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This strategy-packed resource demonstrates how people with challenging behavior can be fully included at home, at school, and in the community. Based on solid research, it offers state-of-the-art intervention techniques and explores the planning and assistance needed to implement nonaversive inclusion strategies. Compelling case studies that illustrate successful integration make this person- and family-centered book essential for everyone involved with people with difficult behavior.
Excerpted from Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community, edited by Lynn Kern Koegel, Ph.D., Robert L. Koegel, Ph.D., & Glen Dunlap, Ph.D.
Copyright © 1996 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved.
PARENT EDUCATION FOR PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF SEVERE PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
Although the benefits of procedures designs to improves motivation and teach functional communication have had quite a significant effect both on improving language skills and decreasing inappropriate and disrupting behaviors (e.g., Koegel, Koegel, & Suratt, 1992), the need to address the child's independence remains an area warranting attention. Many of the existing parent intervention programs designed to teach communication and other skills to children frequently become overly dependent on their parents, often exhibiting newly learned behaviors only in their presence. To deal with this problem, researchers have concentrated efforts on developing programs to increase independent responding and communication through the use of self-management and child-initiated language learning strategies.
Self-management as a pivotal behavior taught in the context of parents education was developed to reduce the need for constant parental vigilance and to increase the child's independence. Self-management has been shown to be effective with a variety of populations including children without disabilities (Broden, Hall & Mitts, 1971; Drabman, Spitalnic, & O'Leary, 1973), people with mild to moderate mental retardation (Gardner, Cole, Berry, & Nowinski, 1983; Horner & Brigham, 1979), and children with learning disabilities (Dunlap, Dunlap, Koegel, & Koegel, 1991). For children with autism, preliminary research is suggesting that self-management is an effective tool to promote the use of newly learned behaviors in the absence of a trained interventionist (Koegel & Koegel, 19990; Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, & Frea, 1992).
The general steps in a self-management program include the following:
We have been teaching self-management in the context of parent education so that parents can apply the procedures to any behaviors they want to teach their children to perform independently. Following are descriptions of a few self-management programs tat have been implemented in the homes of children with autism with their parents' assistance. Although similar conceptually, self-management procedures from those used for children who are more skilled In this area. Research suggests that pictorial self-management may be most effective for nonverbal children (Pierce & Schreiban, 1994).
We are currently implementing programs in which parents choose target behaviors they desire their child to use, and intervention is implemented in the context of self-management. The parents attend weekly sessions in which teaching self-management is practiced, and then throughout the week they implement the procedures in the community setting they have chosen. For example, one family whose 9-year-old child displayed limited verbal skills chose lunch packing as a target goal. In this particular family, the mother worked in the evenings and felt it would be helpful if her son packed his own lunch. To accomplish this, we drew several pictures including a lunch box, napkin, sandwich, drink, fruit, and vegetable. Lunch items were pre-cut and placed in a plastic refrigerator c