic resource which will be especially welcomed by scholars, students, policy-makers, and anyone else with a serious interest in the politics of this fascinating region.

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Table of Contents


Part 1: The Post-colonial State and the Challenge of Legitimacy

1. Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, ‘Presidential Address: State Formation in Asia—Prolegomenon to a Comparative Study’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 46, 4, 1987, 731–46.

2. Arend Lijphart, ‘The Puzzle of Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation’, The American Political Science Review, 90, 2, 1996, 258–68.

3. Richard Burghart, ‘The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 44, 1, 1984, 101–25.

Part 2: The Structure and Process of Post-independence Politics

4. Rajni Kothari, ‘The Congress "System" in India’, Asian Survey, 4, 12, 1964, 1161–73.

5. W. H. Morris-Jones, ‘The Indian Congress Party: A Dilemma of Dominance’, Modern Asian Studies, 1, 2, 1967, 109–32.

6. Myron Weiner, ‘Traditional Role Performance and the Development of Modern Political Parties: The Indian Case’, The Journal of Politics, 26, 4, 1964, 830–49.

7. Donald S. Zagoria, ‘The Ecology of Peasant Communism in India’, The American Political Science Review, 65, 1, 1971, 144–60.

8. Michael Brecher, ‘Succession in India 1967: The Routinization of Political Change’, Asian Survey, 7, 7, 1967, 423–43.

Part 3: The Unravelling of the State

9. Subrata K. Mitra, ‘A Theory of Governmental Instability in Parliamentary Systems’, Comparative Political Studies, 13, 2, 1980, 235–63.

10. Jyotirindra Das Gupta, ‘A Season of Caesars: Emergency Regimes and Development Politics in Asia’, Asian Survey, 18, 4, 1978, 315–49.

11. Sudipta Kaviraj, ‘On the Crisis of Political Institutions in India’, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 18, 2, 1984, 223–43.

Part 4: The Recovery of Order

12. Pradeep K. Chhibber and John R. Petrocik, ‘The Puzzle of Indian Politics: Social Cleavages and the Indian Party System’, British Journal of Political Science, 19, 2, 1989, 191–210.

13. Katharine Adeney, ‘Constitutional Centring: Nation Formation and Consociational Federalism in India and Pakistan’, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 40, 3, 2002, 8–33.

14. Emma Mawdsley, ‘Redrawing the Body Politic: Federalism, Regionalism and the Creation of New States in India’, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 40, 3, 2002, 34–54.

15. Aseema Sinha, ‘Rethinking the Developmental State Model: Divided Leviathan and Subnational Comparisons in India’, Comparative Politics, 35, 4, 2003, 459–76.

16. Ashutosh Varshney, ‘Is India Becoming More Democratic?’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 59, 1, 2000, 3–25.

17. Subrata K. Mitra, ‘Elite Agency and Governance in Changing Societies: India in Comparative Perspective’, Asian Journal of Political Science, 16, 1, 2008, 1–23.

Part 5: India’s South Asian Neighbours

18. Hasan-Askari Rizvi, ‘The Paradox of Military Rule in Pakistan’, Asian Survey, 24, 5, 1984, 534–55.

19. Rounaq Jahan, ‘Bangladesh in 2002: Imperiled Democracy’, Asian Survey, 43, 1, 2002, 222–9.

20. Ivor Jennings, ‘Politics in Ceylon Since 1952’, Pacific Affairs, 27, 4, 1954, 338–52.

21. Amita Shastri, ‘Channelling Ethnicity through Electoral Reforms in Sri Lanka’, Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 43, 1, 2005, 34–60.

22. Thierry Mathou, ‘Political Reform in Bhutan: Change in a Buddhist Monarchy’, Asian Survey, 39, 4, 1999, 613–32.


Part 6: Social Change: From Hierarchy to Equality

23. M. N. Srinivas, ‘Caste in Modern India’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 16, 4, 1957, 529–48.

24. T. N. Madan, ‘Secularism in Its Place’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 46, 4, 1987, 747–59.

25. Richard G. Fox, ‘Varna Schemes and Ideological Integration in Indian Society’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 11, 1, 1969, 27–45.

