Poverty Orientated Agricultural And Rural Development

Overview

Over the last twenty years the proportion of development cooperation resources earmarked for agricultural development has dwindled to between six and seven per cent of total bi- and multilateral Official Development Assistance. This is despite the fact that eighty per cent of the world's poor live in rural agricultural areas and that the poor are disproportionately affected when political, military and natural events lead to regional or global food shortages.

Brandt and Otzen's ...

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Overview

Over the last twenty years the proportion of development cooperation resources earmarked for agricultural development has dwindled to between six and seven per cent of total bi- and multilateral Official Development Assistance. This is despite the fact that eighty per cent of the world's poor live in rural agricultural areas and that the poor are disproportionately affected when political, military and natural events lead to regional or global food shortages.

Brandt and Otzen's key book fills a gap in current literature, undertaking a wide-ranging conceptual reorientation of development cooperation, criticizing the current orthodoxy and its bias towards urban areas, and arguing that in order to effectively alleviate poverty across the world, agricultural and rural development measures need to be implemented both by central and subnational governments, aid agencies and the private sector. The authors investigate the world food question, the current pressures it is under and its link to rural poverty, and set out the policies that need to be undertaken to reduce global poverty.

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Product Details

Table of Contents


Illustrations     xiii
Preface     xix
Abbreviations     xxiii
Approaches to poverty reduction through agricultural development
Introduction     5
Summary     7
Background to the problem: world food question     18
Overview     18
Demand     19
Population growth     19
Per capita income     21
Income elasticity of demand     21
Forecast of demand     21
Supply     22
Available arable land     22
Soil fertility in the tropics     22
Soil erosion     25
Land development on balance     26
Increase in yields and production forecast     27
Main development problem of the world food issue: poverty, hunger, undernourishment and malnutrition     30
Incidence of undernourishment     30
Disposable income, food consumption, undernourishment     31
Relevance of food prices to poverty     32
Reference level: domestic market     32
Reference level: world market     34
Motive for the study: new urban bias in development cooperation     37
Neglect of the agricultural sector in development cooperation     37
The causes     39
Agricultural policy distortions: industrialized countries, world markets, developing countries     45
Neglect of agriculture in the sub-Saharan African countries     57
Poverty reduction in the conceptual experience of agricultural development     60
Role of agriculture in the early-industrial phase of economic development     60
Excursus - towards an understanding of the subject matter     60
Agricultural contributions to economic development     63
Factor proportions theorem of agricultural development     66
Agricultural policy conceptions 1955-2000     69
Community development (1955-65)     69
Green revolution (1965-75)     71
Integrated rural development (1975-85)     79
Structural adjustment programmes (1985-95)     81
Sector investment programmes and capacity-building (1995-present)     83
A brief review of socio-political problems in decentralized rural development     86
Economic growth, agricultural development, poverty reduction     88
Economic and agricultural growth     89
Linkage through mutual demand     89
Urbanization     92
Driving forces behind agricultural growth     94
Empirical evidence at sectoral level     94
Microeconomic analysis and innovations     97
Growth and poverty reduction     101
Economic growth and poverty reduction     102
Agricultural development and poverty reduction     105
The problems posed by poverty-oriented agricultural policy     111
Price, market and trade policy     112
Agricultural prices and wages     114
Transport costs and market segmentation     117
Innovation policy     119
Land reform     122
Social and economic incentives for land reform     123
Systematics of reform projects     126
Land reforms in the twentieth century     127
Implementation difficulties and preconditions for success     127
'Successes' without land ownership being changed     129
Land reforms in Southern Africa     129
Conclusions and recommendations     131
Conclusions     131
Recommendations     133
Notes     135
Bibliography     138
Appendix     149
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