26. Judith M. Brown, ‘The Mahatma and Modern India’, Modern Asian Studies, 3, 4, 1969, 321–42.

27. Lloyd I. Rudolph, ‘The Modernity of Tradition: The Democratic Incarnation of Caste in India’, The American Political Science Review, 59, 4, 1965, 975–89.

28. Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, ‘Consensus and Conflict in Indian Politics’, World Politics, 13, 3, 1961, 385–99.

29. Marc Galanter, ‘Law and Caste in Modern India’, Asian Survey, 3, 11, 1963, 544–59.

Part 7: Subaltern Agency

30. Ashis Nandy, ‘The Culture of Indian Politics: A Stock Taking’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 30, 1, 1970, 57–79.

31. Subrata K. Mitra, ‘The Rational Politics of Cultural Nationalism: Subnational Movements of South Asia in Comparative Perspective’, British Journal of Political Science, 25, 1, 1995, 57–77.

32. Sanjib Baruah, ‘Confronting Constructionism: Ending India’s Naga War’, Journal of Peace Research, 40, 3, 2003, 321–38.

33. Leslie J. Calman, ‘Women and Movement Politics in India’, Asian Survey, 29, 10, 1989, 940–58.

34. Christophe Jaffrelot, ‘The Rise of the Other Backward Classes in the Hindi Belt’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 59, 1, 2000, 86–108.

35. Mary F. Katzenstein, ‘Origins of Nativism: The Emergence of Shiv Sena in Bombay’, Asian Survey, 13, 4, 1973, 386–99.

36. James Manor, ‘"Ethnicity" and Politics in India’, International Affairs, 72, 3, 1996, 459–75.

37. Paul Wallace, ‘The Sikhs as a "Minority" in a Sikh Majority State in India’, Asian Survey, 26, 3, 1986, 363–77.

38. Steven Ian Wilkinson, ‘India, Consociational Theory, and Ethnic Violence’, Asian Survey, 40, 5, 2000, 767–91.

Part 8: Modernity at Risk? Variations on an Indian Theme

39. Michael Roberts, ‘Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka and Sinhalese Perspectives: Barriers to Accommodation’, Modern Asian Studies, 12, 3, 1978, 353–76.

40. Jonathan Spencer, ‘Collective Violence and Everyday Practice in Sri Lanka’, Modern Asian Studies, 24, 3, 1990, 603–23.

41. Theodore P. Wright, Jr., ‘Center-Periphery Relations and Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan: Sindhis, Muhajirs, and Punjabis’, Comparative Politics, 23, 3, 1991, 299–312.

42. Iftikhar H. Malik, ‘The State and Civil Society in Pakistan: From Crisis to Crisis’, Asian Survey, 36, 7, 1996, 673–90.

43. P. Oldenburg, ‘"A Place Insufficiently Imagined": Language, Belief and the Pakistan Crisis of 1971’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 44, 4, 1985, 711–33.

Part 9: Modernity and Social Change Reconsidered

44. Amrita Basu, ‘Reflections on Community Conflicts and the State in India’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 56, 2, 1997, 391–7.

45. C. Ram Prasad, ‘Hindutva Ideology: Extracting the Fundamentals’, Contemporary South Asia, 2, 3, 1993, 285–309.

46. Leonard Binder, ‘Problems of Islamic Political Thought in the Light of Recent Developments in Pakistan’, The Journal of Politics, 20, 4, 1958, 655–75.

47. S. V. R. Nasr, ‘Democracy and Islamic Revivalism’, Political Science Quarterly, 110, 2, 1995, 261–85.


Part 10: The ‘Mixed Economy’ and Planned Development

48. W. Malenbaum, ‘Some Political Aspects of Economic Development in India’, World Politics, 10, 3, 1958, 378–86.

49. Jerome B. Cohen, ‘Economic Development in India’, Political Science Quarterly, 68, 3, 376–95.

50. Warren F. Ilchman, ‘A Political Economy of Foreign Aid: The Case of India’, Asian Survey, 7, 10, 1967, 667–88.

51. Francine R. Frankel, ‘India’s New Strategy of Agricultural Development: Political Costs of Agrarian Modernization’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 28, 4, 1969, 693–710.

52. Barbara Harriss, ‘Innovation Adoption in Indian Agriculture: The High Yielding Varieties Programme’, Modern Asian Studies, 6, 1, 1972, 71–98.

Part 11: Pathologies of the Indian Model

53. G. Ram Reddy and G. Haragopal, ‘The Pyraveekar: "The Fixer" in Rural India’, Asian Survey, 25, 11, 1985, 1148–62.

54. Subrata K. Mitra, ‘Room to Maneuver in the Middle: Local Elites, Political Action, and the State in India’, World Politics, 43, 3, 1991, 390–413.

55. Atul Kohli, ‘Regime Types and Poverty Reform in India’, Pacific Affairs, 56, 4, 1983–4, 649–72.

56. Bob Currie, ‘Governance, Democracy and Economic Adjustment in India: Conceptual and Empirical Problems’, Third World Quarterly, 17, 4, 1996, 787–807.

57. Ashok Swain, ‘Displacing the Conflict: Environmental Destruction in Bangladesh and Ethnic Conflict in India’, Journal of Peace Research, 33, 2, 1996, 189–204.

Part 12: Liberalizing India’s Economy

58. Montek S. Ahluwalia, ‘Economic Reforms in India Since 1991: Has Gradualism Worked?’, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 3, 2002, 67–88.

59. Rahul Mukherji, ‘Managing Competition: Politics and the Building of Independent Regulatory Institutions’, India Review, 3, 4, 2004, 278–305.

60. Lawrence Saez, ‘India’s Economic Liberalization, Interjurisdictional Competition and Development’, Contemporary South Asia, 8, 3, 1999, 323–45.

61. Rob Jenkins, ‘Labor Policy and the Second Generation of Economic Reform in India’, India Review, 3, 4, 2004, 333–63.

62. Devesh Kapur, ‘The Causes and Consequences of India’s IT Boom’, India Review, 1, 2, 2002, 91–110.

63. R. Rudolph and S. Rudolph, ‘Iconisation of Chandrababu. Sharing Sovereignty in India’s Federal Market Economy’, Economic and Political Weekly, 5 May 2001.


Part 13: Liberalization, Globalization, and the Social Sector

64. Supriya Roy Chowdhury, ‘Public Sector Restructuring and Democracy: The State, Labour and Trade Unions in India’, The Journal of Development Studies, 39, 3, 2003, 29–50.

65. Baldev Raj Nayar, ‘Social Stability in India under Globalization and Liberalization’, India Review, 6, 3, 2007, 133–64.

66. Rob Jenkins, ‘Indian States and the Making of Foreign Economic Policy: The Limits of the Constituent Diplomacy Paradigm’, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 33, 4, 2003, 63–82.

67. A. S. Bhalla, ‘Sino-Indian Growth and Liberalisation: A Survey’, Asian Survey, 42, 3, 2002, 419–39.

Part 14: Political Economy of India’s Neighbours

68. Mick Moore, ‘Economic Liberalization Versus Political Pluralism in Sri Lanka?’, Modern Asian Studies, 24, 2, 1990, 341–83.

69. Rehman Sobhan, ‘The Problem of Regional Imbalance in the Economic Development of Pakistan, Asian Survey, 2, 5, 1962, 31–7.

70. Tariq Amin Khan, ‘Economy, Society and the State in Pakistan’, Contemporary South Asia, 9, 2, 2000, 181–95.

71. Narayan Khadka, ‘Challenges to Developing the Economy of Nepal’, Contemporary South Asia, 7, 2, 1998, 147–66.

72. S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe, ‘The Bhutanese Economy in Transition’, Asian Survey, 30, 6, 1990, 560–75.

73. Akhtar Hossain, ‘Anatomy of Hartal Politics in Bangladesh’, Asian Survey, 40, 3, 2000, 508–29.


Part 15: Panchasheela: Foreign Policy and the Post-colonial State

74. Michael Edwardes, ‘Illusion and Reality in India’s Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, 41, 1, 1965, 48–58.

75. Arjun Appadorai, ‘India’s Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, 25, 1, 1949, 37–46.

76. Jerome B. Cohen, ‘India’s Foreign Economic Policies’, World Politics, 7, 4, 1955, 546–71.

77. E. Malcolm Hause, ‘India: Noncommitted and Nonaligned’, The Western Political Quarterly, 13, 1, 1960, 70–82.

78. Leo E. Rose, ‘The Himalayan Border States: "Buffers" in Transition’, Asian Survey, 3, 2, 1963, 116–22.

79. Neville Maxwell, ‘China and India: The Unnegotiated Dispute’, The China Quarterly, 43, 1970, 47–80.

80. Steven A. Hoffmann, ‘Anticipation, Disaster, and Victory: India 1962–1971’, Asian Survey, 12, 11, 1972, 960–79.

81. Stephen P. Cohen, ‘Security Issues in South Asia’, Asian Survey, 15, 3, 1975, 202–14.

Part 16: Dilemmas of Non-alignment

82. Lowell Dittmer, ‘South Asia’s Security Dilemma’, Asian Survey, 41, 6, 2001, 897–906.

83. Subrata K. Mitra, ‘War and Peace in South Asia: A Revisionist View of India–Pakistan Relations’, Contemporary South Asia, 10, 3, 2001, 361–79.

Part 17: The ‘Realist’ Turn in India’s Foreign Policy?

84. R Sreeram S. Chaulia, ‘BJP, India’s Foreign Policy and the "Realist Alternative" to the Nehruvian Tradition’, International Politics, 39, June 2002.

85. Rajesh M. Basrus, ‘Nuclear Weapons and Indian Strategic Culture’, Journal of Peace Research, 38, 2, 2001, 181–98.

86. Šumit Ganguly, ‘India’s Pathway to Pokhran II: The Prospects and Sources of New Delhi’s Nuclear Weapons Program’, International Security, 23, 4, 1999, 148–77.

87. Devin T. Hagerty, ‘Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia: The 1990 Indo–Pakistani Crisis’, International Security, 20, 3, 1995, 79–114.

88. Scott D. Sagan, ‘The Perils of Proliferation in South Asia’, Asian Survey, 41, 6, 2001, 1064–86.

Part 18: Contesting India’s Foreign Policy

89. Kumar Rupesinghe, ‘Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia: The Case of Sri Lanka and the Indian Peace-Keeping Force (IPKF)’, Journal of Peace Research, 25, 4, 1988, 337–50.

90. Vali R. Nasr, ‘International Politics, Domestic Imperatives, and Identity Mobilization: Sectarianism in Pakistan, 1979–1998’, Comparative Politics, 32, 2, 2000, 171–90.

Part 19: South Asia and Post-cold War International Relations

91. P. R. Chari, ‘Strategic Stability in South Asia: The Role of Confidence-Building and Threat Reduction Measures’, Contemporary South Asia, 14, 2, 2005, 211–17.

92. Ross Mallick, ‘Cooperation Among Antagonists: Regional Integration and Security in South Asia’, Contemporary South Asia, 2, 1, 1993, 33–45.

93. Dinshaw Mistry, ‘A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of India as an Emerging World Power’, India Review, 3, 1, 2004, 64–87.

94. George Perkowich, ‘A Nuclear Third Way in South Asia’, Foreign Policy, 91, 1993, 85–104.

95. Stephen Blank, ‘The Geostrategic Implications of the Indo-American Strategic Partnership’, India Review, 6, 1, 2007, 1–24.

96. Rodney W. Jones, ‘Prospects for Arms Control and Strategic Stability in South Asia’, Contemporary South Asia, 14, 2, 2005, 191–209.

Part 20: The ‘Regional’ Politics of South Asia

97. Lok Raj Baral, ‘SARC, But No "SHARK": South Asian Regional Cooperation in Perspective’, Pacific Affairs, 58, 3, 1985, 411–26.

98. Subrata Mitra and Jivanta Schoettli, ‘The New Dynamics of Indian Foreign Policy and its Ambiguities’, Irish Studies in International Affairs, 18, 2007, 19–34.

99. Rajshree Jetly, ‘Conflict Management Strategies in ASEAN: Perspectives for SAARC’, The Pacific Review, 16, 1, 2003, 53–76.

100. Kishore C. Dash, ‘The Political Economy of Regional Cooperation in South Asia’, Pacific Affairs, 69, 2, 1996, 185–209.

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